Layers on Mars Confirm Cyclic Catastrophism

•September 20, 2018 • Comments Off on Layers on Mars Confirm Cyclic Catastrophism

Fig. 1. Mars South Pole Layered Deposits

A paper in Geophysical Research Letters (2017), titled “A subsurface depocenter in the South Polar Layered Deposits of Mars” by J. L. Whitten1 , B. A. Campbell1 , and G. A. Morgan discusses many layers of alternating dust and ice that cover an area the size of Alaska at Mars’ south pole, designated its’ South Pole Layered Deposits (SPLD). Consistent with the uniformitarian assumption of geology, they interpret these layers as a record of the climate history of Mars over at least the last 7–100 Myr.

As discussed in a number of posts on this site, Cyclic Catastrophism explains that Mars was captured in a geostationary orbit of the Earth for 14.4 years and then released into a planetary ‘resting’ orbit for 15.6 years and that this cycle was repeated ninety-nine or one hundred times, (3687 to 687 BC). The most significant aspect of these capture periods relative to the SPLDs, was that during each capture period, called a kalpa in the RgVeda and an inundation in  Egypt, the entire Martian lithosphere was forced to rotate with its north pole facing the Earth, therefore its south pole being exposed to tropical sunlight every day. At each release its lithosphere returned to its normal orientation, allowing the return of normal freezing weather at its south pole.

While the northern hemisphere of Mars was blasting all its life-supporting materials to the Earth, including its water during each kalpa, its south pole became a desert. These repeated cycles produced the equally thick, rythmic deposits of ice and dust at Mars south pole shown in Figure 1.

 “To be ignorant of what occurred before you were born is to remain always a child. For what is the worth of human life, unless it is woven into the life of our ancestors by the records of history?”
― Marcus Tullius Cicero

 

How Much Helium on Jupiter?

•September 17, 2018 • Comments Off on How Much Helium on Jupiter?

Jupiter has been thought to comprise 90% hydrogen and 10% helium since 1930 due to the detection of spectra of methane and ammonia by Rupert Wildt. His model comprised a solid core of rock and metal surrounded by a layer of ice and a thick gaseous envelope. Based on the elements thought to have been created at the big bang, the composition the gaseous envelope has been proposed to be similar. The Galileo atmospheric probe was designed to measure the mole fraction, used for gases, and the mass fraction of helium, because this was thought to provide information supporting the idea that all hydrogen and helium was created at the big bang, and since it has not, is now claimed to provide information on the way in which planets are formed.

Surprizingly, the instrument designed to determine the mole fraction, called the Helium Abundance Detector (HAD) measured only the index of refraction of samples of atmospheric gases captured in a cell compared with a similar reference cell.  This is stated in the paper published about the measurement   “Helium in Jupiter’s atmosphere: Results from the Galileo probe Helium Interferometer Experiment”, by U. von Zahn, D. M. Hunten and G. Lehmacher.

“Among the seven scientific probe instruments was our HAD instrument. Its approach to measure accurately the Jovian He2 ratio was based on the following considerations: more than 99.5% of the Jovian atmosphere consists of hydrogen and helium. Hence, to a first approximation, we can consider this atmosphere to be a binary gas mixture, for which the mole fraction qHe of helium can be derived from the ratio of refractive indices.”

Note the word “considerations” to disguise its harsher meaning “assumptions”. The instrument was designed based on the assumption that Jupiter is comprised of hydrogen and helium!

An obvious problem with this is apparent in color photographs of Jupiter, which is covered with clouds of various colors, the elements of which they are comprised have never been identified spectroscopically. This means that they are crystalline or dust. If so, they are denser than hydrogen and helium and are falling to the surface as fast as they are produced.

Moreover, cyclic catastrophism claims that the elements comprising them are continuously being released from the Methane Gas Hydrate and that process has continued for thousands of years. The presence of these heavy elements has a major impact on the Helium mole fraction , qHE and the Helium mass fraction Y, below.. The following are the results quoted in the same paper:

“In calculating the HAD results, we presume that the abundance ratio He/H2 is constant throughout the pressure range under study. The value of the measured helium abundance can be expressed numerically in various ways.  These are shown in (7)-(10).

The helium mole fraction qHe, also mixing ratio (equal to the ratio of He atom number density over total atom and molecule number densities), is
qHe = N(He) / (N(H2)+ N(He)+ N(heavy  elements)) = 0.1359 +/- 0.0027   ”

Here we note that the number density of heavy elements at Jupiter is so small that its rigorous inclusion in the calculation of qHe does not affect the value given above. The same cannot be said of the contribution of the mass of heavy elements in calculating Y (see below).

Abundance ratio R of helium (He) relative to hydrogen (H2) (equal to the ratio of He atom number density over H2 molecule number density) is

R = N(He) / N(H2) = 0.157+/- 0 .003

The ratio of helium mass density over the sum of helium and hydrogen mass densities is

m(He) / (m (H2) + m (He)) = 0.238 +/- 0 .005

The helium mass fraction Y (equal to the helium mass densitover the total mass density) is

Y = m (He) /(m ( H2 )+ m ( He ) + m (heavy elements)) = 0.005                 ”

 

Unidentified Radiation from Jupiter

•September 14, 2018 • Comments Off on Unidentified Radiation from Jupiter

Fig. 1. Fusion reaction flowing to GRS. Reflected energy from NEB.

As explained in previous posts and my latest paper on Jupiter, a powerful fusion reaction on the surface of Jupiter, just below the clouds 50,000 km east of the Great Red Spot, is responsible for all the observed features on the giant planet. The decline in the radiation, which has lasted 6,000 years, is evident in the observable shrinking of the Great Red Spot. The reaction is currently producing an energy equal to the amount of sunlight illuminating Jupiter but the source of this “excess luminescence” remains a mystery to the entire astronomical community.

This should not be the case, since Jupiter is radiating a spectrum never before observed. The reaction, D + P ->  3He++ + 4.98MeV, is currently producing 1030 Helions per second. In laboratory experiments the 3He++ immediately capture one electron becoming 3He+, which is a stable ion often used radioastronomical studies of Large Dark Nebulae as extremely low signals called ‘spin flips’, transitions between ground states. This radiation has never been observed from a single source, only as tiny peaks at wavelengths of 3.46 cm collected over long integration times.

Fig. 2 Jupiter’s UV auroral Ovals and Galilean Satellite footprints

Fig. 3 Helion streams which produce Jupiter’s magnetic field. Blue are the vortical streams deflected to the poles.

The radiation from the electron capture by  3He++  particles has never been observed in laboratory reactions because these particles immediately capture an electrom, resulting in stable 3He+ particles leading to the common incorrect notation  D + P ->  3He+ + γ.  However, because of the massive numbers of these particles being produced on Jupiter and beamed by the strong Coriolis effect on Jupiter, only the outer particles in the vortices reentering the atmosphere at the poles capture electrons forming the far UV radiation at the auroral ovals and some are captured in the fluxtubes of the Galilean moons forming their ‘footprints’. However, the same radiation is coming from larger numbers of 3He++ particles in the primary (yellow) beam, currently known as the inner radiation belt, when they escape into the surrounding space where Jupiter’s electron belts dominate and emit the same spectrum from a diffuse space surrounding Jupiter.

This Logos holds always but humans always prove unable to understand it, both before hearing it and when they have first heard it. For though all things come to be in accordance with this Logos, humans are like the inexperienced when they experience such words and deeds as I set out, distinguishing each in accordance with its nature and saying how it is. But other people fail to notice what they do when awake, just as they forget what they do while asleep.  Heraclitus

Jupiter Dynamo?

•September 10, 2018 • Comments Off on Jupiter Dynamo?

Fig. 1 (a) Jupiter magnetic Field (b) Downward continued field, Moore, K. M. et al

A recent paper in Nature Communications “A complex dynamo inferred from the hemispheric dichotomy of Jupiters magnetic field”, Moore, K. M. et al. begins by stating that Jupiter’s magnetic field is generated by a dynamo in its interior, but adds  “we find that Jupiter’s magnetic field is different from all other known planetary magnetic fields”. The authors claim that although Jupiter’s magnetic field is primarily a dipole the magnetic field in the northern hemisphere (Figure 1 a) displays more of a “non-dipole field” than in the southern hemisphere “with most of the flux emerging from the ‘dynamo’ region in a narrow band in the northern hemisphere, some of which “returns through an intense isolated patch near the equator”. The authors calculate the fields in Figure 1b stating it is the field at 90% of the radius of the planet, that is, 7,000 km below the surface. However, this ‘downward continuation’ of the currently measured field at high elevations assumes there are no field sources between the satellite orbit and the surface of the planet, which is not true on Jupiter.

Fig. 2 Juno orbits

One reason there is more detail in the northern hemisphere is that Juno’s first pass (PJ1) was closer to the north (35,000-km) than the south pole (70,000-km) and due to the precession of the orbit (Figure 2) the perijove (closest point in each orbit) is now (9/7/2018) at 16.6° N Lat. The elevations of the orbit above the poles has been too great to detect the particles which produce the powerful auroral ovals.

Cyclic Catastrophism

As explained in a number of posts on this site, the magnetic fields of the giant planets are completely different from the Earth’s. Jupiter’s magnetic field is generated by a powerful stream (1032/s) of low mass, doubly charged ions called helions ( 3Ne++) circling Jupiter prograde at 17,800 km/s (yellow in Figure 3). The external magnetic field of Jupiter is sixty times more powerful than the field of the Earth because the particles generating it are in space, not shielded by the solid planet. The particles are continuously being generated by a ‘fusion furnace’ at the center of a 6,000-year old impact crater on the surface of Jupiter some 50,000 km east of the Great Red Spot fusing vast amounts of deuterium and protons (D + P -> 3Ne++ + 4.98 MeV) that comprise the solid Methane Gas Hydrate planet.

Fig. 3. Helion streams which produce Jupiter’s magnetic field are yellow. Blue are the vortical streams deflected to the poles which produce the auroral ovals.

The helions’ high velocities and the rapid revolution of Jupiter combine to form a helion vortex which exits the atmosphere forming the Great Red Spot. The stream then combines with the powerful stream of helions circling the planet near the equator, currently believed to be a dangerous nuisance called the ‘Inner Radiation Belt’. The belt was originally thought to comprise electrons, but the Juno JEDI instrument has found that it comprises positive ions. JEDI was not able to identify the helions or determine the direction of their motion because their velocity is too high, therefore NASA scientists assume the particles in the ‘radiation belt’ are ‘mirroring’, travelling both prograde and retrograde as in radiation belts of the Earth.

Above the Great Red Spot, two streams of helions are deflected toward the north and south poles where their powerful impacts produce the constant auroral ovals (blue in Figure 3).

Fig. 4. Turbulence at northern edge of GRS deflects some of the helion flow.

A previous presentation by John Connerney of NASA provided a video of the same magnetic field as the cited paper, which also includes the cloud features on Jupiter. Comparison of the video with Figure 4. shows that the anomalous magnetic field described in the cited article as magnetiic flux  “returns through an intense isolated patch near the equator” is due to the deflection of the counter-clockwise helion motion at the northern edge of the Great Red Spot by an eastward jet stream which produces the turbulence on the northwest . . THis comparison shows that the north edge of the Great Red Spot collides with the eastward jet stream, resulting in a large zone of turbulence to its northwest. This causes a clockwise swirling of the helions at that point, sensed by the MAG instrument as a reversed magnetic field. The main counter-clockwise stream of invisible helions goes upward and impacts the inner belt above the Great Red Spot.

The reduction of the diameter and intensity of the Great Red Spot over the lifetime of the Juno mission 800-days is evidence of the decrease in the power of the fusion reaction and can more accurately be determined by a decline in the strength of Jupiter’s magnetic field during that period. If NASA compares the total magnetic field data from the first Juno pass with the most recent values they will find this decrease and will have to add this to the long list of unexplained observations..

 

Saturn’s North Pole Hexagon

•September 7, 2018 • Comments Off on Saturn’s North Pole Hexagon

Fig. 1 Hexagon clouds at Saturn’s north pole

A new article in Nature Communications Sept.3, 2018 reports that the famous hexagon cloud extends 300 km above the surrounding cloud-tops. The hexagon resembles one seen lower in the atmosphere by Cassini. Former Cassini scientists state: “The edges of this newly-found vortex appear to be hexagonal, precisely matching a famous and bizarre hexagonal cloud pattern we see deeper down in Saturn’s atmosphere. … … understanding how and why Saturn’s north polar vortex has assumed a hexagonal shape will shed light on how phenomena deeper down in an atmosphere can influence the environment high up above, something that is of particular interest to scientists trying to figure out how energy is transported around in planetary atmospheres.”

However, referring to an earlier post on Jupiter’s cyclones, hexagons on Saturn do not seem that unique. The northern edges of Jupiter’s cyclones define polygons with different numbers of sides surrounding both the north and south poles. As explained in numerous previous posts, both Jupiter and Saturn are solid, low density, highly deuterated methane gas hydrate (MGH) planets, which means that impacts on their surfaces cause fusion explosions which can continue to burn for a long time – on Jupiter the one producing all of its features has been burning for 6,000 years. That same fusion reaction on Jupiter blazed material into space for the first 5,000+ years which formed all the near-Earth asteroids we see today. Unfortunately for Saturn, it has been the prime target for hundreds of such bodies, which still impact it to this day.

The ongoing bombardment of these bodies impacting Saturn has blasted enormous amounts of water into its rings and atmosphere. Although the solid portion of both are the same composition, their average densities, using the cloud-top radii are Jupiter 1,330. and Saturn 687 kg/m^3. This difference is due to the expanded atmosphere of Saturn which is still being ‘fed’ by ongoing impact fusion furnaces burning its excess deuterium. Similar cyclones imaged in Jupiter’s polar regions are circulating deep in Saturn’s atmosphere, but they increase in diameter as they rise into the much larger diameter atmosphere. The most northern edges form the edges of the famous hexagon at Saturn’s north pole and their higher velocities result in its slight elevation, which is only a tiny fraction of their altitude above the surface. The following quote can be applied to the Jupiter/Saturn couple.

Couples are things whole and not whole, what is drawn together and what is drawn asunder, the harmonious and discordant. The one is made up of all things, and all things issue from the one.        Heraclitus Fr. 10

New Mars Mission

•August 30, 2018 • Comments Off on New Mars Mission

A new mission, INSIGHT, has been launched and will land on Mars in November. Its instruments are focused on the interior, via measuring heat flow from the interior and monitoring passive seismic signals. A question being addressed is to find the origin of the Tharsis Bulge. Instead of waiting for the first data, the mission overview announces that all the rocky planets are older than 4 billion years. The heat flow instrument is designed to be pounded 16 feet into the surface, but at different depths it emits heat pulses and records the resulting temperature of the soil and the decay rate to determine the thermal conductivity of of that layer. Although the landing site is thousands of km from the Tharsis Bulge, they claim that the heat flow instrument extending a mere 16 feet will “provide clues” to the heat source that raised Olympus Mons which is three times the elevation of Mt. Everest. For thirty years dozens of probes have studied Mars, Venus, Mercury and Jupiter ‘providing clues’ but have not determined the origin or makeup of any of them. The true origin and makeup of these bodies are all explained on this website.

Around 4000 BC proto-Venus made close passes to both the Earth and Mars, raising enormous anomalous masses on these planets: the Tibetan-Himalayan Complex and the Tharsis Bulge respectively. These huge anomalous masses in the lithospheres cannot be generated by processes in the interior of an isolated body. The uplifted masses were used as ‘handles’ allowing close approaches of other planets to control the motion of their entire lithospheres as a unit, completely independent of the planets mantle and core. The most extreme example of this was the repeated capture and release of Mars in a geostationary orbit of the Earth, which produced the beautiful granite mountains which expanded the continents of the Earth and blasted the full complement of life on Mars to cover the Earth.

Once this process was completed, in 687 BC, the solid iron core of Mars, called Hathor (Egypt), Sarama (RigVeda), Hermes (Greek) and Mercury (Roman), exited Mars for the last time and became the planet Mercury. Scientists have found that Mars has no solid core and no magnetic field, and that Mercury is a solid chunk of iron with a magnetic field but being stuck with the assumption that the solar system has been in its current configuration for 4.6 billion years, will continue to look for ‘clues’ to the origin of these for another thirty years.

Based on the fragments of his writing, Heraclitus, who lived perhaps a century after the Vedic Period, tried to explain the planetary encounters to the Greeks told in the overly complex myths of Homer and Hesiod, but was labelled a heretic in those times, because the Greek hierarchy had adopted a standard model, just as modern science has. Some of his quotes are given below.

 

“Whoever cannot seek the unforeseen sees nothing, for the known way is an impasse.”

“Stupidity is doomed, therefore, to cringe at every syllable of wisdom.”

“Even what those with the greatest reputation for knowing it all, claim to understand and defend, are but opinions.”

“Give me one man from among ten thousand if he is the best”
― Heraclitus, Fragments

Megadroughts and Collapse From Early Agriculture

•August 25, 2018 • Comments Off on Megadroughts and Collapse From Early Agriculture

“Megadrought and Collapse From Early Agriculture to Angkor”, Edited by Harvey Weiss, from Oxford University Press, opines that severe drought caused the collapse of civilizations throughout the Levant in three chapters:

2. 6600-6000 cal BP Abrupt Climate Change and Neolithic Dispersal from West Asia,by Bernard Weninger and Lee Clare
3. 4.2 ka BP Megadrought and the Akkadian Collapse, by Harvey Weiss
4. 3.2 ka BP Megadrought and the Late Bronze Age Collapse, by Daniel Kaniewski and Elise Van Campo

Clues to the actual cause of these collapses is quite evident. They are present in the forms of pyramids, tells and ziggurats throughout these areas. These massive structures, each requiring millions of man-hours, were not constructed so that the people could get ‘closer to the gods’, as currently assumed by ‘scholars’. They acted as ‘lifeboats’ constructed so that thousands of people would not be carried far from their homelands by floods every fifteen years.

These floods did not just rise up from an accumulation of water, they were sudden, massive and forceful flows, as evidenced by the great mass, height and stable shapes of the structures. The Egyptians initially tried building large ships to survive the floods, a few were discovered by archaeologists anchored by huge rocks in the desert at Abydos, but the Egyptians found that the ships were carried across the Red Sea and stranded when the waters continued eastward leaving the Mediterranean and Red Seas as empty wildernesses and the ships high and dry.

The floods alternated from west to east. Mars was captured in a geostationary orbit 35,000 km above the Himalayas, ninety-nine times between 3687 and 587 BC. Its tidal drag slowed the rotation of the entire lithosphere by 24 km/hr relative to the asthenosphere (mantle) and caused powerful eastward flows from the eastern Atlantic, Mediterranean and Red Seas across the entire Eurasian continent, forming a tidal bulge 5,000 m high surrounding the Himalayas. This emptied the Mediterranean and Red Seas for 14.4-years (see Messinean Salinity Crisis). Each time Mars was released, the water flowed back it its normal levels creating slightly weaker westward flow. In the Biblical story of the Exodus of the Jews from Egypt, the Red Sea was first described as the wilderness. After the Jews crossed, the westward return flow, refilled the Red Sea as the Egyptian army pursued them. The eastward flows also flooded western Africa and remained trapped by the elevation along the coast, causing the poor agricultural yields there to this day.

Saltwater Caused Collapse of Agriculture

The flows lasted less than a week and damaged poorly built structures, but the primary collapse of agriculture resulted from the repeated deposition of seawater across the land. This same east and west flooding left clues across the entire Eurasian continent now thought to be evidence of ancient Tethys, and Paratethys Oceans, because of the presence of saltwater organisms, imagined to have separated ancient supercontinents, Rodina and Laurasia.

The enormous effects of a planet, the mass of Mars plus Mercury, 35,000 km above the Himalaya, tidally linked to the lithosphere, created the plutons which shaped the continents and their locations between 3687 and 687 BC – events currently thought to have happened in the Archaean age 2.5 and 3.8 billion years BP.

A similar article “Why Did the Mayan Civilization Collapse? ” by By Joseph Stromberg on Smithsonian.com, comes to the same conclusion as the book cited above. The same cosmic events account for this collapse. The indirect tidal force of Mars caused flows toward the antipode of Mt. Kailas in the south Pacific (31° S Lat., 99° W Lon.), Carribean Sea waters flowed across central America, as evidenced by the many more pyramids constructed by the Mayan culture.

Though this Word is true evermore, yet men are as unable to understand it when they hear it for the first time as before they have heard it at all. For, though all things come to pass in accordance with this Word, men seem as if they had no experience of them, when they make trial of words and deeds such as I set forth, dividing each thing according to its kind and showing how it is what it is. But other men know not what they are doing when awake, even as they forget what they do in sleep.          Heraclitus