More on Juno MWR Ammonia (Update)

•October 13, 2017 • Comments Off on More on Juno MWR Ammonia (Update)

Fig. 1. Aligned IR, visible photographs & MWR ‘ammonia’ in the cloud-free, North Equatorial Zone, best seen in the IR image.

Juno scientists, desperate to find evidence that Jupiter is a hot ‘gas giant’ planet, have been searching for signs of predicted ammonia in the atmosphere for twenty years. After ten Juno passes, they have not been successful and claim that ammonia may be present as ammonia snow in the highest altitude clouds.

Despite the lack of physical evidence for ammonia, seventeen scientists, have allowed their names to be associated with a paper which  ‘inverts’ Jupiter’s global ammonia distribution assuming a prescribed temperature profile. Although the MWR radiometers were intended to measure temperatures, the signals from its radiometers are not being used in this way, rather a prescribed temperature profile is assumed, thus the term ‘invert’. This process utilizes regularization, a statistical technique combined with Markov chain Monte Carlo, meant to give preference to a desired solution even though it is opposite to the obvious physical measurements. Not surprisingly, this ‘analysis’ results in a completely non-physical conclusion, depicted graphically in Figure 1 (right), suggesting that the ammonia within Jupiter is concentrated in a single thin ‘pancake’ (red) layer just north of the equator and that the immediately adjacent North Equatorial Zone (NEZ) is completely depleted in ammonia (blue).

The authors claim ammonia “… is the main opacity source”, citing a deep ammonia abundance spanning the Galileo Probe Mass Spectrometer (GPMS) limits of 566 ± 216 ppm (9–11 bars). In fact, the Galileo probe mass spectrometer did not detect any ammonia. Its presence was inferred from reductions of sunlight as the probe descended. They further divide Jupiter’s atmosphere into two moist and one dry adiabatic layers, stating that “The ideal adiabatic atmosphere is dry adiabatic up to the base of the water cloud”, but the predicted ‘water cloud’ was also not detected.

In an attempt to hedge on this this ‘inversion’ process, the authors state  “Variations in brightness temperature are interpreted as variations in ammonia rather than variations in physical temperature because otherwise the winds would be an order of magnitude larger than those observed. Thus, the MWR measures the distribution of ammonia below the weather layer.”

Fig. 2. Inverted data (low temp at top) from MRW channels with cold peaks interpreted as ammonia, marked by arrows.

As explained in a number of previous posts on the MGH Jupiter, the multiple zonal wind bands are actually vortices constrained beneath by the solid surface. There is no other explanation of the multiple bands, evidenced by the fact that they have never been explained in the ‘scientific’ journals. As a result of the solid surface, the Coriolis effect dominates the alternating east-west flowing bands. This is further proven at the center of the EZ where the reversal of the Coriolis effect prevents the warm aerosol clouds in the SEZ from propagating into the NEZ by combining with the centrifugal force and raising them vertically (Figure 3). The resulting cooler temperature of the raised clouds exactly at Jupiter’s equator (Figure 2) were detected by the MWR but, based on the ‘inversion’ analysis, were interpreted as the non-physical ammonia pancake. The cold peaks from the raised clouds, shown in channels 2 and 3 are marked by arrows which this author has added in Figure 2.  Despite the images Fig. 1 visible (middle), the colder temperatures (Fig. 2.) and slower observed velocities, not a single NASA scientist has ever recognized that the clouds at the equator are raised several as much as ~100 km.
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The clear NEZ allows observation of radiation from deep in the atmosphere. The ‘regularization study’ interprets this as a complete absence of ammonia, shown as blue in Figure 1 (right). Consistent with the entire ‘regularization’ inversion, the lower temperatures are at the top of Figure 2.

Hot Spots

Some IR energy from the fusion reaction and the hot helion vortex (Figure 3) extending to the Great Red Spot, passes north beneath the EZ and is reflected upward from the long east-west periodic clouds in the NEB (Figure 1 middle), known for the last twenty years as hot-spots. As expected in the MGH hypothesis, these display different spectra than that observed in the clear NEZ.

The disputed paper, “The distribution of ammonia on Jupiter from a preliminary inversion of Juno microwave radiometer data” by Li, Ingersoll, Janssen, Levin, Bolton et al. includes several statements hedging their methods and conclusions:  “The map of ammonia concentration was derived by assuming that there is no lateral temperature gradient on the equipotential surface [i.e.], because both numerical simulations [e.g., Kaspi et al., 2009; Schneider and Liu, 2009] and infrared observations [e.g., Simon-Miller et al., 2006] suggest that lateral temperature differences could be weak (less than 10 K). If a large temperature contrast across equipotential surface are realized, as proposed by Allison [2000], they could imply some revision to our preliminary retrieval of the distribution of ammonia.” The first statement of this quote is illustrated by the fact that the cold peak originally in the channel 1 data has been removed.

The equipotential surface referred to is the equatorial zone (EZ) of Jupiter, the southern half of which is filled with crystalline aerosols while the northern half is clear (Figure 1, IR image). The MWR observations are referenced to an altitude of 0.5 bars. Because the MWR is thought to measure the absorption of IR radiation by ammonia, the calculated ammonia concentration increases shown are determined by the decreases in the brightness temperature in each channel. 

Fig. 3.  Vortical surface winds showing eastward equatorial jet stream north of GRS. Coriolis becomes vertical at equator combining with the centrifugal force preventing vortical propagation of aerosols to North Equatorial Zone.

The Methane Gas Hydrate Model

A large temperature contrast between the SEZ and NEZ is exactly what is proposed in the Methane Gas Hydrate hypothesis, but erased in the cited paper (Figure 2). A continuous fusion reaction of protons with deuterium on the surface of Jupiter, less than 800 km below the cloud-tops produces heat in the form of the kinetic energy of bare nuclei of a light isotope of helium nuclei (helions) with only one neutron:

         p + d -> 3He++ + 4.98 MeV              (1)

These rise westward in the form of a vortex (Coriolis) of 1032/s, 4.98 MeV,  helions,  to the Great Red Spot due to Jupiter’s rapid rotation, generating a westward surface vortex (yellow) which encircles the planet.  This, in turn, spawns secondary surface vortices of opposite chirality and direction to its north and south.  The fast helions delineate the primary vortex, exit the planet via the Great Red Spot, and drive all the known features of Jupiter, producing what is currently known as ‘the inner radiation belt’ which is the source of Jupiter’s magnetic field. The clouds in the surface vortices are formed by the high temperature reactions of the full range of known solar system elements, as oxides, sulfides, sulfates, carbonites and carbonates, being released from the methane gas hydrate by the heat of the fusion reaction, which crystallize as the vortex rises and expands. Because of this complex elemental makeup, the compounds comprising the visible clouds have never been identified. Juno scientists, lacking any positive detection of ammonia, suggest that they might be ‘ammonia snow’.

Figure 1 (IR), shows the apparent hot-spots at the northern edge of the equatorial zone (NEB) which correspond to large visible clouds in visible range photo (middle).  In the Li paper, this radiation is described as:

“The positive brightness temperature anomaly in the North Equatorial Belt (NEB) at 10–20°N is the other prominent feature in the spectra; it can be interpreted as a significantly low concentration of ammonia. The high brightness temperature in the NEB in channels 5 and 6 is consistent with ground-based observations [Bjoraker et al., 2015; Fletcher et al., 2016]. The largest temperature anomaly is on the southern side of the NEB at shallow depth, and then it gradually shifts to the northern side of the NEB at greater depth. The slope change in the spectra was never expected or observed before. Although the NEB and the South Equatorial Belt (SEB) look similar in both the visible images and the infrared images at 5 μm [Orton et al., 2017], they are very different in the microwave spectrum. The brightness temperature anomaly in the NEB continues to 50–60 bars, while the brightness temperature anomaly in the SEB diminishes at about 10 bars. This huge north-south asymmetry is also not expected.” They interpret this hot-spot as strongly ammonia depleted, shown as the  blue area of Figure 1.

 

Fig. 4. Galileo Probe entry point (circled), directly north of fusion reaction.

This slope change in the spectra across the NEZ proves the Methane Gas Hydrate hypothesis. Amazingly, the Galileo Atmospheric Probe entered the brightest of these spots, directly north of the fusion reaction, circled in a photo on the cover of Science Magazine, 10 May, 1996, by a Galileo scientist (Glenn Orten?), which featured the first detailed results of that mission.

Romans 12:2 And be not conformed to this world: but be ye transformed by the renewing of your mind, that ye may prove what is that good, and acceptable, and perfect, will of God.

 

 

 

 

 

Sunspots not from Solar Interior (Updated)

•February 10, 2018 • Comments Off on Sunspots not from Solar Interior (Updated)

Fig. 1. A sunspot caused by the impact of a Kreutz sungrazing asteroid, 2000 C cooler than the photosphere. Umbra, containing water and iron is moving inward at 3,000 km/hr.

Until about 20 years ago, helio-scientists believed sunspots were caused by some mysterious magnetic process within the Sun that has periods of about eleven years, because they could not conceive of a regular rain of bodies crashing into the Sun. Then SOHO, STEREO and other Sun-staring satellites observed over 3,000 such bodies, called Kreutz sungrazers, all in the same unique orbit, every one of which disappeared into the Sun.  These are referred to as ‘comets’, because when they get close to the Sun, they leave trails, but none have been observed in the vicinity of the Earth. Although comets are imagined to comprise solely water, no such bodies have ever been observed close-up. When approached by probes, every one of them has displayed a solid core. Comets are merely ‘leaking’ asteroids. Despite the observations of over 3,000 of these bodies disappearing into the Sun, hundreds of papers are being written attempting to explain the magnetic process within the Sun which creates the sunspots. Based on the number of these sungrazers being continually imaged, thousands of these asteroids are passing above and below the ecliptic where the Earth is located and are not revealing themselves.

The > 3,000 Kreutz sungrazers are unique in ways that were not known until  2014, when the Rosetta mission approached and orbited ‘comet’ 67P C-G. Although this body emitted a few streaks of gas, it was never visible from Earth, except by powerful telescopes and thousands more are circulating unobserved. The belief that it was just water ice, because of its low density 0.5 g/cm3, the popular image of icy ‘comets’, was disproved when Rosetta’s 200 lb. lander  Philae, equipped with spikes that were supposed to penetrate the ice and become locked on the surface, failed to penetrate and Philae bounced off the surface. This is the same tough stuff that comprises all asteroids. Rosetta images of 67P belie its low reflected radiance, only 4% of the incident light. The brightness of the Kreutz tails as they approach the Sun are used to estimate their mass, assuming they are pure water ice, and when they become invisible the ‘comet’ is imagined to have been consumed before impact. But they all have the same composition as 67P, which is obviously much tougher than water ice. That assumption leads to estimates  of their diameters of several meters. However, 67P, was measured to be about 4 km in diameter. Images acquired by Rosetta show only a few thin streams of vapor – nothing like what would produce a large tail.

Another pertinent factor about the 3,000+ Kreutz sungrazers is that not a single one survived their close encounters with the Sun. This is well illustrated by a NASA video constructed using data from several Sun staring satellites. Despite this, astronomers claim that these ‘comets’ are not the cause of sunspots, because of their estimated size.  Attempts to explain their origin as the result of the break-up of large comets thousands of years ago are futile, since all the fragments would be placed in different orbits. The 3,000 Kreutz sungrazers in exactly the same orbit dismisses this argument.

Cyclic Catastrophism

Infra-Red Jupiter
The Great Red Spot on the left and fusion reaction on the right

CC explains the origin of all asteroids, except those that pass close to the Earth, as having been formed from an enormous plasma plume at the site of an impact 6,000 years ago, out of which the still-hot proto-Venus was born. The site of the impact is still present on Jupiter, 50,000 km east of the great Red Spot. Because the impact was at 22 degrees S Lat. all of the material ejected in this plume went into inclined orbits. Thus all the asteroids that formed from it are the ones still in inclined orbits.

Fig. 2. ‘Comet’ 67P described as a Jupiter family asteroid, which impact the surface of the Sun causing sunspots.

Because the plume was originally hot gas, the ejected material cooled and stuck together, condensed and froze in weightlessness, forming bodies of very low density. The fact that these impacts are the mechanism for the creation of the terrestrial planets, e.g. Venus, proves that Jupiter contains the known element abundances on the Earth and so do the asteroids ejected. As the material was blasted out into space the smaller pieces, all moving in the same general directions, splatted and stuck to one another, producing the textures seen in images of 67P (Figure 2.). Also important in the context of the sunspots, these bodies formed while still within the powerful magnetic field of Jupiter and became permanently magnetized.

Because of the rapid rotation of Jupiter, every eight or nine hours, the plume shot material throughout the entire solar system for almost 6,000 years. A conservative estimate of one asteroid per hour over only 5,000 years would be (5000 years x 24 x 365) gives ~44 million asteroids, but the splatting into larger sizes, like Pluto, and many impacts on the outer planets, which changed their obliquities,  has decreased the number.  The rapid rotation of Jupiter, the velocity of the ejection, plus the orbital velocity of Jupiter, when combined, was sufficient to eject bodies into the outer solar system, many bombarding Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto, but when the rotation of the plume site was opposed to the orbital velocity, the asteroids were directed into the inner solar system. At one such moment in each rotation, three per Earth day for 5,000 years (5.5 million), a potential Kreutz sungrazer was launched. Fortunately, they were launched well south of the ecliptic, passing ‘below’ the Earth (ecliptic) on the way to the Sun and ‘above’ the Earth on their return. This explains the unique inclinations of the Kreutz sungrazers, between  144 and 139 degrees. The velocity imparted by the fast rotation of Jupiter when the plume was directed toward the Sun ejected the sungrazers into retrograde orbits, but general relativistic effects undoubtedly have had a strong effect on their orbits because of their proximity to the Sun.

Fig. 3. The ‘butterfly’sunspot cycle, top

As their original orbits have decayed they continuously approach the Sun. The 11 year periodicity of the sunspots matches the orbital period of Jupiter, meaning that the orbits of the many potential sungrazers are offset from the Sun due to the eccentricity and inclination of Jupiter’s orbit. The butterfly diagram (Figure 3.), in which each period begins at high latitudes and progresses toward the equator shows the influence of the Jupiter’s inclination throughout its orbit and the 22 S lat. from which they were launched. The symmetry in north and south impacts is due to the perihelion point being close to the ecliptic. Approaching sungrazers hit in the south latitudes of the Sun while those which pass through perihelion cross the ecliptic and hit at comparable north latitudes.

Fig. 4. Sunspots show the impacting asteroids are breaking up.

The primary reason for the current interpretation of the sunspots as coming from within the Sun is the result of the sunspots being magnetically polarized, based on the spectrum of iron in their umbras.  This is due to the fact that the sungrazers became permanently magnetized when they formed from the gaseous plume near Jupiter. Thus, as they approach the Sun they become oriented opposite to its existing magnetic field. This is why the magnetic field of the Sun becomes reversed at the maximum, because the opposing flux of the incident asteroids overcomes the existing field. This shows that the magnetic field of the Sun is only a superficial aspect, observed at solar minimums, will disappear when the sungrazers peter out.A recent paper reveals that despite the variability of the intensity of sunspots from cycle to cycle, the solar radiation between cycles has remained unchanged over the last ten cycles.

Sunspots are not clean and well defined. Each one is surrounded by many smaller spots due to particles which broke off as it entered the thicker solar atmosphere. Also the axis of circulation of the magnetic field-generating particles is several tens of degrees away from the actual rotation of the Sun.

The obvious effects of the sungrazer impacts are: that the material in the umbras of sunspots is known to be moving downward into the Sun at 3,000 km/hr and large amounts of both water and iron are detectable within them and nowhere else in the photosphere, the bright surface of the Sun.

The impacts of the non-volatile materials within each sungrazer splashes solar surface material resulting in the solar flares, some of which reach as far as the Earth. Although these pose some problems to modern technology, these also supply heat to the Earth as evidenced by the ‘little ice age’ which resulted from dearths of sunspots known as the Spörer Minimum (1450–1540) and the Maunder Minimum (1645–1715). Also unknown to modern science, the pulses of incoming positive and negative charged particles pump up the magnetic field of the Earth which originates in superconducting areas in the solid core of the Earth

If you are unaware, you are unaware of being unaware
Leon Festinger  Theory of Cognitive Dissonance  1957

Jupiter & Saturn – Gas Giants?

•February 5, 2018 • Comments Off on Jupiter & Saturn – Gas Giants?

Fig. 1. The band of Jupiter’s atmosphere wrapped around its equator, increases its apparent equatorial diameter.

In addition to their low densities, planetary scientists believe Jupiter and Saturn are ‘gas giants’ because of their oblatness. However, cyclic catastrophism explains their high oblatnesses in the context of their highly deuterated Methane Gas Hydrate composition (MGH). Oblatness O = (equatorial diameter (DE) – polar diameter (DP))/ (equatorial diameter (DE)). The oblatenesses of the outer planets are:

Jupiter =  0.06487,  Saturn  =  0.09796,  Uranus =  0.02293,  Neptune = 0.01708,  Pluto =  0.0000

The difference between the high oblateness of Jupiter and Saturn versus Uranus, Neptune and Pluto has resulted in planetary scientists deciding that the former are ‘gas giants’ and the other three ‘ice giants’. However, they are all ice giants – methane gas hydrate (MGH) is a form of ice which forms in the presence of ample methane.  The impact on Jupiter 6,000 years BP is what made both Jupiter and Saturn appear to be gaseous.

Jupiter

Fig. 2 IR image of Jupiter
with Great Red Spot on the left and the fusion source on the right.

A fusion reaction, in which protons and deuterons fuse to produce bare nuclei of a light isotope of  helium, called a helion, with a kinetic energy of 5 MeV (expressed as  p + d  → 3He+++ 4.98 MeV), marked by the Great Red Spot 50,000 km to the west, is continuously forming the visible atmosphere of Jupiter. The local heat of the fusion reaction is releasing the full range of the known elements enclosed in the clathrate MGH. Planetary scientists have only identified a few, such as nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur, which they believe are from comets that impacted Jupiter. Why are the normal elements not seen? Because they form high-temperature compounds in the hot vortex of 1032 helions/second rising to the Great Red Spot, which we do not usually find in Earth-like conditions. As the vortex rises and cools these compounds condense and crystallize forming solid particulate aerosols, which are carried upward within the vortex formed by the helions and sprayed out into the upper atmosphere, consistent with the Galileo atmospheric probe findings that the atmosphere above the cloud-tops is denser and warmer than ‘expected’. One such compound is CS (carbon sulfide) which forms tiny red crystals, causes the red tints and colors the GRS. These aerosols form the tinted clouds we see, Jupiter’s Jujitsu Belt, which cannot be identified by spectroscopy. ‘Gas giant’ scientists claim that the clouds are forms of ammonia snow.

This visible atmosphere is continuously being manufactured by the ongoing fusion reaction and the released aerosols are continuously settling to the surface. JunoCam has revealed that these clouds only extend as far north and south to ~70 degrees latitude, probably because they are kept aloft partially by the centrifugal force of Jupiter’s rapid rotation. Poleward of this limit, JunoCam reveals the true solid surface of Jupiter, with cyclones revolving about low pressure centers, as on Earth, accentuated by the much greater Coriolis effect on Jupiter. This rotation is opposite from that of the Great Red Spot, which is not a storm. Since the fusion reaction was stronger in the past, a strip of desert-like terrain covered with atmospheric particles can be seen just poleward of the Jiu Jitsu belt. Also, because the fusion reaction, the origin of the tinted aerosol atmosphere, the Great Red Spot, is at 22 degrees South Latitude, the atmosphere extends further south than north (Figure 3.), and the south pole area is probably warmer than the north.

Saturn

Fig. 3. ‘Comet’ 67P, is actually a ‘Juno asteroid’ many millions of which are present throughout the solar system, the largest is Pluto.

A slowly declining fusion reaction in the crater of the enormous impact explosion on Jupiter 6,000 years ago has ejected an uncountable number of bodies into all parts of the solar system. Many millions of these comprise the main asteroid belt, the Kuiper belt, the Jupiter trojans and the Kreutz sungrazers. These were formed from a hot fusion plume on Jupiter in a weightless environment and condense into low density bodies., one example of which is ‘comet’ 67 P Churyumov Gerasiamento.  They are are not comets, but asteroids, comprising the complete abundance of solar system elements which, because they are moving with similar velocities and directions, ‘splat’ and adhere forming larger bodies, as observed in 67P.

Fig. 4. NASA Cassini probe imaged ‘spokes’ showing new material still being blasted from Saturn into the rings.

Since Saturn is the closest massive planet to Jupiter, it has been bombarded with thousands of these asteroids in the last 6,000 years. The solid body of Saturn also comprises highly deuterated Methane Gas Hydrate so these impacts on its surface produced fusion explosions similar to those produced by the impacts of the larger Shoemaker-Levy 9 fragments on Jupiter, although modern science does not yet realize that fusion explosions were involved (REF). These blast material into the air, primarily water, increasing the thickness of the atmosphere, and into space, adding to the rings to this day. Scientists, judging Saturn’s diameter by the cloud-tops, calculate its oblateness using the enormously expanded equatorial diameter, andcalculate a a very low density of Saturn, (δ=0.7), much less than MGH (δ=0.9), because they believe it is a gaseous planet.

Images of Saturn captured by the Cassini probe (Figure 4), actually show shadows of new material recently blasted into space by the impacts of Jupiter asteroids on its surface. Most of the mass blasted from the surface is slowed by the thick atmosphere and inflates it even further, giving it the highest oblateness of all the planets in the solar system.

 

 

Amazing – Jupiter’s Polar Oceans

•January 31, 2018 • Comments Off on Amazing – Jupiter’s Polar Oceans

The Juno chief scientist, Scott Bolton, described his amazement when the first images of Jupiter’s polar regions by JunoCam were released. “I couldn’t believe it, the poles are blue !” Given the previous posts here on the Methane Gas Hydrate (MGH) makeup of the giant planets and the role of a (almost) hidden fusion reaction, the reason for this became obvious. The vortex of 1028/s high energy (4.98 MeV) helions which produce the auroral ovals and the heavy elements within the vortex which produce the poleward flashes, warm the

Fig.2. JIRAM IR image of Southern Aurora showing the heat and penetration of the vortex of helions in Jupiter’s southern auroral oval.

polar areas, or ‘polar caps’, as indicated by IR images of the south pole as shown in Figure 2. Since MGH is mostly water, (CH4)4(H2O )23 , the heat ‘melts’ the top layer, releasing the methane and leaving water on the surface. As a result, Jupiter’s polar zones are covered with the largest oceans in the solar system, a fact beautifully revealed by the simplest instrument on board Juno. How deep this ocean is will have to wait until a probe can be landed on Jupiter – one that floats.

Astronauts will eventually land on Jupiter. Although it is massive, its large radius produces a g-force that is only 2.6 times that on the Earth. The radiation at the poles presently may be too great for manned exploration, but the fusion reaction driving the entire system is declining and when it is extinguished, the Great Red Spot will disappear, the atmosphere, currently bloated between ~70 degree latitudes, will settle to the surface, the magnetic field will dramatically decline, except for the weak permanent field in the interior and the planet will begin cooling down.

Scott Bolton has already given up trying to interpret the Juno data in terms of the consensus ‘gas giant’ hypothesis and is proposing an entire billion dollar fleet of new probes to swarm the planet to collect more data in the next 50 years. But this is not necessary, because the answers are all right here and more formally in my scientific papers.

There is no such thing as consensus science. If it’s consensus, it isn’t science. If it’s science, it isn’t consensus. Period.”
― Michael Crichton

1 Cor 2:6-7 We do, however, speak a message of wisdom among the mature, but not the wisdom of this age or the rules of this age, who are coming to nought. No, we speak of God’s secret wisdom that has been hidden and that God destined for our glory before time began. 

Jupiter’s Jiu Jitsu Belt

•January 17, 2018 • Comments Off on Jupiter’s Jiu Jitsu Belt

Fig. 1. Jupiter south pole mosaic revealing the true surface of the planet and the clouds which form a wide belt at lower latitudes.

JunoCam has revealed an amazing feature of Jupiter’s atmosphere, easily visible now to the whole world, but unrecognized by planetary scientists, who have the very unscientific habit of deciding what the probes will reveal before they receive the first data. As explained in many previous posts, Juno data is clearly indicating that Jupiter is a solid, low density  (d = 1.33 g/cm3) planet, slightly more dense than pure methane gas hydrate (MGH) (d= 0.9 g/cm3), due to the encapsulated heavy elements. Before Juno sent back its first data, all we had seen were the colored, banded clouds. Surprisingly, the simplest instrument, JunoCam, included primarily to add to the popularity of the mission, giving the ‘citizen scientists’ a chance to participate, has produced the most profound view, which proves the MGH concept.

All ancient texts describe the creation of Venus from the head of Jupiter. This dates a huge impact on Jupiter at approximately 6,000-years BP (ago), but demonstrates how the other terrestrial planets, including the Earth were produced, and reveals that the full range of elements we have on Earth came from Jupiter. MGH is a known clathrate, which physically encloses all kinds of foreign particles in cages of twelve or more water molecules. In keeping with the known abundances of the elements, H > O > C, the nominal composition of MGH is (CH4)4(H2O )23 , with lesser numbers of all the other elements. In complete contrast, scientists today believe Jupiter is 90% hydrogen and 10% helium, hoping that more oxygen (water) is somehow hidden deep in a dense core, which Juno gravity measurements have proven, does not exist.

Fig. 2. The expanded incandescent Jupiter and the plume, known as Juno in Roman myth.

The Venus impact triggered a flaming nuclear fusion reaction on the surface of Jupiter, because the MGH formed in a very cold (50 K) dark nebula, many of which are known to have very large amounts of heavy hydrogen (deuterium). The fusing of deuterium with protons exponentially increased the energy of the impact – that is the only way terrestrial planets could have formed. This impact left behind on the surface of Jupiter a visible, radioactive plume, called Juno in Roman myth, originally shooting out as far as Callisto and rotating every eight hours with Jupiter (Figure 2). In myth Juno was said to be peering through the veil with which Jupiter had surrounded himself. The plume has gradually declined but the fusion reaction, p + d -> 3He++, still burns on the solid surface some 700 km below the cloud-tops, producing 1030/second of these 4.98 MeV helions (3He++), which form an expanding vortex due to the Coriolis effect, that exits through the Great Red Spot and, as explained in previous posts, heats the planet, drives the multiple, zonal wind bands and creates the magnetic field of Jupiter.

But, to the point of this epistle, the fusion reaction is continuously forming the visible atmosphere of Jupiter. The local heat of the fusion reaction releases the full range of the known elements enclosed in the clathrate MGH. Planetary scientists have only identified a few, such as nitrogen, oxygen and sulfur, which they believe are from comets that impacted Jupiter. Why are the normal elements not seen? Because they form high-temperature compounds in the hot vortex which we do not usually find in Earth-like conditions. As the vortex rises and cools these compounds condense, and crystallize forming solid particulate aerosols, which are carried upward within the vortex formed by the helions and sprayed out into the upper atmosphere, consistent with early findings that the atmosphere above the cloud-tops is denser and warmer than ‘expected’. One such compound is CS (carbon sulfide) which causes the red tints and colors the GRS. These aerosols form the tinted clouds we see, Jupiter’s Jujitsu Belt, which cannot be identified by spectroscopy. ‘Gas giant’ scientists want to believe the clouds are forms of ammonia snow.

Fig. 3. The Northern exposure of Jupiter’s surface extends to lower latitudes than the Southern.

This visible atmosphere is continuously being manufactured by the ongoing fusion reaction and the released aerosols are continuously settling to the surface. JunoCam has revealed that these clouds only extend as far north and south to ~70 degrees latitude, probably because they are kept aloft partially by the centrifugal force of Jupiter’s rapid rotation. Poleward of this limit, JunoCam reveals the true solid surface of Jupiter, with cyclones revolving about low pressure centers, as on Earth, accentuated by the much greater Coriolis effect on Jupiter. This rotation is opposite from that of the Great Red Spot, which is not a storm. Since the fusion reaction was stronger in the past, a strip of desert-like terrain covered with atmospheric particles can be seen just poleward of the Jiu Jitsu belt. Also, because the fusion reaction, the origin of the tinted aerosol atmosphere, the Great Red Spot, is at 22 degrees South Latitude, the atmosphere extends further south than north (Figure 3.), and the south pole area is probably warmer than the north.

1 Cor 1:27-29 KJV  But God hath chosen the foolish things of the world to confound the wise; and God hath chosen the weak things of the world to confound the mighty: and base things of the world and things that are despised, hath God chosen, yea, and things which are not, to bring to nought things that are: That no flesh should glory in His presence. [so that none may boast before Him]. 

Jupiter’s UV Aurora

•December 30, 2017 • Comments Off on Jupiter’s UV Aurora

Fig. 2 Yellow is main stream of helions which produce the magnetic field of Jupiter. Blue are the vortical streams deflected to the poles.

As discussed in a recent post, Jupiter is a solid, highly deuterated, Methane Gas Hydrate (clathrate) body, density of 1.33 g/cm3 incorporating the full complement of known solar system elements. The terrestrial planets were each formed by unique impacts on Jupiter, the most recent of which was proto-Venus, which currently comprises only the heavy elements which will become the mantle and core of the planet. This impact left behind a continuous fusion reaction at the point of impact on Jupiter, which has slowly declined over the past 6,000 years to a single reaction, usually written.

                                             p + d -> 3He+ + γ                                                                      (1)

As reasoned in a previous post and below, the author maintains this is not the correct form of the reaction, which should be written:

                                                    p + d -> 3He++                                                                       (2)

Fig. 2. JIRAM IR image of Southern Aurora

The energy produced by this aneutronic reaction is solely in the kinetic energy of 1032 helions per second, 4.98 MeV, with velocities of 17,800 km/s on the MGH surface of Jupiter, 50,000 km east of the Great Red Spot.  These nucleons swirl in a vortex, due to the Coriolis effect (proportional to their velocity and the rapid rotation of Jupiter), exit the atmosphere via the Great Red Spot and circulate prograde (yellow in Figure 1) around the planet. This circulation of doubly charged helions generates the unusual magnetodisk magnetic field of Jupiter. The field is powerful because it is produced in space, not shielded within the planet.

The circulating helions are lost to space as fast as they are produced  after circling Jupiter a few times (~60 seconds). Due to their high concentration, most have no chance of encountering electrons during this period. The Energetic Particle Instruments on Ulysses, Cassini, and the Galileo orbiter detected ‘storms’ of high energy, electrically charged ‘dust particles’ at great distances from Jupiter. Juno encountered these same high energy particles on its way to Jupiter,  when their impacts on the solar panels splashed glowing secondary particles through the field of view of the star telescopes used for measuring the orientation of the magnetometer. These observations suggest that the helions (3He++) lost were dispersed through the enormous clouds of electrons in the outer reaches of the Jupiter system, where they became the stable 3He+. Although close to Jupiter, the Galileo atmospheric probe identified large numbers of high energy helium ions, 3He+, “of unknown origin” because the helions captured electrons and were slowed down as they passed through the massive atmospheric heat shield, which had not yet been ejected, thereby becoming identifiable.were detected

Fig.3 UV images of North and South auroral ovals.

Just above the GRS some of the helions penetrate the circulating cloud and become captured helically in the magnetic field (blue in Figure 1). These comprise two powerful vortices which impact at the poles. The high velocities (17,800 km/s) of the 4.98 MeV helions nucleons ensure powerful impacts in the atmosphere, producing the deep auroral ovals. The depth to which these ions penetrate the atmosphere is illustrated in the JIRAM images taken in the H3 band (Figure 2). However, the most energetic radiation from the auroral ovals, is in the Ultra Violet, evidenced by many analyses by the Hubble space telescope. The Juno UltraViolet Imaging Spectrometer, encompassing the H II bands (Lyman, Werner, and Rydberg) and H Ly  α bands, produced the image in Figure 4 and measured the auroral power at 3 – 5 Tw (Terrawatts).  Some of the heavy elements released by the heat of the fusion reaction are carried within the rising vortex as ions with much lesser velocities. The impacts of these produce the intermittent brightenings that are observed interior to the UV ovals.

The Origin of the UltraViolet Auroras

The vortical flow of ~ 1028 /s  helions impacting around Jupiter’s poles, with velocities as high as 17,800 km/sec, produces a Ly α UV continuum with an edge at 228 Å, produced by the capture of electrons as they enter the atmosphere.  This edge is at much shorter wavelengths than the hydrogen Ly α UV, the edge of which is at 700 Å.  This higher energy UV radiation from Jupiter’s aurora was detected in 1989, but interpreted as Doppler (blue) shifted H Ly α. [Clark et al., Doppler Shifted H Ly α Emission from Jupiter’s Aurora, GRL v. 16, N. 6, 1989.] The auroral UV radiation on Jupiter is currently thought to be from methane, because methane absorption bands obscure some of the radiation, but methane is not its origin.

The ovals are ‘permanent’ because the fusion reaction is continuous. The southern auroral oval is more circular than the northern one because the ion path from the GRS, at 22 º S. Lat., is shorter. As shown in Figure 1, the vortical streams move prograde in longitude as they flow to the poles due to the angular momentum imparted to them by the rotation of Jupiter.  As a result, the longitude offsets of the north and south auroral ovals are slightly different. The distortion of the northern oval in NASA videos reveals that it moves with the rotation of Jupiter because the geographical reference longitudes added are from System III, which is defined by the location of the Great Red Spot. This gives the impression that the magnetic field is generated in the interior, but it is not.

Note: The radiation due to the capture of electrons by 3He++  is incorrectly attributed to a γ emission in the common form of the nuclear reaction (1).

This day before dawn, I ascended a hill and looked at the crowded heaven. And I said to my spirit ‘When we become the enfolders of these orbs, and the pleasure and knowledge of everything in them, shall we be filled and satisfied then? And my spirit said ‘No, we level that lift to pass and continue beyond.’                                            Walt Whitman, Leaves of Grass

Saturn;s Young Rings

•December 22, 2017 • Comments Off on Saturn;s Young Rings

Fig. 1. Fireball from impact triggered fusion explosion

An article at Nature.com titled “Saturn’s Young Rings” (20 December 2017) , touts a presentation at the Fall Meeting of the AGU, based on the gravitational effect of the rings measured by analyses of the Cassini probe orbits. The researchers claim that this force is not strong enough to retain the rings. Using the data they calculate that the rings are young, only 100 to 200 million years old!

Although the rings are known to be primairily water ice, modern academia has not advanced an acceptable origin of all this ice, since the current hypothesis is that Jupiter and Saturn are 90% hydrogen and 10% helium. The leading hypothesis is that two comets, or a comet and a satellite collided inside the Roche limit and the pieces ended up forming the rings. No concern is offered as to the similarity in the sizes of the ice particles or their even distribution.

Cyclic Catastrophism

The new hypothesis presented herein contends that the entire solar system we observe, and experience today, was completely reformed in the last 6,000 years – including Saturn’s rings. The most fundamental aspect of this work is based on the hypothesis that Saturn and Jupiter are solid,  highly deuterated, methane gas hydrate bodies, which comprise about 80% water, meaning that together the two giant planets comprise 300 Earth-masses of water. When small bodies like Shoemaker-Levy 9 impact Saturn they produce fusion explosions which eject surface material – some heavy elements but primarily water into space which freezes to form the rings and that this has been occurring for the last 6,000 years. Evidence for such impacts has been visible in the last few decades, in the form of ‘white spots’ >10,000 km wide, which appear suddenly at the top of the clouds and become swept completely around the planet for months at the top of Saturn’s atmosphere (Figure 1), interpreted in the current paradigm as ‘large storms‘.

In fact, thousands of these impacts triggering fusion explosions have pounded Saturn in the last 6,000 years. The impacts have also resulted in the temperature excess and the apparent diameter of the planet, due to the mass of material blasted from the surface which has remained in the atmosphere. Saturn’s total mass is only 0.3 that of Jupiter, since its composition is the same as Jupiter’s, this gives an idea of how much its atmosphere is expanded, resulting in an average density only half that of Jupiter.

Fig. 2. NASA Cassini probe imaged ‘spokes’ showing new material still being blasted from Saturn into the rings.

Even stronger evidence for the effect of these impacts is visible in Cassini images of Saturn’s rings. These show shadows or impacts on the rings due to material recently blasted from the planet. ESA has recently revealed the true nature of the impacting bodies (67P Churymov-Gerasiemento), many millions of which have been ejected by the large fusion plume on Jupiter in this same 6,000 years. Several millions of these Jupiter family asteroids, the Trojans, are currently orbiting in the Lagrange L4 and L5 points of the Sun-Jupiter system. Many more are in eccentric orbits arcing below and above the plane of the ecliptic.

“Hurrah for positive science! Long live exact demonstration …  This is the geologist, this works with a scalpel, and this is a mathematician.  Gentlemen, to you the first honors always!  Your facts are useful, and yet they are not my dwelling, I but enter by them to an area of my dwelling.” 

Walt Whitman

Image of Constant Fusion on Jupiter

•December 3, 2017 • Comments Off on Image of Constant Fusion on Jupiter

Fig. 1. Fusion reaction flowing to GRS below clouds. Reflected energy from NEB.

The primary evidence that Jupiter is a solid, highly deuterated Methane Gas Hydrate (MGH) planet, lies in its high temperature, multiple zonal ‘wind bands’ (vortices) and powerful magneodisk-shaped magnetic field, all of which are driven by a continuous nuclear fusion reaction on the MGH surface located  ~50,000 km east of the Great Red Spot. Depending on the positions and densities of the clouds, a number of IR images give clear pictures of the fusion reaction and its flow to the Great Red Spot, as in Figure 1.

This fusion of deuterium and protons was triggered by the impact, 6,000-years BP, out of which proto-Venus was born. The hot expanded Jupiter and the plume which shot 2 million km into space, rotating left-to-right every 9-10 hours, were observed by all human cultures for 5,000 years, and called Juno by the Romans. The confirmation of Jupiter’s high deuteration is proven by the slow, 6,000-year decline of the reaction, now the lowest temperature fusion possible, confined by the high atmospheric pressure at the surface, some 700 km beneath the cloud-tops.

                                    p + d -> 3He++ 

As discussed previously the energy from this reaction is the kinetic energy of light, fast (17,800 km/s), 3He++, helium nuclei, nick-named helions. These form a hot, counter-clockwise, vortex (Coriolis effect), which rises lagging Jupiter’s rapid eastward rotation, 41,780

Fig. 2.  Yellow is main stream of helions which produce the magnetic field of Jupiter. Blue are the vortical streams deflected to the poles producing the auroral ovals.

km/hr, appearing as the Great Red Spot (Figure 1). The reaction produces 1032/s of these unique particles, all of which have the same high energy. They exit the GRS and, given the rotational velocity of Jupiter, circle to the east (prograde), forming what is currently known only as the ‘inner radiation belt’ – thought to be composed of ‘mirroring’ ions (moving prograde and retrograde), the origin of which are currently unknown. This monoenergetic, circling stream of doubly positively charged high speed particles (yellow in Fig. 2) constitutes an electric current that produces the powerful, unique magnetodisk of Jupiter. The helions are invisible, but produce cyclotron/synchrotron radiation currently attributed to electrons. Portions of the stream exiting the GRS are deflected to the poles, forming the constant auroral ovals (blue Fig. 2). The Juno JEDI ion instrument has been powered down near the inner radiation belt (yellow) to protect the instrument, minimizing the chance of identifying the particles.

Any intelligent fool can make things bigger and more complex… It takes a touch of genius – and a lot of courage to move in the opposite direction.   Einstein