How Mars Changed the Earth (Update)

•June 27, 2018 • Comments Off on How Mars Changed the Earth (Update)

Geological Evidence

Fig. 1. Subduction zones along west coast of N & S American continents were created by the tidal attraction of Mars above the Himalayas, opening the Mid-Atlantic rift.

Two aspects of the Earth which remain a mystery to geologists are mountain building (orogony) and granite. Several quotes from online sources reinforce this:

“Although orogeny involves plate tectonics, the tectonic forces result in a variety of associated phenomena, including crustal deformation, crustal thickening, crustal thinning and crustal melting as well as magmatism, metamorphism and mineralization. What exactly happens in a specific orogen depends upon the strength and rheology of the continental lithosphere, and how these properties change during orogenesis.”

“For over a century, geologists have been grappling with the problem of how large volumes of molten rock are emplaced within the solid Earth. This problem has still not been entirely resolved. Granite magma must make room for itself or be intruded into other rocks, and several mechanisms have been proposed to explain how large batholiths have been emplaced.

Stoping: The granite cracks the wall rocks and pushes upward as it removes blocks of the overlying crust.
Diapirism: The granite of lower density causes relative buoyancy and pushes upward, warping and folding the rock above it.
Assimilation: The granite melts its way up into the crust, thereby removing overlying material.
Inflation: The granite body inflates under pressure and is injected into position.”

“Granite is the signature rock of the continents. More than that, granite is the signature rock of the planet Earth itself. The other rocky planets—Mercury, Venus and Mars—are covered with basalt, as is the ocean floor of Earth. But only Earth has this beautiful and interesting rock type in abundance.”

Deccan Traps
The Deccan Traps on the coast of southern India are a geological time-machine covering 3687 to 687 BC. The lower-most layer contains the iridium spike indicating the K-T extinction of the dinosaurs. Each of the one-hundred ~ 20-meter ‘steps’ or layers was lava drawn to the surface from the upper mantle (asthenosphere) by the tidal effect of Mars during each 14.4-year kalpa when in a geostationary orbit above the Himalayas. The periods between the kalpas were 15.6 years, resulting in cycles of 30 years. The geological significance of the Deccan lies in the large volume of rock, 264,000 cubic miles, erupted in 3,000 years (100 kalpas) and the separation of the deposits into ~20 meter layers. The large volume and unique equal layering of the Deccan rock is a clue pointing out the cyclic effects of the tidal drag of Mars which lie hidden beneath the continents.

The slowing of the lithosphere during each kalpa, causing it to move westward at 24-km/hr relative to the asthenosphere, the liquid layer at the top of the mantle. The layered Deccan rock is basalt, a low silica volcanic rock, but the asthenosphere is a high silica content mineral, rhyolite. The difference was due to the dissolving of much of the silicate as the lava rose through the Indian Ocean and its rapid crystallization.

Layered Plutons
This same motion continuously supplied fresh asthenosphere, great volumes of silicate rhyolite, which rose up unseen beneath the continents where they were shallow, during each kalpa. Geologists today call them plutons. These cooled more slowly beneath the continents in the absence of water, and the expansion of the low density granite crystals raised the surface even higher. The beautiful granitic rocks are found only within the continents of the Earth. Further proving this picture, advanced seismic measurements are revealing that although plutons are homogeneous, they formed incrementally, in layers, just like the Deccan Traps. Thus, the reason that Mars had to be released after each 14.4-year capture for 15.6 years was to allow the granite crystals to form increasing the raising of the granite mountain ranges that are unique to the Earth, providing more land where life could propagate. This short period of orogeny between 3687 and 687 BC.created all the granite mountain ranges found only in the continents of the Earth. Geologists believe granite was emplaced hundreds of million years in the past.

Subduction of Oceanic Plates
Mars’ tidal drag slowed the rotation of the entire lithosphere as a unit, causing a westward motion of the continents relative to the mantle. The more horizontal tidal force of Mars on the North and South American continents caused them to move west even faster, opening up the Mid-Atlantic rift, causing subduction zones along the western edge of both continents and building the North and South American Cordillera. The same force compressed the Pacific plate, producing the Pacific Rim of Fire. Geologists believe these events occurred 80 to 55 million years ago. Geologists do not yet understand that the current plate motions are left over from the geologically recent Mars encounters.

Mid-Atlantic Ridge
Mars, stationary above the Himalayas, increased the distance between the North and South American and Eurasian and African continents. Evidence of this is present as the mid-Atlantic ridge which sits atop a geologic feature known as the Mid-Atlantic Rise – a progressive bulge that runs the length of the Atlantic Ocean, with the ridge resting on the highest point of this linear bulge. As  explained above, this bulge is the result of upward convective flows of the asthenosphere filling the gap created by Mars’ attractive force on the American continents. Geologists date its origin in the Triassic, over 200 million years before the present. but the ancient texts explain that all of these changes in the world occurred during the Vedic Period 3687 to 687 BC.

Mars zircons confuse dating

The entire crust of the Earth comprises rocks, soil, and vegetation blasted from Mars between 3687 and 687 BC. As a result, dating based on U-Pb (in zircons) from hundreds of Martian volcanoes give the age of the much older planet, not ages of the Earth. What should be used is radio-carbon dating, which is useful for  the Vedic Period (3687 to 687 BC).

Job 38:04-10 Where wast thou when I laid the foundation of the Earth. Declare if thou hast understanding. Who hast laid the measure thereof, If thou knowest? or who hath stretched the line upon it? Whereupon are the foundations fastened? or who laid the cornerstone thereof; When the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy?

Or who shut up the sea with doors, and it brake forth as if it issued out of the womb? When I made the cloud the garment thereof, and thick darkness a swaddling band for it, And brake up for it my decreed  place, and set bars and doors, And said Hither to shalt thou come, but no further: and here shall thy proud waves be stayed?


Additional Evidence for Cyclic Catastrophism

•November 5, 2018 • Comments Off on Additional Evidence for Cyclic Catastrophism

Fig. 1. Motion of lithosphere during kalpas detected. (Differential rotation between lithosphere & mantle: Yanick Ricard, Carlo Doglioni, Roberto Sabadini)

As explained in a number of previous posts, Mars orbited the Earth repeatedly for a total of 1,500 years in a geostationary orbit 35,000 km above Mt. Kailas in the Transhimalayas. During these encounters all of Mars’ crust, oceans, soils, atmosphere and biosphere were blasted to the Earth when alignments of the Earth-Mars pair with the Moon, and the Sun and Moon combined, occurred. The gravity of each planet on the other forced the lithosphere of the other to be reoriented. Geologists today have no idea that the entire lithosphere of a complete terrestrial planet can rotate independently from the mantle, even orthogonal to its axis, although there is a conceptual term for this, Tidal Drag. This same design, known today as dual axis spin stabilized, is used on all communications satellites.

The lithosphere of the Earth rotated so that Mt. Kailas, sacred to every eastern religion, remained in the ecliptic plane where Mars orbited. Figure 1 gives modern-day evidence of this recent, unique rotation. Geologists avoid this finding, since they have no explanation. Interestingly, there were no seasonal changes anywhere on the Earth during those encounters which, based on Greenland ice cores, were mistakenly interpreted as an ice age during the entire period, from 3687 to 687 BC.

Fig. 2 Caldera of Olympus Mons, where lava flows tilted toward Mars’ north pole have been measured.

Due to the massive Tharsis Bulge on its equator, the lithosphere of Mars continued to rotate (conservation of angular momentum) but became oriented so that its north pole remained oriented toward the Earth during each encounter. Therefore it was described in mythologies as a rotating wheel, churn or mill (See Hamlet’s Mill). Although ample evidence of this orientation is present on Mars in the form of (a) outflow channels flowing toward the north pole; (b) Oceanus Borealis, the Northern Ocean;  (c) the unique plateau at its north pole, which stands 3 km above the surrounding terrain, and (d) the fact that the entire northern third of Mars is 7 km below the datum, because during the geostationary encounters transient alignments with the Moon, particularly at eclipses, blasted rocks from hundreds of volcanoes in Mars Northern hemisphere.

Now New evidence has been published in the planetary journal Icarus. The strong gravitational field of the more massive, nearby Earth significantly influenced the field at the largest volcanoes on Mars equator, oriented normal to the Earth’s field, Olympus and Ascraeus Montes. The cited paper reports that the lava in the calderas of these mountains and other features near the equator are mysteriously ’tilted’ toward Mars’ north pole.

 To raise new questions, new possibilities, to regard old problems from a new angle, requires creative imagination and marks real advance in science. Albert Einstein

More Internal Heat from Jupiter

•October 30, 2018 • Comments Off on More Internal Heat from Jupiter

Fig. 1. Surface fusion reaction flowing to GRS is producing Jupiter’s internal heat.

A recent (41 page) paper published in Nature Communications, titled “Less absorbed solar energy and more internal heat for Jupiter” by Liming Li et al. goes to great effort to determine accurately the energy budget of Jupiter. A more accurate value is hoped to determine the source of Jupiter’s internal heat – a problem never solved due to the assumption it is a gas giant comprising 90% H2 and 10% helium.

The currently accepted hypotheses are (a) that the helium is suspended in the hydrogen and slowly ‘raining’ to a lower potential energy level. A very similar hypothesis is that Jupiter, after 4.6 billion years is still settling into its final form. However, the gravity measurements by Juno over 16 science passes show no such settling, indeed they have surprised the experts showing the mass is distributed more evenly than imagined. Quoting from the paper:

“Jupiter’s internal heat is estimated to be 7.485 ± 0.163 W m−2 by assuming energy equilibrium for Jupiter, which is 37.5 ± 8.8% larger than 5.444 ± 0.425 W m−2 from the previous best estimate. Furthermore, the new measurements suggest that the ratio of the emitted thermal power over the absorbed solar power is 2.132 ± 0.051, which is also significantly larger than 1.668 ± 0.085 from the previous estimate.”

Simply put, Jupiter’s internal heat radiation is significantly greater than that being absorbed from the Sun.

The authors add: “The significant increase in Jupiter’s internal heat found from our analyses necessitates a re-examination of three decades of models of the thermal evolution of the planet. Models of Jupiter that have included both its secular cooling and the implied depletion of helium into the deep interior have always produced an internal heat higher than the previous best evaluation from Pioneer/Voyager. With the new updated value of internal heat, the current evolutionary theories and models of Jupiter should be revisited.”

Fig. 2. Helion vortex produces Jupiter’s constant auroral ovals with power of 5 Terawatts.

As accurate as the methods appear, they are based completely on Cassini measurements from the ecliptic plane, i.e. no views of the polar areas are included. I note this because studies of the auroral ovals by Juno JIRAM have measured constant UV radiation at the level of 5 Terrawatts from each pole, where a Tw = 1012 watts (Figure 2).

‘Gas giant’ advocates will respond by publishing numerous papers, tinkering with their models of Jupiter’s interior, called the equation of state of a hydrogen/helium mixture, which has never been successfully determined. This has never been a high priority issue, because every scientist in the world is sure that Jupiter is a gas giant, as suggested by Rupert Wildt in 1930. That’s progress!

Cyclic Catastrophism
As posited in many articles on this site, (e.g. enter “Jupiter” in the Search window), Jupiter (also Saturn) is a solid, low density, highly deuterated Methane Gas Hydrate (MGH) body which, since it is a clathrate, physically encapsulates all the elements in their known solar system abundances. The clathrate structure is (CH4)4(H2O)23. The highly deuterated state of Jupiter means that a lot of the H is actually D. Note that Jupiter is 80% water.
As a result, impacts on Jupiter trigger very powerful nuclear fusion explosions, out of which terrestrial planets were born. Smaller impacts such as the larger

Fig. 3 S-L 9 Mushroom cloud radiation were brighter than the total energy of Jupiter

Shoemaker-Levy 9 fragments also produced fusion bomb explosions when they hit the surfaces, the ‘main events’ of which were delayed 6 minutes because it took that long for the mushroom clouds to reach the cloud-tops (Figure 3).

The last big impact explosion occurred 6,000 years BP and produced proto-Venus. A continuous fusion burning created on Jupiter’s surface by that impact (Figure 1) has slowly declined over the last 6,000 years but is still producing Jupiter’s unexplained high internal heat, multiple wind bands and magnetic field. The fusion products are 1032 helions (3He++)/sec, each with an energy of 4.98 MeV, they are invisible but form the vortex seen as the Great Red Spot due to Coriolis effect, through which all the heavy elements being released from the MGH flow out into the upper atmosphere, forming the colored clouds which NASA scientists have not yet identified. That is why both Venus and Jupiter are hot. The energy from that impact currently being reflected back from space is what the Nobel geniuses tell us is radiation from the creation of the universe.

1 Corinthians 1:27-29 (KJV)
But God hath chosen the foolish things of the world to confound the wise; and God hath chosen the weak things of the world to confound the things which are mighty; And base things of the world, and things which are despised, hath God chosen, yea, and things which are not, to bring to nought things that are:That no flesh should glory in his presence.

I too am not a bit tamed, I too am untranslatable,
I sound my barbaric yawp over the roofs of the world.”
― Walt Whitman, Leaves of Grass

Proto-Venus Reformed the Solar System

•October 14, 2018 • Comments Off on Proto-Venus Reformed the Solar System

Fig. 1. Venus and Mercury ‘cavorting’ circa 4th Century BC

As discussed in the previous post proto-Venus first raged throughout the inner solar system less than 6000-years ago, which at that date comprised only a dinosaur-laden Earth and Mars in an interior orbit full of life as we know it today. Although the interaction of Venus with Mars prior to the 3,000-year Vedic Period, was described in myth as Indra (Mars) smashing the foot of Agni (incandescent Venus), its encounter with Mercury at the end of the Vedic Period was characterized as a more intimate one. It was even recorded as a piece of art (Figure 1). Two posts (2013),  post1 and  post2 , explained the clues left behind by Venus on Mercury.

In both instances, Venus left behind significant crime scene evidence, cosmic DNA. As discussed in the last installment, it took the form of the Medusae Fossae Formation on Mars but in the case of Mercury the same ‘DNA’ was deposited. However, because Mercury was super hot and dry, Venus’ hot sulfurous basalt deposit had only the magnetic field of Mercury with which to interact.

After ninety-nine captures and releases of Mars in its familiar geostationary orbit of the Earth, when the transfer of all its life-forms, crust, oceans, heavy elements, atmosphere and vegetation to the Earth was complete (687 BC), Mars’ solid core left the planet for the last time. It did not have a chance to zoom around the Earth and catch up to Mars as on the last ninety-nine encounters because it was attracted to Venus. Some romantics might believe it was due to her great beauty, but not to spoil the story it was her rta (gravitational attraction in the RgVeda). The two of them ‘cavorted’ for a couple of hundred years, eventually tiring and settling into their current orbits.

Fig. 2 Mercury’s north pole region with 1000 km basalt rise in foreground radar image is the deposit from proto-Venus.

When the core exited Mars, it had a powerful magnetic field, which has declined considerably in the last 2,300 years because the solid state superconductors within it needed to be under super-high pressure. (see Death of the Dynamo). But Venus’ basalt deposit near Mercury’s north pole became highly magnetized as it approached, cooled and hardened. MESSENGER imaged the deposit (Figure 2) and its magnetic field instruments discovered that the deposit has a much stronger field than the declining field in the interior of the core, now known as Mercury. The cited paper cannot explain the fact that the magnetic field of the deposit is opposite the internal magnetic field of Mercury. This was due to the gaseous form of the deposit cooling and forming miniature dipoles in space before contacting the surface. These became oriented opposite to the field of the planet before landing on the surface, that is, with their north poles oriented toward Mercury’s south, since opposite poles attract.

Fig. 3.  Mercurian Grid in Mariner 10 image 1973

At the time of its final ejection of the solid iron core from Mars, Mercury was covered with a sulfur-iron surface from the mantle which adhered to it. This surface layer contained many parallel grooves scratched across its surface by the rigid rocks on the north and south edges of the Valles Marineris from which it exited (Figure 3), but had yet no impact craters on its surface. This was seen from Earth and expressed in Greek myth which stated that Hermes (Mercury) invented the Lyre. The many craters now visible on Mercury formed by rocks blasted from Mars during its encounters with the Earth, which missed the Earth and have been falling toward the Sun for the last  6 to 2.6 millennia.

Venus final state is expressed in Isaiah 14:12-17 

“How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations! For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God: I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation, in the sides of the north: I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the most High. Yet thou shalt be brought down to hell (tartarus, a place of restraint in the Septuagint)), to the sides of the pit. They that see thee shall narrowly look upon thee, and consider thee, saying, Is this the body that made the earth to tremble, that did shake kingdoms; That made the world as a wilderness, and destroyed the cities thereof; that opened not the house of his prisoners?”

Update of a Venus deposit on Mars

•October 9, 2018 • Comments Off on Update of a Venus deposit on Mars

Fig. 1 Extent of Medusae Fossae Formation & S/Cl color-coded from cited paper.

A recent post (July 13th) discussed an interesting ‘deposit’ on Mars’ surface and cited a published paper giving details. A new paper, “The Medusae Fossae Formation as the single largest source of dust on Mars” by Lujendra Ojha et al., (referencing 70 papers) concludes as stated, that this single ‘formation’ is the origin of most of the dust on Mars surface to this day. The analysis is simplified by the enormous extent of the deposit, its obvious erosion by wind (yardangs) and the unique ratio of sulfur to chlorine (S/Cl) in the deposit which is measurably present over the entire surface of the planet. The authors state:

“The estimated size of the deposit, prior to its global distribution, is estimated at  5 × 106 km2. The current mean thickness of the MFF exceeds 600 m. A comparable mean thickness between 100 and 600 m over the eroded areas would imply an eroded volume exceeding 3 × 105–1.8 × 106 km3. If distributed globally, this eroded volume of the MFF would be equivalent to a 2–12 m global layer of dust.”

Fig. 2. The MFF proximity to the Tharsis Bulge. Also from the cited paper

The low density and transparency to radar have led to the conclusion that it is similar to tephra, usually formed when hot liquid lava shoots from the Earth and comes in contact with water. However, there is no evidence of active volcanism and the wide extent of the MFF is not characteristic of volcanic activity. Analysis of deposits close to large volcanoes do not show the characteristic S/Cl ratio of the MFF and its distribution across the entire surface of Mars.

Cyclic Catastrophism, based on the ancient myths of diverse cultures, particularly the oldest, the RgVeda, explained in my earlier post, proto-Venus gravitationally deflected Mars from its ancient orbit, similar to Venus’ today, to an orbit which intersected that of the Earth. When both were visible as worlds, proto-Venus, which was an incandescent liquid planet at 10,000 K, was drawn into a droplet shape, with the pointed end extending toward Mars. This white-hot sulfurous liquid material struck the living surface of Mars covered with oceanic waters. The sulfur was the liqiud rocky-iron surface of proto-Venus which is outgassing sulfur to this day and the chlorine was from the salty water on the surface of Mars. The explosion was witnessed by every culture on Earth and recorded in their myths.

This same event raised the Tharsis Bulge on Mars as evidenced by their proximity in Figure 2. The Bulge was an important factor in the process of transferring life from Mars to the Earth in the next 3,000-years because it forced the lithosphere of Mars to rotate with Tharsis remaining on its equator and thereby its north pole facing the Earth during each geostationary orbit, called a kalpa in the RgVeda. and the tekhi-Horus periods or inundations in Egypt. These events occurred after 4000 BC, before the Bible was composed.

The authors of the cited paper do not give an origin of the MFF, but mired in the geology of Charles Lyell and the uniformitarianism of James Hutton, do suggest it is 500 million years old.

Jupiter’s Atmospheric Bulge!

•October 6, 2018 • Comments Off on Jupiter’s Atmospheric Bulge!

Fig. 1. New Juno image from the South pole shows atmospheric bulge on limb.

Juno has produced an amazing photo of Jupiter, which displays a raised belt of dust that surrounds the middle latitudes. This confirms the Cyclic Catastrophism hypothesis that the atmosphere comprises heavy-element particulate aerosols (dust) continuously being released from the Methane Gas Hydrate surface by a fusion reaction at 22° S Latitude ~50,000 km east of the GRS. The particles exit through the GRS, producing the unexpected high temperature and density of the upper atmosphere, but settle to the surface as fast as they are produced and have been accumulating on the MGH surface for many years thereby producing tesseral (E-W) gravity anomalies currently interpreted as ‘flows’ in the ‘interior’. The image reveals the thin but noticeable equatorial bulge on the limb, which is a different color than the rest of the planet.

The dust belt only extends to about 70° S Latitude. Poleward of this limit, the blue southern ocean is visible, due to the melting of the Methane Gas Hydrate surface layer by the energy of the 5 MeV helion torus which produces the far UV helion Lyman forest auroral oval.

Doth not wisdom cry and understanding put forth her voice?

Solving a Cosmic Conundrum

•September 29, 2018 • Comments Off on Solving a Cosmic Conundrum

Fig. 1. TW Hydrae proto-planetary disk around a proto-star with planets already present.

A new study, using the European Southern Observatory, presents evidence overthrowing another long held assumption concerning the formation of planetary systems – that the terrestrial planets accumulated from clouds of dust surrounding the young star. The work was accomplished by astronomers led by Carlo Manara of the European Southern Observatory in Munich, Germany,

Using Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), a radio observatory in the Atacama Desert in Chile, to penetrate obscuring dust, the group has compared the masses of several hundred different protoplanetary disks around young stars between 1 million and 3 million years old to the masses of confirmed exoplanets and exoplanetary systems around older stars of equivalent size. The disk masses were often much less than the total exoplanet mass—sometimes 10 or 100 times lower.

Although such findings have been reported before for a few star systems, the study is the first to point out the mismatch over several hundred different systems. “I think what this work does is really set this as a fact,” Manara says.

How Does this Relate to Jupiter?

This work makes clear that the terrestrial planets in our system, and all other systems cannot possibly have formed from the scant planetary disks around the young star. The solution to this conundrum is in dozens of posts on this site. That is, the giant planets are formed in the cold recesses of Large Dark Nebulae, where the full range of heavy elements in dust particles, the surfaces of which act as catalysts for the formation of molecules and crystals, become encapsulated in highly deuterated Methane Gas Hydrate clathrate bodies at < 50 K.  These giant planets form before the central proto-star ignites. For example, Figure 1 from ALMA shows a proto-star TW Hydrea, in which fusion has not yet begun, surrounded by a proto-planetary disc in which two giant planets are already present. Similarly, a high resolution study of the Cl Tau planetary disk reveals four giant planet gaps surrounding a two million-year-old proto-star.

The original solar system was only the four giant planets comprising methane gas hydrate clathrate with the full range of heavy elements. The only hydrogen and helium in the atmosphere of Jupiter is a small amount that has been released from its solid, highly deuterated, low density, Methane Gas Hydrate by a fusion reaction left behind by the impact, 6,000-years BP, out of which (proto) Venus was born.  This event demonstrated how all terrestrial planets, including Mars and Earth were formed (Mercury was the original core of Mars, which left permanently in 687 BC). These impacts were exponentially enhanced by the fusion explosion of massive amounts of deuterium which continues to this day. The nominal composition of MGH is (CH4)4(H2O)23, thus Jupiter is ~85% water by mass, explaining very simply why planets like the Earth are covered with water and why all the giant planets have massive amount of methane in their atmospheres. See Juno – Evidence of a Solid Jupiter  by John Ackerman.

The molal levels of Hydrogen and HElium were ‘measured’ by the Galileo atmospheric probe using index of refraction of samples, assuming they were the only significant gases in the atmosphere, therefore the measurement is was not valid.  The concentration of deuterium , (2.1 ± 0.4) 10−5, measured by (SWS) on the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) does not include that encapsulated in the MGH, the fusion of which is responsible for the excess luminosity, wind bands, and powerful magnetic field of Jupiter. The proposed high deuterium content of the giant planets suggests that the initial fusion reaction in the Sun, which formed in the same Large Dark Nebula, was not the fusion of four protons to form a helium nucleus plus two protons as currently believed, since the reaction of D + H -> 3He++ + 4.98 MeV, now taking place on the surface of Jupiter, would have occurred at a much lower temperature.

Einstein On Epistomology of Science (annotated)

Concepts that have proven useful in ordering things easily achieve such an authority over us that we forget their earthly origins and accept them as unalterable givens. Thus they come to be stamped as “necessities of thought,” “a priori givens,” etc. The path of scientific advance is often made impassable for a long time through such errors. For that reason, it is by no means an idle game if we become practiced in analyzing the long commonplace concepts [gas giants, solar system 4.6 years old] and exhibiting those circumstances upon which their justification and usefulness depend, how they have grown up, individually, out of the givens of experience. By this means, their all-too-great authority will be broken. They will be removed if they cannot be properly legitimated, corrected if their correlation with given things be far too superfluous, replaced by others if a new system can be established that we prefer for whatever reason. (Einstein 1916, 102)


The Shape of Jupiter

•September 21, 2018 • Comments Off on The Shape of Jupiter

Fig. 1 Jupiter plume (Juno) 6000 BP

Fig. 2 900 AD

Fig. 3 Mass Ejection Ceased 1935

Figures 1, 2, and 3 give a brief history of the impact plume left behind on Jupiter after the birth of Venus in 6,000 BP. Figure 2 is a drawing in an Arabic document from 900 AD labelled “having the nature of Jupiter”. Figure 3 is a plot of the rapid monotonic slowing of the rotation of Jupiter, which suddenly ceased when the fusion reaction was no longer sufficiently powerful to eject mass (angular momentum) into space. The rotation then sped up for thirty years as the inflated atmosphere contracted and has now settled into the same rate measured by its magnetic field signature.

The oblateness of Jupiter and Saturn were discussed in a previous post. They are calculated using the polar and equatorial diameters at the cloud-tops. The difference of these two diameters in modern times is not great enough that the planet appears oblate in NASA images. However, in the 1660s, 275 years before the rotational slowing occurred, Giovanni Cassini, one of the earliest astronmers to telescopically observe Jupiter, wrote that Jupiter was ‘oblate‘. These data points are the basis of the Cyclic Catastrophism view of Jupiter.

.Jupiter’s Gravity

The Juno probe has generated a much more accurate record of Jupiter’s shape. A NASA computer model of the expected internal mass distribution of Jupiter based on the gas giant hypothesis assumes the planet is spherically and hemispherically symmetric. The N-S radial distribution of mass is expressed by even zonal harmonic coefficients J2 , J4 , J6 , J8 etc. If Jupiter were a ‘gas giant’ the Juno data should produce values of these coeffients which are very small. However, two different values found are J4 = -586 and J6 = 34.4.  Based on these deviations Juno scientists concluded that “atmospheric and internal dynamics can produce small density perturbations that result in a more complex gravity representation”. The “atmospheric dynamics” are related to the colored wind bands visible in photographs of Jupiter (the origin of which cannot be explained in the ‘gas giant’ hypothesis). ‘Internal dynamics’ refers to motions within a hypothetical liquid, electrically conducting hydrogen interior, but this has been discounted by  by the gravity data (Giullot, Hubbard et al.)”We find that the deep interior of the planet rotates nearly as a rigid body, with differential rotation decreasing by at least an order of magnitude compared to the atmosphere.” This amounted to a major concession by the principle ‘gas giant’ theorists because the data from Juno were expected to reveal the presence of a ~25-earth-mass rocky-iron solid core , a crucial aspect of the ‘gas giant’ hypothesis. One last-gasp explanation for this is that the rocky-iron core has ‘dissolved’ in the hot hydrogen/helium interior, thought to be 25,000 K based on the surface temperature. The current academic view is that Jupiter’s atmosphere is at least 3,000 km deep.


Cyclic Catastrophism explains the unexpected values in a completely different way. The important aspects concerning the measured gravity explanation are:

(a) Consistent with rigid body finding, Jupiter and the other giant planets are highly deuterated, solid, low density Methane Gas Hydrate (MGH) planets that formed cold (< 50 K) in a Large Dark Nebula where deuterium is known to be concentrated and methane gas hydrates form readily.

(b) MGH is a clathrate which physically (not chemically) encapsulates all the heavy elements and molecules (e.g. CH4) inside cages comprising twelve or more water molecules, nominally (CH4)4(H2O)23 Thus Jupiter is ~85% water by mass.

(c) Impacts on the giant planets trigger fusion reactions of the deuterium and protons at the impact sites, as demonstrated by the emission spectra of many heavy elements in 1994 by the impacts of Shoemaker-Levy 9.

(d) Fusion reactions left behind on its solid surface, such as the one 6,000-years BP out of which proto-Venus was born, can burn for thousands of years demonstrating the enormous deuterium content and explaining the ubiquitous presence of methane in the atmospheres of all four giant planets. Little deuterium is measured in the atmosphere because it is consumed in the fusion reaction.

(e) The heat of the fusion reaction on the surface of Jupiter at the proto-Venus impact site, approximately 700-km below the cloud-tops,~50,000 km east of the Great Red Spot is currently releasing the complete range of known elements from the MGH, which form solid particle aerosols as they rise, cool and exit from the Great Red Spot. These comprise the colored clouds which obscure Jupiter’s surface at mid latitudes, currently imagined to be ammonia ice.

(f) The airborne heavy aerosols exit through the Great Red Spot and form an elevated belt around Jupiter at latitudes centered on the Great Red Spot 22° S Lat. This atmospheric belt does not extend to the polar areas. (See Jupiter’s Jiutsu Belt and Oceans)


(g) The heavy aerosols settle to the surface as fast as they are released by the fusion heat where they have been accumulating at least since 1935 (Figure 3). Their distribution is centered at the GRS latitude, 20° S, explaining the negative, pear-shaped, J4 = -586. and to a lesser degree are concentrated below the belts where the surface vortices (not linear winds), constrained by the solid surface of Jupiter, join and the horizontal winds are minimal. 

(h) The J6 = 34.4 is due to the canonical jet stream in the equatoril zone, the high winds of which prevent the heavy aerosols from settling to the surface.

Fig. 4 Possible magnetic field anomalies suggested early in the Juno mission.

The odd numbered tesseral E-W harmonics J3 , J5 , J7, J9  are currently believed by Juno scientists to mark ‘flows’ in the interior since the gas giant hypothesis does not allow permanent features. Now that Juno has completed 15 passes, there is sufficient data lapping in the gravity and magnetic fields to show that the supposed ‘flows’ have not moved or changed shape. This problem is not being directly addressed out in papers, but as more data is collected to fill in between the earlier passes, this problem is becoming more and more difficult for the ‘gas giant’ hypothesis to explain. Cyclic catastrophism explains that these features are huge craters formed by the impacts out of which Venus was recently created (50,000 km east of the GRS) and Mars and the Earth billions of years ago. The impact craters were obviosly huge but would have been filled in by water, but not enough to attain the planetary datum. They would produce both gravity and magnetic field anomalies because of the total mass lost in each event. The dust particles settling on the surface would also have effected the magnetic field in the same zones.

Note: See  Jupiter’s magnetic field.