Large Craters on Jupiter

•September 9, 2017 • Comments Off on Large Craters on Jupiter

Fig. 1. Magnetic field anomalies on the solid MGH Jupiter, marking ancient impacts.

The Juno Radio Science (gravity) experiment is indicating a large “stable” homogeneous mass distribution within Jupiter out to approximately 0.972 RJ rather than the small, ten to twenty Earth-mass rocky-iron core required in the ‘gas giant’ hypothesis to quickly attract all the hydrogen and helium gases before they escaped the nascent solar system. In addition, medium scale variations in the gravity data are being interpreted as due to mass atmospheric ‘flows’. Coincidentally(?), Juno MAG data suggests four large roughly circular anomalies in the surface magnetic field in the same areas.

The nominal composition of Jupiter, Methane Gas Hydrate, is (CH4)4(H2O)23 , therefore powerful impacts and the heat of the subsequent sustained fusion reactions on the solid surface of Jupiter ‘melted’ considerable Methane Gas Hydrate in the area allowing vast amounts of methane to escape, resulting in the partial filling of the craters with pure water. In the cyclic catastrophism model, both gravity and MAG anomalies mark large basins or flooded palimpsests produced by ancient impact explosions which ejected sufficient mass to produce the terrestrial planets.

The solid MGH body of Jupiter cannot generate a magnetic field, but due to the uniformly distributed abundance of iron in the form of dust particles, ~318 times the mass of the iron in the Earth, it acts as a large, weak permanent magnet induced by the stream of 1030 high velocity helium ions (20,000 km/sec) circling a few thousand km above the equator which generate its external magnetic field. Close to the surface, the magnetic field of Jupiter measured by Juno is influenced by the field induced in the solid interior. At the locations of the large craters, the entire water-filled palimpsests have lost all their iron, therefore the induced magnetic field anomalies measured by the Juno MAG instrument correspond to the gravity anomalies which extend to slightly deeper depths.

Scientists desperately trying to explain these correspondences have generated separate models of how the ‘flows’ in the upper layer effects the measured gravity and how the deeper, internally generated magnetic field drops off with distance from the center of Jupiter of the planet (see: Constraining Jupiter’s internal flows using Juno magnetic and gravity measurements, by E. Galanti et al. Geophysical Research Letters)…”that combines both fields to constrain the depth-dependent flow field inside Jupiter. This method is based on a mean-field electrodynamic balance that relates the flow field to the anomalous magnetic field, and geostrophic balance that relates the flow field to the anomalous gravity field.”  Dozens of variables and functions in these models have been ‘adjusted’ to match a proposed model.

No problem can be solved from the same level of consciousness that created it.      Einstein

Radiometers Measuring Ammonia?

•September 2, 2017 • Comments Off on Radiometers Measuring Ammonia?

Fig. 1. Juno MWR wavelength bands

Re:  Implications of the ammonia distribution on Jupiter from 1 to 100 bars as measured by the Juno microwave radiometer, Andrew Ingersoll et al.

The Juno MWR (MicroWave Radiometer) experiment is a combination of six radiometers designed to detect infrared radiation at different wavelengths. Because longer wavelength radiation penetrates gases deeper, the radiometer channels are designed to see deeper into the assumed gas giant, Jupiter, as shown in Figure 1.  As a result, all signals received by the instrument are currently being interpreted based on the gas giant assumption.

It is a well-known fact that, although the entire equatorial zone comprises a jet-stream super-rotating to the East, the north equatorial zone is clear of clouds and as a result more heat is radiating from it.  In fact it is the band or ‘hot spot’ into which the Galileo atmospheric probe entered, which was used as an ‘excuse’ why the predicted three cloud layers were not found. See: The Galileo probe mission to Jupiter: Science overview, Young

All six of the MWR channels detect elevated heat radiation from the north equatorial zone every time Juno crosses it, but the MWR scientists are so locked into the ‘gas giant’ hypothesis, that they believe the radiation is coming from the whole range of depths shown in Figure 1. Worse yet, they have added another assumption, stated as follows:

“Variations in brightness temperature are interpreted as variations in ammonia rather than variations in physical temperature because otherwise the winds would be an order of magnitude larger than those observed. Thus, the MWR measures the distribution of ammonia below the weather layer.” ” At microwave frequencies, ammonia vapor is the main opacity source…”

This is a revival of the here-to-fore unsuccessful attempts to find ammonia on Jupiter, discussed in the above referenced paper (Young). Radiometers are passive instruments which measure heat radiation. They are not spectrometers, therefore cannot measure ammonia.

Fig. 2. MWR Ammonia distribution within Jupiter between 40 N and S Latitudes. (top). Average wind velocity (mid). Local deviations of wind velocity(bot).

A fact which is not addressed in this paper is that the notorious three cloud layers imagined in 1999, ammonia, ammonium hydrogen sulfide and water were not detected by the Galileo atmospheric probe which reached a depth of 22 bars (220 km), and therefore ammonia has never been measured on Jupiter. The compounding of the two bad assumptions has led to the ridiculous conclusion that the ammonia in Jupiter is all concentrated like a pancake at the equator down to a pressure of 240 bars in the gaseous interior of Jupiter, as shown in Figure 2.  The top of this figure is an average of data collected on two science passes, between which the data did not change significantly. The six channels are thought to cover pressure levels of 240, 30, 9, 1.5 and 0.7 bars, with corresponding brightness temperature levels of 850, 460, 330, 250, 190 and 150.This structure is hypothesized to be a band of ammonia-rich air rising in the tropics and a band of ammonia-poor air sinking in the subtropics—a Hadley circulation. These two bands correspond to the northern half of the Equatorial Band from 0 to 5 degrees N Latitude and the North Equatorial Belt at 5 t0 20 degrees N Latitude. To explain this concentration of ammonia, it is imagined rise and freeze into snow and fall back to depth, but then somehow disappears. The authors admit that

“These early MWR data reveal unexpected features that are related to the dynamics of Jupiter’s atmosphere below the visible clouds. At present the MWR analysis only includes ammonia, and one does not yet know the water abundance, the winds, or the temperatures except down to 22 bars at the Galileo probe site. Our purpose here is to pose the questions raised by the early MWR data and offer a few possible answers in the hope of stimulating further work on the dynamics of Jupiter’s atmosphere.”

This conclusion was reached because the Juno MWR team could “find no way to explain a concentration of heat at the equator in a gaseous planet”. Fortunately, the data is safely stored and can be interpreted differently, consistent with other hypothesis which can be interpreted more realistically.

Fig. 3.  Toroidal surface winds showing equatorial jet stream

Cyclic Catastrophism

As illustrated in Figure 3, a powerful vortex of hot gases rises rapidly from the fusion furnace in a depression at the center of the original impact basin about 700 km below the cloud tops. It is deflected westward beneath the visible cloud layer some 50,000 km by the rapid rotation (40,759 km/h) of Jupiter at 22º S Lat., reaching the cloud-tops as the Great Red Spot. Its counter-clockwise rotation is due to the Coriolis effect which is proportional to the velocity of the helium ions > 20,000 km/hr.
The fusion source, hidden below the surface clouds, generates 1030 3He+ ions per second powering the hot vortex producing the unique features of the Jupiter system. Due to its horizontal extent, the hot vortex induces vortical motion in the primary surface vortex (yellow), which in turn spawns surface vortices of opposite chirality to its north and south, constrained beneath by the solid MGH surface of the planet. Thus, the localized fusion ‘furnace’ drives the entire atmospheric circulation, spreading its heat over the surface, disguising its highly-localized presence.
The rising hot vortex, swept westward due to Jupiter’s rapid eastward rotation, combined with the counter-clockwise rotation of the Great Red Spot at the surface results in a tremendous wind shear where it collides with the main prograde superrotation or jetstream which dominates the equatorial zone The horizontal shear is evident in the great turbulence generated on the north side of the GRS. Heat which is transferred to the Jet Stream at that shear zone is carried completely around the planet. The rotation of the GRS at the surface, in the horizontal plane, produces the strongest retrograde wind (150 m/s) in the south equatorial belt (yellow) on its north and the prograde wind of the south tropical band as shown in Figure 8. Although the GRS is at 22ºS. Lat. the steady momentum/energy transfer and the weak Hadley circulation, result in the known surface equatorial super-rotation of Jupiter’s atmosphere.

The significance of the strong Coriolis effect is demonstrated by the wind and clouds moving eastward (prograde) in the southern equatorial zone which becomes vertical at the equator and combines with the centrifugal force of the rapidly rotating Jupiter, inducing a vertical motion of the atmosphere and clouds (Figures 3). This is also observed as a slight dip in the equatorial wind velocity at the equator. The reversal of the Coriolis effect at the equator interrupts the propagation of the vortical motion through the equatorial zone, disrupting the vortex pattern. This results in the equatorial zone winds moving to the east but the north equatorial zone 0 to 5 º N remaining clear of clouds, allowing radiation from deeper in the atmosphere to escape. North of the equatorial zone a mirror image of the southern hemisphere vortices is established, conserving angular momentum. The vortical motion of the ‘wind bands’, still not understood by Juno team, is the result of the solid MGH surface which acts as a boundary, explaining the high wind speeds measured by the Galileo atmospheric probe down to its maximum depth (22 bar, 156 km), which exceeds the predicted depths of the touted three cloud layers.

The mind is like a parachute, if it is not open it does not work.

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Ancient Calendars

•August 26, 2017 • Comments Off on Ancient Calendars

Fig. 1 Orbits of Earth, Mars and proto-Venus between Mars’ geostationary encounters geostationary encounters showing capture and release points.

As explained in a previous post, hundreds of volcanoes blazed on Mars’ surface during each 14.4 year period, a kalpa in the Rig Veda, when it remained in a geostationary orbit above Mt.Kailas. During the periods between kalpas, 15.6 years, Mars remained in an orbit which crossed that of the Earth, from which it was recaptured on Nov. 1st, as shown in Figure 1. The differences in the length of the capture and release periods were because the captures and releases occurred at the two different dates where their orbits crossed, Nov.1st  and the vernal equinox respectively. During each kalpa, Mars became tidally locked to the Tibetan-Himalayan complex, therefore to the entire lithosphere, and its added mass-moment slowed the rotation of the entire lithosphere relative to the mantle. This is known technically as ‘tidal drag’. As a result, the years during each kalpa were only 360 days long, while they reverted to 365.25 days when Mars was released.

As a result of this repeated pattern, every culture maintained two calendars, one with 365.25 and the other with 360 days per year, the Egyptians and even the Mesoamerican cultures, the Aztec and Mayan. This ubiquitous feature presents an impossible ‘coincidence’, which is only explainable as a result of cosmic events. Failing to understand the implications, anthropologists believe that both calendars were used at the same time, that the 365.25 days per year referred to a ‘solar year’ and the 360 days per year to a lunar or sacred year and that both calendars were used year round. If a society has a yearly calendar of 365.25 years, what use would be a lunar calendar? It would become out of phase with the seasons, contradicting  the primary function of calendars in ancient times, to determine agricultural dates.

The currently accepted explanation of Egyptian religion is:

“In Egypt the ‘civil calendar’ was established at some early date in or before the Old Kingdom, and is currently thought to  be based upon astronomical observations of the star Sirius, the reappearance of which closely corresponded to the average onset of the Nile flood through the 5th and 4th millennium.”

This idea has been used to explain the calendars of Egypt and other Mideastern cultures. None of these cultures worshiped the star Sirius. The Egyptians called Mars ‘the dog star’ because it was misshapen due to the Tharsis Bulge, in fact, pictographs of Anubis are a characature of Mars. The names we use today, such as Sirius, were transferred from ancient cosmic objects to stars or constellations, once Mars, Venus and Mercury left the vicinity of the Earth. What the ancient Egyptian texts were describing was that when Mars, the dog-star,  became captured over the Mt. Kailas, an inundation ensued. This was a feature that lasted throughout every capture period, not the yearly inundation experienced in modern times. When Mars was captured, its tidal attraction drew the clear waters of the Nile over all of Eastern Egypt, greatly increasing the amount of arable land. As a result, each 14.4 year kalpa in Egypt was called an inundation, also a ‘Horus tekki‘ period, because it began with the appearance of Horus (Mars).

The Aztec calendar (Figure 2) is well-known. The circle has 360 ‘days’. with five ‘bad days’ arranged in and around the center, which when added to the 360, give 365.  This gave two calendars in one. The Mayan calendar, as currently interpreted by a few scholars, is much more difficult. It has two major periods, 260 days, broken up into 20 periods, each with 13 days, and 365 days broken up into 18 periods of 20 days. No one has ever solved the reasoning for these numbers. One simple possibility is that they used the Moon during both the capture and release periods and the documents are merely stating that during the kalpas the lunar period was 13 days while in the period between kalpas, the lunar period was 20 days. This difference in the lunar period would be due to the fact that during each kalpa the Moon was revolving about the center of mass of the Earth and Mars combined, while between kalpas it was revolving about the Earth alone.

These examples illustrate the futility of the current assumption of uniformitarianism in understanding anything about the solar system.

The mind is not a vessel to be filled. It is a fire to be lighted.  Plutarch

Reading, after a certain age, diverts the mind too much from its creative pursuits. Any man who reads too much and uses his own brain too little falls into lazy habits of thinking.  Einstein

Hurrah for positive science! long live exact demonstration! Fetch stonecrop mixt with cedar and branches of lilac,
This is the lexicographer, this the chemist, this made a grammar of the old cartouches,
These mariners put the ship through dangerous unknown seas. This is the geologist, … and this is a mathematician.
Gentlemen, to you the first honors always! Your facts are useful, and yet they are not my dwelling,
I but enter by them to an area of my dwelling.   Walt Whitman

 

Juno Above the Great Red Spot (Updated)

•August 1, 2017 • Comments Off on Juno Above the Great Red Spot (Updated)

Fig. 1 Juno passing above the GRS and the hot-spot, should encounter slower scattered helium ions that are detectable by the JEDI instrument.

On July 12, 2017 Juno passed directly over the Great Red Spot (GRS) and we are told that all sensors were operating. Because of the unique significance of the GRS in the Methane Gas Hydrate model of Jupiter presented in this blog site, we are anticipating some of the findings in this post.  A fusion reaction on the surface of Jupiter, ~ 700 km below the cloud tops produces an intense ‘tornado’ (Coriolis) of 1030 helium ions (3He+), which blast out of the GRS every second. They collide with the inner radiation belt, composed of the same helium ions at the O’Donaghue hot-spot, adding ions and imparting angular momentum of the rapidly spinning Jupiter to the belt. The high kinetic energy helium ions (>20,000 km/sec) which penetrate the hot-spot are captured in the magnetic field generated by what is presently known as the  ‘inner radiation belt’ and are carried helically toward the magnetic poles, producing the constant auroral ovals.

Amazingly, the kinetic energy of the invisible helium ions which dominate the Jupiter system, produce the excess luminosity, the multiple zonal wind bands (vortices) and the largest magnetosphere in the solar system. These helium ions have not been detected for three reasons (1) the helium ions are moving too fast to be detected by the JEDI SSD-TOF instrument; (2) All of the ions, newly produced by this reaction ( p + d -> 3He+ + γ ) are moving at the same velocity (>20,000 km/sec); (3) they are quickly lost from the system in < 30 sec and are continuously replaced by new ones with the same velocity. Due to the small (6 cm) size of its the JEDI cavity it cannot measure Time Of Flight of the helium ions the time of flight necessary to identify them. They are not radioactive, do not react chemically and do not radiate as a result of collisions, either at the O’Donaghue hot spot or where they strike the atmosphere creating the auroral ovals. However, storms of fast helium ions were detected by energetic particle detectors on Ulysses, Cassini, Galileo orbiter and probe at several AU from the Jupiter system. Because these ions are continuously produced at the rate of 1030/s, many are continuously being lost, either thru return paths to Jupiter’s atmosphere or to space.

Fig.2 Artist’s impression of Hot Spot above Jupiter’s GRS where helium ions collide with inner radiation belt. (O’Donaghue)

What is required is a process which reduces the velocities of a large enough sample of these helium ions within Juno’s orbit for the JEDI detector to identify them. The best chance to do this is on PJ7 above the hot-spot. Since 1030 ions per second are impacting the even more concentrated ion beam which circles the planet, where there must be sufficient collisions which scatter and produce  a distribution of velocities within the JEDI range. The only problem which might arise is that the JEDI TOF feature has been turned off during the 20 minute period of closest approach to avoid damage by the currently unknown high energy particles in the inner radiation belt.

Fig. 3 Juno crossing fusion crater

In the MGH model, there is a huge crater or palimpsest, partially filled in by water ice, centered 50,000 km to the east of the GRS, on the fusion reaction. As Juno makes the GRS pass it will detect the northern and southern edges of this impact crater roughly equal distances north and south of the GRS. This crater will be detected by both the Radio Science (gravity) and MAG (magnetic field) systems. As mentioned in previous posts, both systems are seeing anomalies from earlier impacts, but have as yet not made the connection, since the mindset of the entire Juno team remains on the old ‘gas giant’ hypothesis.

The six passive MWR radiometers will undoubtedly detect the hot-spot, but as on all prior science passes, they will interpret the signal in each wavelength channel as coming from different depths, instead of realizing that all channels are seeing the same heat source.

 

Jupiter’s ‘Synchrotron’ Radiation

•July 29, 2017 • Comments Off on Jupiter’s ‘Synchrotron’ Radiation
Jupiter Radiation Belts

Fig. 1 Cassini scans of Jupiter’s inner radiation belt

“Synchrotron radiation is the electromagnetic radiation emitted when charged particles are accelerated radially, i.e., when they are subject to an acceleration perpendicular to their velocity (a ⊥ v). It is produced, for example, in synchrotrons using bending magnets, undulators and/or wigglers. If the particle is non-relativistic, then the emission is called cyclotron emission.” (1)
Radiation from Jupiter’s inner radiation belt was measured by the Cassini probe on 2-3 January 2001 when on its way to Saturn (Figure 1). The horizontally polarized radiation scans are shown on the left and vertically polarized scans, above and below the belt, are shown on the right. The horizontally polarized radiation is more powerful, but the intensity of both are very low – each horizontal/vertical pair of images shown in Figure 1 required a one hour scan across the disk of Jupiter. In the MGH hypothesis these are both the result of unidirectional flows of intense (1030/sec), energetic (20,000 km/s) helium ions. At this velocity a helium ion travels from the fusion source, 700 km below the cloud-tops, through the GRS and once completely around the planet in 15 seconds.

Syncrotron_radiation_energy_flux

Fig. 2 Radiation patterns (A) Non-relativistic cyclotron and (B) Relativistic synchotron particles.

This was interpreted in 2002 as synchrotron radiation due to ultra-relativistic electrons with energies > 50 MeV. (2) The models constructed to explain the ultra-relativistic radiation (γ>>1) assumed the radiation detected was only that beamed in the direction of motion of the particles, as shown in (B) on the right in Figure 2. (3) Since the radiation from both the east and west of Jupiter are almost equally powerful, this assumption implied a ‘belief’ that the electrons are moving both prograde and retrograde in keeping with the analogy of the Earth’s Van Allen belts.
Controverting the above view, recent Juno JEDI measurements have determined that the ratio of energetic particles to ions near the inner radiation belt is much less than 1, indicating that most of the particles are ions, not electrons. (4) Only protons and heavier ions such as sulfur and oxygen were identified by Solid State Detector-Time-Of-Flight coincidence measurements, but no high energy helium ions, which we propose dominate the beam, because no JEDI TOF measurements were attempted within 20 minutes of closest approach to insure the health and safety of the instrument. The measured 90 degree pitch angles of the ions were interpreted as due to ‘equatorial mirroring’- thus assuming bidirectional velocities of the ions, prograde and retrograde, again, as in the Van Allen belts of Earth. Noting the previously determined decline of ion intensities immediately planetward of Io’s orbit (6 RJ), the authors attempt to explain the obvious question of the origin of the ions in the inner radiation belt, between 1.4 and 1.2 RJ suggesting a process of stripping of neutral atoms.

Given the inner radiation belt comprises fast helium ions circulating exclusively prograde, raises the question of the origin of the supposed synchrotron radiation, discussed above. The power of the radiation is given by:


Thus the power radiated by the ion beam would be reduced by their mass ratios (e/He)4 =(1/8000)4 -> 2.44 X10-16 but scaled by their energy, ~ 104 MeV and their greater numbers 1031.

Cyclotron Radiation
However, if as proposed herein, the helium ions all circle Jupiter prograde at 20,000 km/s, a completely different situation would attain. This velocity results in a Lorentz factor essentially 1 (non-relativistic) meaning that the beaming assumed for the electron model would not be a factor for the proposed ion beam. Thus, the angular distribution of this cyclotron radiation would be similar to that shown in Figure 2 (A), with radiation in all azimuth directions but strongest when the angle between velocity and acceleration is +/- 90 degrees, that is, from the zones to both the west and east of Jupiter. This is exactly where the measured radiation is strongest (Figure 1). Thus, the proposed unidirectional ion beam produces the radiation both on the west and east sides of Jupiter. Assuming radiation was continuously received from all ions scanned by Cassini would greatly increase the total number of ions relative to electrons contributing to the image. The helium ion inner radiation belt also explains the east-west asymmetry of the radiation shown in Figure 1, which is due to the greater density of ions directly above the Great Red Spot, where they collide with the ion beam, as shown in Figure 1 of a previous post. The vertically polarized radiation, on the right side of in Figure 1 is radiation from the helium ions which are flowing to the poles, consistent with the MGH hypothesis. It is not as powerful as the main belt, because fewer helium ions follow that path. The vertically polarized sources in Figure 1 are smeared due to the horizontal scanning process and where superimposed on the disk of Jupiter are removed. The thermal radiation from the disk of Jupiter is much stronger than from the belts, so it is subtracted from the observed radiation signal, leaving the observed disk of Jupiter black in most scans.

More Juno Information

•July 17, 2017 • Comments Off on More Juno Information

Fig.1 A vortex of helium ions exiting the great Red Spot, striking the circulating plasma cloud, Currently called the inner radiation belt,

This post is a supplement to “What Juno is Telling Us” and Jupiter’s Auroras.  The JEDI detector has found no particle flows over the poles which could be the cause of the auroras. This is because the current orbit passes too high above the poles, a distance above the planet from 2 to 6 Jupiter radii. Based on the current magnetic field models Juno should be encountering the magnetic field lines that form the auroral ovals.  But these models are based on measurements of the Earth’s field, which is generated deep in the interior. In the Cyclic Catastrophism model, shown in Figure 1, Jupiter’s magnetic field is nothing like the Earth’s. The magnetic field of Jupiter is generated by an enormous flow of helium ions, positively charged particles, orbiting the planet, at 1.4 Jupiter radii. 1029 of these helium ions per second are produced in a fusion reaction p + d -> 3He+ + γ  on the surface of Jupiter and are all moving at the same high velocity ~24,000 km/sec. They spin in a tight vortex due to the Coriolis effect and exit the cloud-tops producing the counter-clockwise spinning Great Red Spot, then colliding with and adding to the stream of helium ions orbiting the planet. By this process they add the angular momentum of the planet to the stream. Helium ions are known to be completely stable, testified by the fact that they have been used to enhance MRIs of lungs because they give stronger signals. This same attribute means that they do not radiate, and cannot be detected by any Juno instrument..

Fig.2. Jupiter’s Inner Radiation Belt (red & yellow.

Synchrotron radiation from the spinning, vortical flow of the fast, circulating helium ions was measured by the Cassini probe on its way to Saturn and it became designated the ‘inner radiation belt’. This decimetric synchrotron radiation has been interpreted as due to ultra- relativistic electrons (Bolton, Janssen et al), more recently the JEDI data has shown that it comprises ions, not electrons (Kollmann et al), but JEDI cannot specifically detect these helium ions because they are all moving too fast for the Time of Flight measurement required to identify them. This is inconceivable to astronomers, because any non-nuclear sources would produce particles with a range of velocities, so some of each kind should be detectable. Some scientists understand that the particles in the inner radiation belt are all moving in the same direction, the direction of Jupiter’s rotation, and wisely question how the angular

Fig. 3 JEDI data near the inner radiation belt, offset from predicted latitude due to tilt of the plasma cloud relative to equator (Kollmann)

momentum of the planet is being transferred to the ions (Bagenal), indeed where do all the ions come from?  Even more recently, the authors of the paper that showed that the inner belt comprises only ions, believe that the ions are bouncing back and forth (equatorial mirroring) and not unidirectional.

As for the auroral ovals, most scientists cling to the auroras of the Earth for an explanation. This leads to the concept that electrons are coming into the polar region from all different directions (longitudes). But this could not form the perfect continuous ovals. Cyclic Catastrophism explains that a portion of the tornado of helium ions exiting through the Great Red Spot, penetrate the circulating ion cloud and once past it are captured in the magnetic field where, depending on the direction of their velocity vectors, some are captured helically and spiral as vortices to the north and south poles (Figure 1). These particles are still moving at the same velocities and that is why they form the ovals impacting some 16 degrees from the pole. They are thought to produce the auroras only by ionizing various gases in the atmosphere of Jupiter, but since much of the light comes from methane, the implication is that they may be blasting the methane right out of the solid Methane Gas Hydrate surface of the planet. Because the vortices of helium ions in the circulating plasma cloud and the auroral ovals originate considerably south of the equator, at the latitude of the Great Red Spot, the entire magnetic configuration of the planet is shifted. This shows up in the elongated, non circular shape of the northern oval, called a magnetic field anomaly in the literature.

Currently, not a single ‘scientist’ in the world understands that Jupiter’s Inner Radiation Belt is the source of the largest magnetosphere in the solar system, let alone that it comprises relativistic helium ions. How many more years must the world wait to be taught the true nature of the solar system?

(Prov 25:2 KJV) It is the glory of God to conceal a thing: but the honour of kings is to search out a matter.

(1 Cor 1:19-20 KJV) For it is written, I will destroy the wisdom of the wise, and will bring to nothing the
understanding of the prudent. Where is the wise? where is the scribe? where is the disputer of this world? hath not God
made foolish the wisdom of this world?

(1 Cor 2:6-7 NIV) We do, however, speak a message of wisdom among the mature, but not the wisdom of this age or
the rules of this age, who are coming to nought. No, we speak of God’s secret wisdom that has been hidden and that
God destined for our glory before time began.

Venus – A Young Earth

•July 8, 2017 • Comments Off on Venus – A Young Earth

For complete paper click here.

Overwhelming physical evidence has been present for thirty-seven years that Venus is a hot new planet, born from an impact on the solid, highly deuterated, methane gas hydrate Jupiter 6,000 years BP. As explained in my previous post, impacts of large bodies on Jupiter trigger enormous nuclear fusion explosions which eject the full range of atoms in their known relative abundances, forming the terrestrial planets. Due to the great heat of these explosive ejections the atoms are reduced to a plasma comprising electrons, protons and neutrons, from which similar abundances quickly reformed, but with the nuclear decay clocks of radioactive isotopes reset to zero. For example, the radiogenic isotope 40Ar and the primordial 36Ar and 38Ar are present in the atmosphere of Venus in approximately equal amounts, whereas on Earth 40Ar is 300 times more abundant than the primordial isotopes. The large amount of 40Ar on Earth is due to the decay of potassium (40K) with half-life of 1.248 billion years since the formation of the Earth, 3.9 billion years Before the Present (BP). This ratio favors the recent primordial origin of proto-Venus, since there has been little time for the 40K on Venus to decay. In fact, most of the 40Ar on Venus was probably captured from Mars and the Earth during encounters which circularized its orbit.

Also, the hydrogen isotope ratio (D/H) on Venus is 150 times the terrestrial value, including the hydrogen in the oceans. Interestingly, cosmologists believe that the amount of deuterium present in the universe was formed in the Big Bang. But this hypothesis assumes that there were no post-Big Bang processes that could produce significant amounts of deuterium. The explosion, or Little Bang, out of which Venus was born was exactly that – a post-Big Bang event, as were those from which Mars and Earth were born. Thus, the deuterium present today has little to tell us about the initial conditions of the universe.

Venus today demonstrates that the heavy elements quickly condensed to form what will become the mantle of a complete terrestrial planet. Its current near circular orbit is the result of multiple close encounters with Mars and Earth, which raised the Tharsis Bulge and the Himalayas, resulting in the uplifting of Venus’ ‘continents’ Aphrodite and Ishtar Terra, which display no volcanic calderas. Its interior is completely molten with a thin basalt layer less than two kilometers thick floating on top, evidenced by its lack of rotation. Proto-Venus’ enormous internal heat is manifested by raw incandescent lava, > 2000º C, lying in myriads of cracks in the surface, fleeting views of which by the Pioneer Venus Large Probe Infrared Radiometer (LIR) produced high intensity erratic signals dismissed as window heater faults. If a camera had been used, the origin would have been immediately recognized. The molten interior, of course, precludes any magnetic field.

Up-welling vs down-welling radiation measurements from five independent Pioneer Venus probes all agree that proto-Venus is radiating 20 watts per square meter, 250 times more energy than the Earth. Integral to the cooling process, the primary transfer of heat is from the surface to the lower cloud layer, accomplished by the high velocity jetting of sulfur gases from more than one million ‘small domes’ directly to 48 km altitude where S8 crystalizes in three forms, allotropes, which comprise the lower cloud layer. This unique, 2 km thick, roiling, mixed-phase stratiform cloud layer is the most ubiquitous atmospheric feature on the planet. Sulfur compounds raining back onto the surface evaporate, controlling the surface temperature to just above the boiling point of sulfur.

The massive lower atmosphere, primarily sulfur molecules, SN, and carbon sulfide, CS, currently mistaken for CO2, capped by the lower cloud layer is the source of the high surface pressure, 92 bars. Temperature vs pressure for the descent of four Pioneer Venus probes in completely different regions of the planet agreed to within two degrees. It comprises a mass-flow environment with a different pressure versus altitude relationship than the upper atmosphere, unlike anything possible on an ancient planet with a well-mixed atmosphere. Failure to understand this was demonstrated when the trajectory of the dying Magellan probe experienced an atmospheric density twice that calculated assuming a hydrostatic pressure profile based on the Venus’ surface pressure and a composition of carbon dioxide. This layer will settle to the surface of the planet as it cools, adding to the existing mantle.

The temperature and pressure immediately above the lower cloud layer are similar to those at the surface of the Earth. The volatile elements currently found above the lower cloud layer represent a tiny fraction of the total produced by the 6,000 year (BP) impact explosion on Jupiter, the remainder of which orbit invisibly in the inner solar system awaiting capture. These will form the lithosphere, crust, oceans, atmosphere, flora and fauna of a new terrestrial planet. Loosely bound bodies composed primarily of water have been observed falling into the upper atmosphere of the Earth at the rate of thousands per day by the UV cameras on the NASA Polar satellite, but the scientists who discovered them have been ostracized by uniformitarian scientists who fail to understand that the solar system has been completely changed in the last 6,000 years.

A relatively simple, inexpensive, mission to verify this hypothesis is proposed. Two small probes, for redundancy, would be released from an orbiter (or even a flyby), each carrying visible light cameras which would photograph the surface of Venus once they descend below the opaque lower cloud layer and the red haze (CS crystals) to ~30 km altitude, where temperature and pressure are not severe. These photographs will reveal incandescent lava in surface cracks detected by the Pioneer Venus Large Probe Interferometer (LIR) and rejected. Another camera would be used to photograph microscopic images of sulfur crystals collected on glass plates as the probes fell through the lower cloud layer. The images would be transmitted to the bus and back to the Earth.

 

In the year 687 BC the Lord finished his work of creating a new Earth, and the planets Mars, Mercury and Venus, which He had used to do this, termed sinning angels, were sent to Tartarus, places of restraint, their current orbits, so they would not come close to the Earth again. This was announced through the prophet Isaiah who lived at this time.

Isaiah 65: 17-18  For, behold, I create new heavens and a new earth: and the former shall not be remembered, nor come into mind. But be ye glad and rejoice for ever in that which I create.