The Capture of the Moon

•February 16, 2009 • 4 Comments

Astrophysicists generally believe that the Moon formed in orbit some four billion years ago when a planet-sized body crashed into the Earth and a portion of the ejected material coalesced, gradually drifting out to its current orbit. But several ancient records imply that the Moon was not always present.

In Job 25:5 the grandeur of the Lord who “makes peace in the heights” is praised and the time is mentioned “before (there was) a moon and it did not shine.” referring to the effect of capturing the Moon. Also in Psalm 72:5 it is said: “Thou wast feared since (the time of) the sun and before (the time of) the moon, a generation of generations.

Based on these references, cyclic catastrophism posits that the Moon was captured into its present orbit during the Younger Dryas (YD), which is dated typically from 12,700 and 11,500 years Before the Present (BP). Although the onset and conclusion of the YD involved major changes on the Earth, there is evidence of a number of intermediary encounters during the YD, each of which may have contributed to the reduction of the Moons orbit.

The ‘capture theory’ has been discounted by modern astrophysicists, using the argument that there is no mechanism by which the high velocity of the passing Moon could be reduced sufficiently for it to be captured. However, the cyclic catastrophism scenario, drawn from ancient texts of many cultures and the Bible, make very clear just such a mechanism. Every one of more than one hundred close planetary encounters that occurred during the Bronze and Iron ages involved reorientations of the spin axis of the lithosphere of the Earth. These provide an explanation for the earlier capture of the Moon.

Massive bodies approaching the Earth tidally ‘lock on’ to a large mass anomaly on the mantle, such as the uplifted ‘Tibetan-Himalayan’ complex. Because the mantle ‘floats’ on a several-hundred-kilometer depth of the liquid outer core, the asthenosphere, its motion is completely isolated from the mantle and the solid iron core from which the magnetic field of the Earth originates. This is clear from modern deep seismic measurements that show that the lithosphere and mantle are currently revolving at different rates about unique axes.

As the fast moving Moon, or perhaps the Moon and its primary, swept by the Earth it tidally locked onto the Tibetan-Himalayan complex and impulsively torqued the lithosphere of the Earth so that, without changing its rotation rate, its spin axis was inverted ~180 degrees. The energy expended in shifting the spin axis of the lithosphere acted as an angular-momentum/energy ‘sink’ reducing the Moon’s velocity and enabling its capture. Consistent with this picture, the onset of the YD occurred so rapidly that the Greenland Ice Cores (GRIP) do not resolve it. The onset was characterized by a known, sudden drop in temperature of 10 °C, based on trapped atmospheric oxygen isotope ratios, the proxy for temperature.

This rapid inversion of the lithosphere caused the oceans to flow from their basins across entire continents at 1000 km/hr. Deposits of many millions of dead animals around the world have been dated to this period. A number of species became extinct at that date and great deposits of  bodies have been found lying broken and twisted with those of extant animals. These deposits were immediately covered and soft tissue preserved in a way that can only be explained by the immediate deposition of ocean-floor sediments. Paleontologists wonder at the way in which many bodies, even those of giant mammoths, were torn apart. This was the result of the ocean’s sweeping across the land, described in one ancient account as carrying millions of massive tumbling boulders before it – like the teeth of a giant monster. Moreover, animals normally found only in temperate climates were found quick frozen, indicating that the mantle shift had suddenly cast them from a summer to a winter habitat.

Atmospheric methane rapidly increased immediately after the 1,300-year YD  due to its release from gas hydrates formerly retained within ocean beds. Fluctuations in the electrical conductivity of GISP2 ice on the scale of <5-20 years have revealed rapid changes in the dust content of the atmosphere during the YD. This ‘flickering’ was due to volcanic eruptions triggered by additional perigee passes of the Moon which occurred during the YD, each of which probably contributed to the reduction of its orbit. The termination of the YD, characterized by a sudden increase in temperature, is called the YD/Holocene transition, marking the beginning of the warm geologic period in which we live. This second inversion of the lithosphere required a lesser impulse because the present orientation of the lithosphere, rotating in the same sense as the mantle is the more stable. The very stable temperatures we have experienced since that transition are an unmistakable indication of the stabilizing effect of the Moon in its current orbit. In contrast, the ice ages, which characterized the period prior to the YD onset, exemplified the instability of the Earth’s spin axis prior to the acquisition of the Moon. The slower increase in atmospheric methane which occurred after the YD/Holocene transition, was due primarily to the establishment of much more abundant  animal life in the new, warmer climate. A lesser release from the ocean beds at that date might be expected due to a lack of recovery time for the gas hydrates after being completely depleted at the onset of the YD.

The capture of the Moon was not a random event. It was an essential part of Yehovah’s great plan for the rejuvenation of the Earth and the establishing of mankind. The Hebrew Torah even describes the event as the matching of the Moon with the Sun, referring to the ‘coincidence’ that both the Sun and the Moon subtend exactly the same angle as seen from the Earth. This was done so that their combined tidal effect would cause the greatest possible internal convulsions within priori-Mars when it orbited geostationary above Mt. Kailas, enabling its entire atmosphere, oceans, crust and the seeds of innumerable flora to be blasted across the 33,000 km to the Earth during the Vedic Period, 3687 to 687 BC.

The ancient historian, Herodotus, related his conversations with Egyptian priests on his visit to Egypt some time during the second half of the fifth century before the present era. Concluding the history of their people, the priests told him that the period following their first king covered three hundred and forty-one generations, and Herodotus calculated that, three generations being equal to a century, the whole period was over eleven thousand years, coinciding with dates of the Younger Dryas. The priests asserted that within historical ages and since Egypt became a kingdom, “four times in this period (so they told me) the Sun rose contrary to his wont; twice he rose where he now sets, and twice he set where he now rises.” In the cyclic catastrophism scenario the second pair of inversions of the lithosphere were due to close encounters of proto-Venus with the Earth after its explosive birth out of Jupiter 6,000 years ago. t is truly amazing that these monumental events have escaped the ken of the modern mind. But this is just another example of Yehovah’s great power – Gen 3:7 “ … [He that] shutteth and no man openeth; … ” It is only as we approach the ‘end times’ that His greatest miracle, on behalf of mankind is finally being revealed.

Sunspots ala CyclicCatastrophism (Update)

•November 22, 2017 • Comments Off on Sunspots ala CyclicCatastrophism (Update)

Fig. 1 Fifty years of constant Sun observation. Credit: NAOJ/Nagoya University/JAXA

This post is a response to “Variation of the Solar Microwave Spectrum in the Last Half Century”, Masumi Shimojo et al.  Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848, Number 1. The abstract states: “… we found that the microwave spectra at the solar minima of Cycles 20–24 agree with each other. These results show that the average atmospheric structure above the upper chromosphere in the quiet-Sun has not varied for half a century, and suggest that the energy input for atmospheric heating from the sub-photosphere to the corona have not changed in the quiet-Sun despite significantly differing strengths of magnetic activity in the last five solar cycles.”

See Figure 1.

Cyclic Catastrophism

Fig. 2 ‘comet’ 67P, a Juno asteroid, 533 kg/m,3 dimensions 4.34 km × 2.60 km × 2.12 km

The number of posts concerning sun spots on this site can be seen simply by entering clicking here . The reason for this interest is the link between the sun spots and the impact on Jupiter out of which proto-Venus was created 6,000 years ago. The fusion explosion ‘left behind’ on Jupiter was manifested as a two-million km plume, known as Juno, which could be seen rotating left and right every nine hours for thousands of years and was therefore imagined to be Zeus’ shield (Aegis) used in combat. The birth of Venus proved that Jupiter comprises the full range of the known solar system abundances distributed evenly throughout its solid, methane gas hydrate body and the material ejected by the plume had the same composition. The longevity of the plume, now manifest as the Great Red Spot, 6,000 years later, proves that Jupiter is highly deuterated. As the plume material cooled, condensed and solidified, small plastic pieces, travelling in similar directions, combined (splatted) to form grotesque, black, low density, strangely tough bodies, exemplified by 67P Churymov-Gerasiemento (Figure 2). Many millions of these were ejected throughout the solar system due to the vector sum of Jupiter’s orbital velocity 13.7 km/s and its rapid spin, some 12 km/s, forming all of the main-belt and Kuiper belt asteroids. One obvious class of these Juno asteroids are the Trojans, of which there are known to be more than a million ‘orbiting’ at Jupiter’s Lagrange points. One class of these Juno asteroids has been invisible to astronomers until recently, the Kreutz sungrazers. The sun-staring probes, SOHO and STEREO, have observed over 2,500 of these asteroids dissappearing into the Sun since 1995 and several hundred more are now known to be in exactly the same orbit, approaching the sun from below the ecliptic plane, because they were ejected from 22 degrees S Latitude, the location of the Great Red Spot.

Sun Spots

Fig. 3  Sun Spot Butterfly diagram (top) shows latitude of spots versus date within each cycle.

What is currently known as the solar, or sun spot cycle, has a period of ~11 years, close to that of Jupiter’s orbital period (Figure 3). Each ‘butterfly’ cycle begins with spots at high north and south latitudes because the Kreutz orbit is inclined and slightly eccentric due to the inclination and eccentricity of Jupiter’s orbit at the times of the ejections. The spots are symmetrically located (N-S) because those bodies which impact on the approach are coming from the south and if they just miss the Sun, they pass through the ecliptic, then impact on the north of the far side. For short periods between the active periods (the butterflys) the Kreutz orbit fails to hit the sun, allowing observations of the undisturbed solar surface, which is the subject of the cited paper, then the next 11-year-cycle begins (Figure 1).

Despite the SOHO and STEREO observations, that none of the Kreutz

Fig. 4 Polarity reversal at of Suns Magnetic Field at sunspot max (top and bottom)

sungrazers have survived their Sun encounters, solar scientists insist that they are not the cause of sunspots, partly because their coal-like color results in the underestimation of their masses, and scientists assume they are composed of water ice. Perhaps the most important reason is that the sunspots can be seen to be magnetically polarized  by studying the iron spectra within them. Even more deceptive, the spots are polarized in the direction opposite to the sun’s magnetic field at the beginning of each active period. To complicate the picture, the magnetic field of the sun reverses at the peak of each cycle, as shown in Figure 4 at top and bottom. Because of these magnetic ‘anomalies’ the scientists believe the spots are generated by the magnetic field deep within the Sun. The additional facts which corroborate the cyclic catastrophism hypothesis are: (a) the sunspots are several thousand degrees cooler than the normal surface; (b) always exhibit the spectrum of iron and water; and (c) based upon Doppler shifts are plunging into the Sun at 30,000 km/hr.

Due to the variation of the active periods, the cited paper notes with surprise that in the four quiescent periods between four active sun spot periods, the microwave radiation from the Sun has been exactly the same: ” …  that the average atmospheric structure above the upper chromosphere in the quiet-Sun has not varied for half a century, and suggest that the energy input for atmospheric heating from the sub-photosphere to the corona have not changed in the quiet-Sun… despite significantly differing strengths of magnetic activity in the last five solar cycles.”

Magnetic Features of the Juno Asteroids

The 67P-like, Juno asteroids condensed and crystalized from the hot plume while still within the enormous magetic field of Jupiter. As they approached the Sun they became oriented opposite the sun’s magnetic field. As a result, they strike the surface of the sun oriented opposite the existing solar magnetic field direction.  The impacts of the large number of reverse-oriented Juno asteroids at the peak of each cycle is sufficient to reorient the observed magnetic field of the entire Sun. This proves that the field is a superficial, surface aspect of the sun, due only to the explosive impact on Jupiter ~ 6,000 years BP. This view is supported by the observations noted in the cited paper, that the good old, constant sun lies beneath the influx of Juno asteroids and will be there for millions of more years.

Composition of the Sun

The currently accepted composition of the Sun has been effected by the events of cyclic catastrophism in two ways. The Juno asteroids have disguised the composition of the solar interior, evidenced by the emission lines from the photosphere. Secondly, during the same period innumerable small rocky/iron bodies blasted from Mars when it orbited the Earth 3687 to 687 BC, are continually falling into the corona, or atmosphere of the Sun, which is 200 solar radii from the visible surface. The UV radiation from these impacts has, until recently, been interpreted as temperature of the entire layer at millions of degrees, but since the impacts have been telescopically resolved, they have been labeled nanoflares. But solar scientists still believe that the nanoflares are being shot upward 200 solar radii by the magnetic field of the Sun.

This results in another misinterpretion, that the Fraunhofer, or absorption spectra, due to the elements in these small bodies deposited in the corona, give information on the composition of the Sun itself. Further, the similarities of the absorption spectra with the non-volatile elements in meteorites on Earth has led to the idea that the entire solar system formed from meteorites.

1 Peter 2:12  Having your conversation honest among the Gentiles: that, whereas they speak against you as evildoers, they may by your good works, which they shall behold, glorify God in the day of visitation.

 

 

 

Castle Deep in Lake Van

•November 19, 2017 • Comments Off on Castle Deep in Lake Van

Castle Beneath Lake Van

Fig. 1.  Lake Van Turkey in which the ruins of 3,000-year old castle have been found

As discussed in previous posts, the planet sometimes called priori-Mars in earlier posts, i.e. Mars before it finally lost its solid core, Mercury, in 687 BC, was captured in a geostationary orbit above Mt. Kailas one hundred times for 14.4 years and escaped into a planetary orbit crossing that of the Earth for 15.6 years (Figure 2.). Therefore, these cycles were each 30 years long. ‘Scientists’ scoff at this, because it is a miracle far beyond their ability to explain using the laws of physics, which this author has done. Cyclic Catastrophism, the subject of this blog site, explains it in the context of a complete resurfacing and rebuilding of the continents of the Earth for mankind, which resulted in the ‘collateral’ reorganization of the inner solar system. The denial of this intervention into the world has led science into the dead-ends of evolution of human beings from apes, gradualism in geology, uniformitarianism  in planetary science and the arrogance of astrophysicists bragging that they can fathom the creation of the universe in a small

Fig. 2. Orbits of Earth, Mars and proto-Venus between Mars’ geostationary encounters geostationary encounters showing capture and release points.

amount of radiation they call the Cosmic Microwave Background. which wais actually generated by the impact on Jupiter 6,000 years ago, out of which Venus was born, currently being reflected back to the Earth from dust in space. The cosmic encounters that were required to accomplish this great change in the Earth provide profound knowledge of the physics for those who dare to pull their heads out of the proverbial sand of ‘consensus science’.  Earth is not a simple pale-blue, ordinary, dot, but a unique place in the universe. Is there intelligent life in the universe? You bet! But it is not in humankind. It has been demonstrated lavishly to our ancestors in the last 6,000 years, the observations of which have been passed down through ancient texts.

These captures and releases of priori-Mars, between 3687 and 687 BC, affected the Earth in many ways. It drew waters to form a stationary flood 5,000 meters high surrounding the Tibetan-Himalayan complex and covering northern India, Indra’s ‘home on Earth’. the flood waters were called the samudra or ‘confluence of waters’, mentioned hundreds of times in the Rg Veda,  The water was drawn horizontally, not lifted vertically, from the periphery of the spherical ‘cap’ centered at Mt. Kailas, emptying the Mediterranian, Red, Caspian, North seas, and lake Van for  14.4 years at a time, called a kalpa in the RgVeda. The repeated desiccations were the cause of the ‘Messinian Salinity Crisis’ and the records of human life found beneath the North Sea. The east-west flooding across the Eurasian Continent at the captures and releases of Mars, resulted in the invention of a salty Tethys ocean currently believed to have separated Laurasia and Gondwanda over 65 million years ago. In response to the floods, the pyraramids, tells and ziggurats were built around the world and the tidal effect made it possible for Akhenaten to build a city at Amarna in normally arid eastern Egypt. Geologists should understand that the orbiting priori-Mars, locked onto the Tibetan-Himalayan Complex, caused the entire lithosphere of the Earth, as a single unit, to rotate in a different direction and speed than the mantle of the Earth (tidal drag), allowing fresh lava to rise up into the continents and cool slowly to raise great masses of granite to float them higher and eliminate vast areas covered with shallow seas like the north american continent. Geologists have found incontrovertable evidence of this motion of the entire lithosphere, but cannot explain it in the currently accepted gradualism paradigm. The slowing of the Earth’s rotation during these cycles resulted in the need for two calendars of 360 and 365.25 during this 3,000-years period. Indeed, the 360 days per year allows the calculation of the speed difference of the lithosphere versus the mantle, during each kalpa. The entire foundations of life previously on priori-Mars when it was in an interior orbit, were blasted to the Earth from hundreds of volcanoes in its northern hemisphere by convulsions in its interior caused by alignments with the Moon, and greater ones when aligned with the Moon and Sun, which as stated in the Hebrew Torah, were matched intentionally to provide the maximum tidal effect on priori-Mars at the vernal equinox and solar and lunar eclipses.

The tidal drag of priori-Mars on the lithosphere also demonstrates how the Moon was captured, which happened during the Younger Dryas, resulting in the stabilization of the Earth and the initiation of the Holocene era.

 Isaiah 65:17 For, behold, I create new heavens and a new earth: and the former shall not be remembered, nor come into mind. …

1 Corinthians 3:18-19 Let no man deceive himself. If any man among you seemeth to be wise in this world, let him become a fool, that he may be wise. For the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God. For it is written, He taketh the wise in their own craftiness.

 

The Mystery of Jupiter’s Clouds

•November 12, 2017 • Comments Off on The Mystery of Jupiter’s Clouds

Fig. 1. Jupiter clouds which remain unidentified

Most people do not realize that the various colored clouds which cover the entire giant planet Jupiter are still a mystery. The first probe that reached the vicinity of Jupiter was Pioneer 10 in 3 Dec. 1973, roughly 34 years ago.  Since that mission another 12 missions have visited the giant, each carrying a different complement of instruments. Juno, currently orbiting Jupiter, has made eight close passes to refine the data of earlier missions without explaining the makeup of the clouds.

Planetary scientists still believe that the giant planets comprise 90% hydrogen and 10% helium, however, this assumption is being seriously challenged by the Juno gravitational, magnetic field and energetic particle data. Admittedly, nothing about the planet is turning out to be what they expected. This science has been plagued by the ‘gas giant’ assumption, with monumental steps being taken to make the data fit the the hypothetical model, rather than trying to understand their implications. The uniformitarion paradigm is the only one used to interpret data from every planet in the solar system.

Spectrometers can determine gaseous molecules by studying the spectral lines due to their chemical reactions or radiation emitted when high energy particles impact them. Molecules radiate more spectral lines in infrared spectrum when the air molecules impact one another due to collisions with other atoms. However, particulate aerosols suspended in an atmosphere, like volcanic clouds and smoke, usually <1 μm (micron), only radiate in broad spectral regions, seen as different colors, which do not enable the determination of their elemental composition.

Based on the ‘gas giant’ hypothesis, scientists predicted three distinct layers: ammonia, ammonium sulfide and water molecules.  Since ammonia has not been identified, the hypothesis has been changed to ammonia ice, i.e. particles, suspended in the upper atmosphere. The colors of the clouds are now thought to be caused by aerosols “probably the result of subtle chemical reactions of the trace elements in Jupiter’s atmosphere”. The gases that have been definitely identified are water and methane, but the amount of water is less than expected, leading to an estimated low amount of oxygen.

The Cyclic Catastrophism paradigm posits that Jupiter is a highly deuteraed, solid, low density Methane Gas Hydrate (MGH) body which formed cold in a Large Dark Nebula (LDN) where it incorporated the abundances of all the known elements in the solar system. MGH is a known clathrate,  in which twelve or more water molecules form cages which physically encapsulate foreign atoms and molecules. Ancient texts of numerous cultures describe the birth of Venus out of the head of Jupiter, roughly 6,000-years BP (Before the Present). These ‘myths’ are telling the modern era, via cyclic catastrophism, what actually took place recently before their eyes in the heavens, much of it close above the Earth. The conclusions drawn from these seemingly simple myths reveal the true nature of every planet in the solar system.

Fig. 2 The expanded incandescent Jupiter and the plume, known as Juno.

The impact explosion from which Venus was born, triggered a fusion reaction on Jupiter, called Juno, which has diminished for 6,000 years, but still drives all the features we observe on Jupiter. As it burns, the heat releases the entire range of elements trapped in the local area. The elements react to form unique compounds in the high temperature around the fusion reaction, producing particulate aerosols as the hot vortex rises to the surface and cools, appearing as the Great Red Spot. These particulate clouds being continuously formed from the entire range of known elements, form the clouds of Jupiter. One good example is CS, carbon sulfide, which forms tiny red crystals as it cools. These crystals are what makes the GRS red. CS is also present in the high temperature lower atmosphere of Venus, still unrecognized by planetary scientists.

Amazingly, planetary scientists do not know that all the known elements are present in enormous numbers in and on Jupiter, most distributed throughout the entire planet,

Fig. 3 Shoemaker-Levy 9 Impacts on Jupiter.

but over the last 6,000-years vast numbers have been cast into the atmosphere and have settled to the surface. Many heavy elements were revealed by the impacts of the larger Shoemaker-Levy 9 fragments on the solid surface of Jupiter, which caused fusion explosions, the rising mushroom clouds from which produced the ‘main events’ more than six minutes after they entered the atmosphere.

All of the giant planets are known to have methane in their atmospheres. This has never been satisfactorily explained. Its presence becomes obvious when we note their nominal composition, Methane Gas Hydrate, is (CH4)4(H2O)23. Therefore methane, which does not condense, is continuously being released by the fusion burning on Jupiter and by any comets that impact on the surfaces of the other giants.. Water is also released but as it rises in the hot vortex it combines with many of the heavy elements producing compounds that become unrecognizable aerosols and that which does not form complex compounds, condenses and falls as rain to the surface of Jupiter forming an ice mountain range which I have predicted lies to the east of the GRS at 22 deg. S. Latitude. The Juno gravity instrument should detect this feature.

2 Peter 3:5-7 For this they willingly are ignorant of, that by the word of God the heavens were of old, and the earth standing out of the water and in the water: Whereby the world that then was, being overflowed with water, perished. But the heavens and the earth, which are now, by the same word are kept in store, reserved unto fire against the day of judgement and perdition of ungodly men.

 

 

 

Undetectable Helium Ions on Jupiter?

•November 3, 2017 • Comments Off on Undetectable Helium Ions on Jupiter?

Fig.1 JEDI ion summary for PJ1 showing Time of Flight through the instrument as a function of energy from Solid State Devices. The energy distribution tentatively marked Mg/Na by JEDI team, is “off the chart”.

As discussed in a recent post, the Juno JEDI data for PJ1 revealed a large number of particles with a unique high energy distribution, which is consistent with the origin of Jupiter’s energy proposed on this site, a continuous nuclear fusion reaction on the surface, producing 1030 high energy helium ion/isotopes per second. This post explains why the Juno JEDI instrument is not identifying these particles correctly.

The sequence of reactions thought to power the Sun are:

  • p + p -> d + e+ + v     (p is proton, e+ is a positron and v is a neutrino)
  • p + d -> 3He+ + γ       (d is deuteron, γ  gamma ray and 3He+ is an isotope of helium)
  • 3He  + 3He -> 4He + p + p

This process is thought to be initiated by the fusion of two protons, or hydrogen nuclei, which requires a very high pressure and temperature (velocity) to overcome the mutual Coulomb repulsion. However, Jupiter (and the Sun?) formed highly deuterated, therefore, the first reaction is not necessary, leading to the second step, usually written   p + d -> 3He+ + γ , which can take place at the lowest temperature of any nuclear fusion, e.g. the temperature on the surface of Jupiter. The containment is maintained by the high atmospheric pressure, perhaps in a depression, on the solid surface of Jupiter, at ~800 km below the cloud-tops. The low temperature on the Methane Gas Hydrate Jupiter eliminates the third step in the solar process because the  3He+ isotopes cannot fuse. As a result, a stream of high energy (9 MeV) 3He+ isotopes are produced, the circulation of which constitutes an electric current. This is one of the few aneutronic fusion reactions known. Instead of generating heat from dangerous neutrons, it produces a direct current, if the positive ions can be controlled. The literature shows the fusion of a proton and a deuteron producing 3He+, implying the helium ions produced are singly charged. Considerable theoretical work has been done on the  3He+, giving the wavelength of a ground-state transition as 3.46 cm. These singly charged light helium isotopes are stable, having been found in gases rising from the Earth.

What is ignored in the literature is that nuclear fusion reactions must produce nuclear particles, not atoms with electrons. Thus the reaction on Jupiter is producing 1030 doubly ionized helium isotopes, 3He++, all in the same high energy state. However, these are not stable and can capture an electron to form the stable  3He+. Although their high energy distribution is recognized, (marked in Figure 1 as Mg/Na), I maintain that the double charge is preventing the JEDI ion detector from measuring the Time of Flight (TOF) correctly, thereby misidentifying the ions. The acquisition of an electron, changing 3He++ to 3He+ would take place rapidly in a laboratory environment, so it has never been noted, but cannot happen to the continuous, concentrated stream of  1030  ions per second being generated on Jupiter. Moving at 20,000 km/s, these doubly charged 3He++ isotopes/ions which form the inner radiation belt and the auroral ovals, are lost or return to Jupiter in less than twenty seconds because the system is in equilibrium. As a result, they are the species which are encountered by Juno, and misidentified, because the TOF measured by the JEDI ion detector is incorrect.

This also explains the fact that uncountable numbers of stable, high energy 3He+ ions have been identified by earlier missions. Ulysses, Cassini, and the Galileo orbiter at great distances from Jupiter, identified ‘storms’ of stable high energy helium ions 3Hebecause they had been dispersed through the enormous clouds of electrons surrounding Jupiter. Although close to Jupiter, the Galileo atmospheric probe identified large numbers of high energy helium ions, 3He+ “of unknown origin” because some of the  3He++ ions captured electrons as they passed through the massive atmospheric heat shield, which had not yet been ejected and thereby became identifiable.

To see a world in a grain of sand, And a heaven in a wild flower, Hold infinity in the palm of your hand, And eternity in an hour.

– William Blake

More on Juno MWR Ammonia (Update)

•October 13, 2017 • Comments Off on More on Juno MWR Ammonia (Update)

Fig. 1. Aligned IR, visible photographs & MWR ‘ammonia’ in the cloud-free, North Equatorial Zone, best seen in the IR image.

Juno MWR scientists claim their radiometers are measuring an ammonia concentration near the equator of Jupiter and a depletion at all other latitudes.  A paper: “The distribution of ammonia on Jupiter from a preliminary inversion of Juno microwave radiometer data” by Li, Ingersoll, Janssen, Levin, Bolton et al. concludes as follows: “We have assumed that ammonia and water are well mixed below a sufficiently deep level in Jovian atmosphere. Finding a special place on Jupiter that resembles an ideal adiabat allows us to connect the deep abundances to shallow levels where they are measured by the Juno MWR … the EZ is a candidate for such a special place. An ideal adiabat with deep ammonia abundance of 350 ppm matches the measured brightness temperatures of channels 1, 2, and 3 but overestimates those of channels 4 and 5 by about 20 K. This discrepancy suggests that ammonia is more concentrated in the upper atmosphere than the uniformly mixed deep layers, probably due to the reevaporation of precipitated ammonia.”…  “The map of ammonia concentration was derived by assuming that there is no lateral temperature gradient on the equipotential surface, because both numerical simulations [e.g., Kaspi et al., 2009; Schneider and Liu, 2009] and infrared observations [e.g., Simon-Miller et al., 2006] suggest that lateral temperature differences could be weak (less than 10 K). If a large temperature contrast across equipotential surface are realized, as proposed by Allison [2000], they could imply some revision to our preliminary retrieval of the distribution of ammonia.”

The equipotential surface referred to is the equatorial zone (EZ) of Jupiter, the southern half of which is filled with aerosols while the northern half is clear (Figure 1, IR image). The MWR observations are referenced to an altitude of 0.5 bars. Because the MWR is thought to measure the absorption of IR radiation by ammonia, the calculated ammonia concentration increases shown are determined by the decreases in the brightness temperature in each channel. 

Fig. 2  Vortical surface winds showing eastward equatorial jet stream north of GRS. Coriolis becomes vertical at equator combining with the centrifugal force preventing vortical propagation of aerosols to North Equatorial Zone.

The Methane Gas Hydrate Model

A large temperature contrast across the Equatorial Zone is exactly what is proposed in the Methane Gas Hydrate Jupiter paper (Figure 2). A continuous fusion reaction of protons with deuterium on the surface of Jupiter, less than 800 km below the cloud-tops produces heat in the form of the kinetic energy of doubly ionized helium nuclei with only one neutron:

                                             p + d -> 3He++                                   (1)

These rise westward in the form of a vortex (Coriolis) of 1030/s, 9MeV,  3He++ ions,  to the Great Red Spot due to Jupiter’s rapid rotation, generating a westward surface vortex (yellow) which encircles the planet.  This, in turn, spawns secondary surface vortices of opposite chirality and direction to its north and south.  The fast 3He++ ions delineate the primary vortex, exit the planet via the Great Red Spot, and form the inner radiation belt which is the source of Jupiter’s magnetic field. The clouds in the surface vortices are formed by the high temperature reactions of the full range of known solar system elements, as oxides, sulfides, sulfates, carbonites and carbonates, being released from the methane gas hydrate by the heat of the fusion reaction, which crystallize as the vortex rises and expands. Because of this complex elemental makeup, the compounds comprising the visible clouds have never been identified. Juno scientists, lacking any positive detection of ammonia, suggest that they might be ‘ammonia snow’.

Fig. 3. MWR channel 1 at top, low temperature at top. Arrows mark low temp of rising aerosols at equator.

Generally, the ‘top’ of each vortex is currently termed a ‘zone’, while the converging areas between vortices, alternately ascending and descending, are called belts. However, the surface vortex comprising the eastward moving, south equatorial zone, north of the main vortex (yellow) is prevented from spawning a vortex to its north because the Coriolis effect becomes vertical at the equator, adding to the centrifugal force due to the rapid rotation of Jupiter, causing the aerosols to rise vertically forming clouds, as shown in the visible image (center) of Figure 1, Figure 2 and as low temperature spikes in the MWR used in the cited paper (Figure 3).  This prevents the aerosols from being carried across the equator, resulting in an aerosol-free, north equatorial zone, as shown in the IR image (left) in Figure 1 and the low temperature from 0 to 5 degrees north in Figure 3. Since clouds are not present, the lower temperature radiation in this zone is from the solid methane gas hydrate surface of the planet, approximately 800 km below the cloud-tops.

The Figures 1 (IR), 2, and 3 show the apparent hot-spots at the northern edge of the equatorial zone (NEB) which correspond to large visible clouds in visible range photo (middle).  In the Li paper, this radiation is described as:

“The positive brightness temperature anomaly in the North Equatorial Belt (NEB) at 10–20°N is the other prominent feature in the spectra; it can be interpreted as a significantly low concentration of ammonia. The high brightness temperature in the NEB in channels 5 and 6 is consistent with ground-based observations [Bjoraker et al., 2015; Fletcher et al., 2016]. The largest temperature anomaly is on the southern side of the NEB at shallow depth, and then it gradually shifts to the northern side of the NEB at greater depth. The slope change in the spectra was never expected or observed before. Although the NEB and the South Equatorial Belt (SEB) look similar in both the visible images and the infrared images at 5 μm [Orton et al., 2017], they are very different in the microwave spectrum. The brightness temperature anomaly in the NEB continues to 50–60 bars, while the brightness temperature anomaly in the SEB diminishes at about 10 bars. This huge north-south asymmetry is also not expected.” They interpret this hot-spot as strongly ammonia depleted, shown as the  blue area of Figure 1.

 

Fig. 4. Galileo Probe entry point (circled), directly north of fusion reaction.

In the solid Methane Gas Hydrate Jupiter hypothesis, the fusion source, which heats the entire planet and is the source of Jupiter’s magnetic field and auroral ovals, is on the surface, 800 km below the cloud-tops at 22 deg. S. Latitude (Figure 4). Although the primary source of energy from it is the kinetic energy of the 3He++ ions rising toward the Great Red Spot, the gamma radiation (γ) in equation (1 above) on the surface heats the immediate area, radiating in all directions.  Some of this radiation passes through the clear zone discussed above and is reflected upward by the clouds shown in the visible image in Figure 1, and seen in IR as hot-spots. Amazingly, the Galileo Atmospheric Probe entered the brightest of these spots, directly north of the fusion reaction, circled in a photo on the cover of Science Magazine, 10 May, 1996, by a Galileo scientist (Glenn Orten?), which featured the first detailed results of that mission. As a result, this reflected radiation spectrum, mentioned in the Li paper above, is quite different from the near-surface radiation of the South Equatorial Belt. This is the same hot-spot which the Juno MicroWave Radiometer scientists interpret as being mysteriously depleted in ammonia.

The Methane Gas Hydrate hypothesis predicts that Jupiter is ~80% water by weight. The water detected by the Galileo probe was released by the heat of the fusion reaction, and rains out of the hot vortex as it rises and expands. This leads to the suggestion that a linear mountain range on the surface extends thousands of km eastward from the Great Red Spot at 22 deg. S Latitude. This may have been observed by Juno gravity and MWR on PJ 7 which passed over the GRS.

The article refers several times to: ” the ammonia abundance range given by Galileo Probe Mass Sprectrometer.” which entered Jupiter’s atmosphere in the clear zone. It measured methane, water, argon, neon, and hydrogen sulfide and detected krypton and xenon. However, Ammonia was not detected, only inferred from the attenuation of the sunlight, in order to justify the gas giant hypothesis.

Romans 12:2 And be not conformed to this world: but be ye transformed by the renewing of your mind, that ye may prove what is that good, and acceptable, and perfect, will of God.

 

 

 

 

 

Mars – Earth Connections

•October 7, 2017 • Comments Off on Mars – Earth Connections

Mars close to the Earth

Fig. 1 UV image of solar corona, indicating temperatures of millions of degrees.

As discussed in a number of previous posts, Mars became captured in a geostationary orbit 36,000 km above Mt. Kailas, in the TransHimalayas, for 14.4 years and then was released into a planetary orbit for 15.6 years. This 30-year cycle was repeated one hundred times between 3687 and 687 BC, and observed by one hundred generations of mankind who incorporated observations of these events in ancient texts. In the Rig Veda the capture periods were called kalpas and ‘days of Brahma‘. In Egyptian myth they were called ‘inundations‘ due to the tidal effect of Mars (Horus on the Horizon), which drew the Nile waters across eastern Egypt, increasing the fertility there.

During each kalpa, Mars exerted a continuous tidal effect on the Deccan Traps volcanism, drawing the subsurface asthenosphere rock upward producing an additional 20-meter thick layer, ‘traps’ meaning steps. Therefore, the Deccan Traps represent a geological clock covering approximately 3000 to 687 BC, herein dubbed the Vedic Period. It is impossible to drill through the many layers of the Deccan Traps. Instead, different provinces have been dated, where older sections of the traps are exposed. This has proven difficult for several reasons. Most significantly, theTrap’ rocks do not give the ancient dates that geologists expected, because they are less than 6,000 years old. Geologists maintain that potassium-argon, (K-Ar), dating does not work because the isotope ratios of argon in the atmosphere have changed. That is true, because the entire atmosphere of the Earth changed during the Vedic Period due to the influx of the entire Martian atmosphere.

To overcome this apparent obstacle, geologists have reverted to using the thin layers of material between the actual steps, called ‘separates’, assuming it is also of earthly origin. But these thin layers comprise material from Mars which fell from the atmosphere between kalpas. Although the (U-Pb) in zircons in the separates have a wide range of ages, those with the ages supporting the hypothetical Cenezoic period are chosen, thereby justifying the age of deepest layers of the Deccan Traps at 66 million years BP. The ‘separate’layers are proof that there was significant time between each of the one hundred rock layers.

During each kalpa, Mars exerted a ‘tidal drag’ on the lithosphere, causing it to revolve at a different rate than the mantle of the Earth. This provided a continuous source of lava from the asthenosphere for each basalt layer of the traps.  The lava that formed the Deccan Traps rose up in the Indian Ocean, the silicate material dissolved in the water and the rapid cooling produced tiny crystals, characteristic of basalt, a mafic rock. The same lava rising up beneath the continents around the world, where shallow seas existed, retained the silicates and cooled slowly forming the most beautiful felsic rock, granite, which, amazingly, exists only on the continents of the planet Earth. The less dense granite, lightens the continents  so they float higher providing more space for life. These amazing events all happened in the last 6,000 years, while mankind watched.

Rocks (maruts) and soil (waves of red dust carried by Vayu) were blasted to the Earth from hundreds of Martian volcanoes, covering the Earth, along with them the oceans, atmosphere, and biosphere, as Soma and manna. The material blasted from Mars now comprises the upper 10 to 50 km of the Earth’s crust. It includes stony, stony-iron, nickel-iron and rare earth elements – that comprise terrestrial planets. Despite this fact, geologists believe that all meteorites on Earth are from ‘asteroids’ except for a few that have oxygen isotope ratios similar to those measured by the Viking landers on Mars and a few breccias thought to be from lunar impacts.  In the cyclic catastrophism scenario, Mars was changing rapidly in the last 6,000 years, so the isotope ratios changed throughout the Vedic Period.

Innumerable rocks blasted from Mars during this period are orbiting invisibly in the inner solar system. Many are still falling to Earth, but even more are falling into the Sun at high velocities. Having relatively low masses, they are vaporized in the solar atmosphere, producing the solar corona. The high velocities of these bodies produce localized UV emissions which, because most of the ‘impacts’ are not optically resolved, have led to the generalization that the solar corona has a temperature of millions of degrees, determined primarily by the presence of UV emissions from highly ionized states of iron. The high temperature of the corona constitutes a major question in solar physics because astronomers have no idea of the innumerable rock bodies recently blasted into the inner solar system. The current view is “The high temperatures require energy to be carried from the solar interior to the corona by non-thermal processes, because the second law of thermodynamics prevents heat from flowing directly from the solar photosphere (surface), which is at about 5800 K, to the much hotter corona at about 1 to 3 MK (parts of the corona can even reach 10 MK)”.

The elements in the bodies impacting the corona are the source of the Fraunhofer absorption spectra and are currently interpreted as representing the elemental composition of the Sun. Moreover, the similarity of the solar absorption spectra to the composition of meteorites on Earth has led to the current belief that the Earth was formed from meteoritic material, originating from ancient, even pre-solar asteroids, mainly from the asteroid belt. Cyclic Catastrophism explains that there are only two types of asteroids: (1) large rocks blasted from Mars, known as Near Earth Asteroids, including short period comets, which are just near-surface rocks containing aquifers; (2) Those formed by the fusion plume from Jupiter in the last 6,000 years. The one example seen close-up, by the ESA Rosetta mission, ‘comet’ 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko.  Both classes of asteroids were produced in the last 6,000 years.

Relative Motion of Lithosphere

There are two complimentary global features on Earth that attest to the events which occurred in the Vedic Period. They are both due to the ‘tidal drag’ of Mars when it orbited close to the Earth. To their credit, modern geologists have uncovered the evidence shown in Figures 2 and 4, however, they have no idea of the cosmic events described in the ancient texts, which define an entirely new paradigm governing the recent history of the Earth and the solar system.

Fig. 2 Central Canada rapid isostatic recovery.

The first feature underlines the fact that no seasonal variations occurred on the Earth during each kalpa. The raised Himalayan-Tibetan complex acted as a ‘handle’ controlling the entire lithosphere, so when Mars, orbiting in the ecliptic plane became tidally bound to this great uplift, Mt. Kailas (31⁰ N. Lat.), was forced to remain on a temporary equator in the ecliptic plane for 14.4 years at a time. This established a temporary north pole during each of these periods, 31 ⁰ Lat from the north pole in what is now Central Canada. Unlike the north pole today, which receives some sunlight because the pole of the Earth is normally oriented toward Polaris, the temporary pole was normal to the ecliptic plane and received no sunlight during each kalpa. As a result, an enormous continental glacier, as high as 9,000 feet formed and melted 100 times at this location during the Vedic Period.

Modern-day geophysical measurements show that the Earth’s crust at this location is still experiencing the most rapid isostatic rebound on Earth, 10 mm/year, due to the cessation of this process only 2,700 years BP. Geologists assume that this continental glacier existed before 21,000 BP, during the ‘ice age’, but given the previously accepted nominal time required for complete isostatic recovery of ten thousand years, the glacier must have been in place much more recently. Desperate to explain this discrepancy, geologists have invoked a new hypothesis called ‘delayed isostatic rebound’.

Fig. 3. Rhythmic Touchet Beds on Earth

The one hundred formations and meltings of this glacier produced a number of other well-known geological features in North America, including the formation of the Great Lakes and floods from Glacial Lake Missoula and Lake Bonneville that deposited one hundred equally thick sedimentary layers in the Walla Walla valley. There are many ‘rythmic’, equally thick layers on both the Earth and Mars.

Fig. 4. Present-day motion of lithosphere revealing motion during kalpas. Mt. Kailas (red), Temporary North pole (blue).

The second, even more definitive feature shows the westward path of the lithosphere relative to the mantle during the kalpas. The velocity of the lithosphere, which was 24 km/h during the kalpas, has decreased to 1.7 cm/y in the last 2,700 years since Mars was released, but still accurately depicts the direction and global extent of the motion during the Vedic Period. Figure 4 shows the path of the highest velocity (the longest arrows) passing through the Mt. Kailas area, marked by this author in red. The path is described (disguised?) by geologists as a ‘toroidal field of degree 1’, but it is exactly the great circle that resulted from Mt. Kailas being forced to remain in the ecliptic plane. Note also that the north pole indicated by this motion is exactly at the location of the glaciation discussed above, in Central Canada (marked in blue).

Job 38:  4 Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth? declare, if thou hast understanding.

Job 38: 8 Or who shut up the sea with doors, when it brake forth, as if it had issued out of the womb?

Job 38: 11 And said, Hitherto shalt thou come, but no further: and here shall thy proud waves be stayed?

 

Juno Jupiter Mystery (Update2)

•September 28, 2017 • Comments Off on Juno Jupiter Mystery (Update2)

The Current State of JUNO

The lead scientist, Dr. Scott Bolton, admits essentially that Jupiter is not a gas giant, stating ” We’re seeing a lot of our ideas were incorrect Continue reading ‘Juno Jupiter Mystery (Update2)’