A paper titled “Temperature changes and energy inputs in giant planet atmospheres: what are we learning from He3+“ (Oct. 2012) states in its Conclusion: “Short-term variations in the temperatures of all three planets [Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus] appear to result from changes within the thermosphere itself, either within the lower hydrocarbon-rich auroral regions on Jupiter or even directly at the peak He3+ emission, as we have now measured at Saturn. These dramatic changes in temperature are one potential source for the elevated equatorial temperatures measured in all the giant planets.”
The temperatures in the upper atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus were measured by studying the hyperfine spectra of the He3+, but the authors attribute the temperature fluctuations to auroras, extreme ultraviolet radiation from the Sun, the magnetosphere and some remain admittedly “unexplained”. There is no attempt to explain the origin of the massive numbers of Helium ions that would be have to be present in the upper atmospheres of these planets in order to measure their spectra at such great distances. In the standard model Jupiter is believed to comprise 90% hydrogen and 10% helium, with the helium concentrated deep in the interior because it is heavier. Apparently, they believe that the helium ions are coming up from this deep helium reservoir, but explaining why it is all ionized is impossible.
More recently (April, 2016) a group of authors headed by Boston University astrophysicists have revealed that the temperature 800 kilometers above the Great Red Spot, normally considered to be at the surface of Jupiter, is hotter than the hottest lava on the surface of the Earth, 1,300 °C. (2,400 °F.)! The authors suggest that this very high temperature, is due to acoustic waves are heating the air.
Cyclic Catastrophism explains that the high temperature is due to a continuous blizzard of high velocity helium ions (He3+) swirling upward from a nuclear fusion reaction on the surface of the solid methane gas hydrate planet (p + d -> He3+ + γ) and exiting the surface through the Great Red Spot (Fig. 1).
Based on observations in ancient texts of a number of cultures, Cyclic Catastrophism posits that only 6,000 years ago an enormous fusion explosion was triggered by an impact on Jupiter from which proto-Venus and the proto-Galilean moons were born. This same impact also ‘lit up’ Jupiter (Fig.2), triggering a steady-state nuclear fusion in the crater that has slowly declined, but still burns to this day, producing the Great Red Spot through which massive amounts of helium ions ( He3+ ) rise, its temperature excess and the multiple zonal wind bands, more correctly, vortices. Billions of He3+ , which are stable ions, comprise Jupiter’s inner radiation belt. As shown in Figure 2, a plume of hot flames from this blazing nuclear furnace originally extended two million km from the planet, to the orbit of Callisto, sweeping around with Jupiter’s rotation every 8 or 9 hours, and ‘painting’ the Galilean moons producing their striking differences.
This wide flaming plume could be seen from the Earth extending from the glowing swollen atmosphere of Jupiter for thousands of years. It was called the aegis of Zeus, (the Greek name for Jupiter) and interpreted as his shield wielded in battle because it moved back and forth due to Jupiter’s rapid rotation. Aegis literally means ‘terrible storm’, implying the ancient peoples could see its actual form. The plume was also called Hera, Zeus‘ wife and interestingly was Jupiter’s wife Juno in Roman myth, both of which were said to be covered with ‘goat skins’, used in combat. Appropriately, Juno is often shown with a peacock (Figure 3), because it was reminiscent of flaring plume on Jupiter. In the Rg Veda, the plume was described as the part “left behind” when Aditi (proto-Venus) was created and was described as an elephant (head), Mrtaanda, which “kept appearing and disappearing”, also due to Jupiter’s rotation. Proto-Venus’ Vedic name was descriptive of its early rampaging throughout the solar system, literally ‘diti‘ means bounded, but in Sanskrit (as in English) prefix ‘a‘ negates the meaning, therefore Aditi meant ‘unbounded’.
In addition to the creation of proto-Venus and the Galilean moons, the Jupiter plume material condensed and froze into innumerable black, low density bodies with the full range of elements inherited from Jupiter, many of which stuck together (splatted) due to their similar velocities, forming larger asteroids, an example of which is ‘comet’ 67P Churyumov Gerasimenko. These bodies were blasted into all reaches of the solar system by the velocity of the plume supplemented by the spin and orbital velocities of Jupiter. The original impact, therefore the plume was at 22 ° South Latitude, combined with Jupiter’s obliquity and inclination, these bodies were ejected into orbits with inclinations up to 25 degrees resulting in the main asteroid belt, the Kuiper belt, the Oort cloud and millions more into the inner solar system, such as the Kreutz sungrazers, thousands of which have been observed by Sun staring probes like SOHO in the last decade. The inclinations of those ejected into the inner solar system cause them to arc below and above the plane of the solar system, sparing the Earth from their impacts.
During the last 6,000 years, a number of large bodies from the Jupiter plume have impacted Saturn resulting in nuclear explosions on its highly deuterated methane gas hydrate surface, inflating its atmosphere (d=0.687) and ejecting water which has formed its many satellites and rings. In recent decades several ‘spots’ have been observed in its atmosphere thought to be ‘storms’ in the ‘gas giant’ hypothesis, which are actually mushroom clouds reaching the cloud-tops, from nuclear impacts. Also, shadows of ejected material regularly appear on its rings. Plume bodies have also impacted Uranus and Neptune and triggered nuclear fusions on their surfaces, explaining one of many unanswered questions about the giant planets – their hot upper atmospheres and the continual presence of methane and He3+.
All of these ‘mysterious’ observations and many more, are the result of the enormous impact explosion on Jupiter 6,000 years ago observed by every creature on Earth.
Prov. 25:2 It is the glory of God to conceal [these] things; but the glory of kings is to search [them] out.