Jupiter’s Auroras

•November 18, 2015 • Comments Off on Jupiter’s Auroras
Fig. 1 Bright patches glow in Jupiter’s ultraviolet aurora observed by the Hubble Space Telescope. Credit: Sarah Badman (Lancaster University), NASA, ESA

Fig. 1 Bright patches glow in Jupiter’s ultraviolet aurora observed by the Hubble Space Telescope. Credit: Sarah Badman (Lancaster University), NASA, ESA

Having just posted an epistle, the most complete paper ever published on Jupiter, I was reminded of one observed feature which I had not addressed.  An article on Eos , a geological blog site, by Mark Zastro, refers to several papers in the Journal of Geophysical Research, based on observations of Jupiter’s auroras by the Extreme UltraViolet Spectroscope on the Hisaki satellite.  Although it is known that Jupiter has almost continuous auroral rings at both its north and south poles. The new observations indicate short brightnings of the auroras, “less than 10 hours”, extending well into the mid-latitudes. Professors Kimura, Tao, et al. maintain that these short brightenings are driven by internal events, e.g. plasma injection.  http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2015JA021272

In the paper Jupiter – Solid or Gaseous? Ask Juno © John Ackerman 10/2015, I maintain that Jupiter and all the giant planets are solid, frozen, highly deuterated Methane Gas Hydrate bodies, and that an impact on Jupiter 6,000 years BP triggered an enormous fusion explosion, the residual of which is still burning in the crater at 22 deg. South Latitude, producing high energy helium ions causing the atmospheric temperature excess, the multiple zonal vortices, the magnetic field and the auroras of Jupiter. The heat and radioactive particles from the fusion are swept westward as a vortex beneath the cloud-tops due to Jupiter’s rapid rotation, appearing some 15,000 km to the west as the Great Red Spot. In its final stages, the reaction is  d+p -> 3He+ + gamma.  More than 10^30 helium ions per second, with half-lives of 400 years, are carried through the primary vortex at relativistic velocities (10,000 km/s) and exit the planet through the GRS, colliding with and supplementing the vast tilted radiation plasma ion belt around Jupiter, which is the source of its magnetic field. Those that pass through the plasma belt are captured by the magnetic field, which is exterior to the belt, and follow the field lines to the poles forming the auroras.  The auroral ovals are persistent because the fusion reaction is continuous.

Because Jupiter is solid, there is no active internal mechanism to form the magnetic field. It is due strictly to the helium ion plasma circling the planet. As a result, the helium ions comprising the plasma are quickly lost into space, but are being completely replaced every second by the fusion reaction. These lost helium ions were detected by Ulysses, Cassini and knocked out the circuits of the Galileo orbiter some 20 times even though it never got closer than 11 Jupiter radii.

As a result, the fusion reaction can be understood as an electric current generator, the flow of positively charged helium ions, that is continuously producing Jupiter’s magnetic field. When the reaction ceases, the the magnetic field will virtually disappear overnight.

The auroral brightening is due to the release of heavy elements by the fusion reaction.  These are sporadically released as ions and also exit Jupiter via the Great Red Spot. They move more slowly than the helium ions but follow the same paths, some enter the plasma cloud but some pass through it and are captured in the magnetic field and flow to the poles.  Their slower velocities do not ensure they will all reach the poles.

 

 

The Incredible History of Venus

•March 4, 2008 • 2 Comments
Scorched path of proto-Venus

The path schorched by Venus extends from the Sahara to the Himalayas

A Mar. 2 space.com article titled “Venus mysteries blamed on colossal collision” cites a paper in Earth and Planetary Science Letters by John Huw Davies (Cardiff University) which suggests that a collision of two large bodies in the late stages of planet formation is responsible for Venus’ hot, dry climate. This wild speculation is yet another desperate attempt to explain a number of as yet mysterious observations of Venus within the uniformitarian (the standard model) assumption – that all the terrestrial planets formed in their current orbits at the inception of the solar system. The article recounts a number of currently held notions about Venus, all of which are incorrect. Examples are that: the high surface temperature (over 800 F) is due to a ‘runaway greenhouse effect,’ originally proposed by Carl Sagan and proven incorrect by the Pioneer Venus (PV) radiation profiles; the greenhouse effect is due to an atmosphere comprising 30,000 times the amount of carbon dioxide found in the atmosphere of the Earth; the same carbon dioxide results in a surface pressure ninety times that on the Earth. Davies suggests that this collision might have caused Venus’ unusually slow, retrograde rotation, an attribute that the establishment has struggled with ever since it was discovered. But this hypothetical collision can certainly not explain the fact that Venus’ rotates so that the exact same surface features are pointing toward the Earth every time it attains inferior conjunction with Earth – this is called a spin-orbit resonance. It implies a very close relationship existed in the not-too-distant past, between Venus and the Earth.

The cyclic catastrophism (CC) scenario, based on the compiled observations of one hundred generations of humans, results in a completely new understanding of all the planets.  The CC was triggered roughly 6,000 years ago when a body impacted Jupiter and the rebounded plasma cloud, initially thousands of times the size of Jupiter itself, contracted, losing the lighter elements (hydrogen, carbon, oxygen, sodium, etc. that will eventually comprise its oceans, crust and biosphere) by thermal escape (Jeanes), to form proto-Venus. The plasma cloud was over 10,000 K, essentially an atomic soup, negating Velikovsky’s suggestion that hydrocarbons (or organic molecules) might carry over from Jupiter’s atmosphere. Jupiter’s Great Red Spot and the resulting temperature excess of its atmosphere are residuals of that impact.

Much more important than just explaining the characteristics of Venus, that impact completely revolutionizes our knowledge of all the planets. It implies that Jupiter (and the other giant planets) are solid frozen methane gas hydrate  bodies comprising primarily water, not ‘gas giants’, the big difference being that Jupiter incorporates most of the heavy elements, which is evidenced by its much higher density 1.33 g/cm^3. Thus each terrestrial planet is the result of such an impact on Jupiter and has a unique age. After each proto-planet cools it recaptures much of the vast amount of volatile elements that will comprise its crust, including water still orbiting invisibly in the inner solar system. as do the extant terrestrial planets. This explains how the salty ocean of the Earth was obtained, from the volatile elements H, O, Na, and Cl, not from volcanic gases. This process is only beginning on Venus, with water being collected in the ‘normal’ atmosphere above the lowe cloud layer at 50 km, but the Earth is sweeping up some of this water every day (Louis Frank’s house-sized comets seen by the ultraviolet imagers on the Polar satellite).

Proto-Venus triggered a sequence of resonant, ‘chaotic’ events which completely changed the entire solar system resulting in the configuration we observe today, prepared the Earth for the advent of mankind and reinvigorated the Earth for 3,000 years as civilizations propagated. While still a molten sphere of boiling rock/iron, proto-Venus passed close ot the Earth, first scorching a path from the Sahara to the Tibetan-Himalayan complex and then overturning the lithosphere as a unit, causing the oceans to flow across the continents, killing most of the animal life on the planet. The destruction wrought is best described by Ovid in the ‘myth’ of Phaethon driving the chariot of the Sun off-course. The scorched path, shown in the figure above, was described by astronaut Jay Apt as the most striking feature on the Earth when viewed from space. Proto-Venus’ closest point of approach is marked by a large area of Saharan glass (Google LDG) in northwestern Egypt (~lat. 30, lon 26). Genesis 1:2 describes the state of the Earth just after this destruction as follows: “And the Earth became void and without form (tohu and bohu) and darkness was on the face of the Earth …” This actually corresponded to the beginning of the Bronze Age (BA I), i.e. 3250 BC becomes about 3800 BC when tree ring corrections are applied to the standard radiocarbon date, which corresponds closely to the zeroth year of the Hebrew calendar.

Venus then interacted with the most ancient terrestrial planet, priori-Mars, which was full of life at the time, resulting in its orbiting the Earth for about fifteen years at a time and then breaking away for an equal amount of time – a process that was repeated one hundred times. When orbiting the Earth in a geostationary orbit priori-Mars appeared more than six hundred times the size of the full Moon and a large island at its north pole, which remained facing the Earth during each encounter, was referred to as the firmament in Genesis 1:7, and the planet was pagan god Baal mentioned many times but also as an archangel in when involved in biblical miracles. Ancient peoples reported great deluges from ‘heaven’ and manna, soma, ambrosia was organic material from Mars which fell to earth. Once all of priori-Mars’ precious volatiles – its oceans, atmosphere. crustal rocks and soil, seeds of vegetable life were exhausted to the Earth, it split into two, its solid core interacted with Venus for several centuries, resulting in the two, Mercury and Venus, entering their current orbits around 600 BC. At the same time the deconstructed priori-Mars’  drifted outward, collapsing into the ‘planet’ Mars, thereby permanently leaving the vicinity of the Earth. The end of this cosmic ‘chaos’ was signaled by Jehovah, speaking through the prophet Isaiah who lived at the end of the Vedic Period (687 BC): “For as the new heavens and the new earth, which I make, shall remain before me, saith the Lord, so shall your seed and your name remain.”

It was during this 3000-year ‘Vedic Period’ when Venus was in an eccentric interior orbit that the tidal force of the earth on its ‘continents’ induced its retrograde, resonant spin orbit rotation, the vestiges of which are still observable today. The great heat within Venus, due to its recent catastrophic birth, is the reason for its high surface temperature – which is exactly the same on the day and night sides in spite of the amazing fact that a day on Venus lasts 243 earth days! The NASA Pioneer Venus probes which plumbed its atmosphere detected virtually no carbon dioxide between 50 and 31 km altitudes. Assuming this was impossible (an ancient planet is assumed to have a well-mixed atmosphere), project scientists announced that a droplet of sulfuric acid must have clogged the input leak of the mass spectrometer, in spite of the fact that there were two leaks, one five times larger than the other. (I offer a more extensive explanation of the atmospheric chemistry in my paper “An Alternate View of Venus” . Pioneer Venus discovered a ubiquitous lower cloud layer between 48 and 50 km above the entire planet comprised of crystals, which were not identified. Radar images of the surface later revealed over two hundred thousand ‘small domes’ (Soviet) or ‘shield volcanos’ (NASA), which have little or no lava flows associated with them. Given my hypothesis that Venus is a new, hot planet, the interior of which is entirely molten, I suggested ten years ago that it is cooling by jetting sulfur gas at high velocities from the small domes directly to the elevation of the lower cloud layer. This is obviously the case, because the temperature at the lower cloud layer coincides exactly with the crystallization temperature(s) of S8. Thus the entire lower atmosphere, up to 50 km, comprises heavy S8 molecules and crystals which unfortunately, were not detectable by the PV mass spectrometer. The molecules in the 44 amu channels between 31 km and the surface identified as CO2, were actually CS. which crystallized as it rose above 31 km forming a red haze noted, but not identified by the Pioneer Venus  team. It is the loading of the lower atmosphere with these heavy compounds resulting from the S8 gas still shooting from the 200,000 vents in the surface that produces the high surface pressure, not carbon dioxide. The fast-rising S8 also transmits the angular momentum of the slowly rotating planet very efficiently to the upper atmosphere, producing its observed (but so-far unexplained) super-rotation. Venus has no magnetic field because its molten interior is far too hot. Because of this great heat, raw lava lies in many cracks in the surface, unfortunately PV did not include a simple camera which would have shown this. The radiation from this lava was actually measured by the sensitive radiometer as it descended through the lower cloud layer, but the project scientists threw out the data, stating that “signals in all channels increased unreasonably.” The red light at the surface that enabled the Soviet Venera landers to take photographs without their lights was due to the scattered light from lava on the surface. The hot creation of proto-Venus obviously explains the high D/H ratio and the volcanic nature of the entire surface. This will be brought into the same range as on Earth only after the vast amount of water still in interplanetary space is collected to form the oceans on Venus.

In spite of the many mysteries which are unexplainable in the ‘standard model’, the scientific ‘community’ obviously sees no reason for any further investigation of Venus. Due to budgetary limitations, the European Space Agency sent Venus Express probe to Venus designed only to orbit the planet, from which viewpoint nothing new could be observed. It did find that Venus’ rotation had slowed significantly in the twenty-five years since the Pioneer Venus and and Soviet Venera landers. This is easily explained in Cyclic Catastrophism due to the jetting of sulfur gases into space.

All that would be necessary to prove the true nature of Venus is to send a single sounder through the atmosphere capable of measuring S8 and a camera to image the surface once it passes through the lower cloud layer. It would not even have to be designed to withstand the surface temperature. Since it has been thirty years since PV a new determination of the altitude of the lower cloud layer should give information on how fast it is settling toward the surface as the planet cools. Interestingly, the temperature and pressure just above the lower cloud layers is very similar to that on the Earth’s surface. Thus, there is promise that future generations of mankind may actually be able to land there, certainly much sooner than if the pressure were due to carbon dioxide. Venus would be the perfect laboratory for understanding how the Earth evolved in its earliest days, some 3.9 billion years ago.

The arrogant, know-it all ‘establishment’ refuses to allow the publication of my papers, all of which see recent catastrophies shaping the Earth and the planets. As a result they are wasting the time, energy and intellect of an entire generation of young scientists, not to mention the tax revenues of our citizens.

John Ackerman

http://www.firmament-chaos.com

Happy Diwali

•October 29, 2016 • Comments Off on Happy Diwali
kailash-swastika

Fig. 1 The Hindu Swastika originated from the rock/snow feature on Mt. Kailash, sacred to all SE Asian cultures.

Dewali is the most important holiday of the Hindu, Sikh, Buddhist and Bon religions, and is currently thought to be a celebration of lights. Unfortunately, the miraculous cosmic events from which this special festival originated have been lost for  2,704 years, but have been completely recovered in Cyclic Catastrophism. The same events are celebrated the world around by different names such as Halloween and All Saints Day because the cosmic events were observed by one hundred generations of mankind.

Cyclic Catastrophism

The Earth was wiped clean by two pairs of close cosmic encounters, each of which overturned the lithosphere (outer shell) of the Earth without changing its rotation rate. The second pair of encounters was the result of the newly created proto-Venus (the Rg Vedic Aditi = without bounds) which was born from an explosive impact on Jupiter (dyausHospitar). Proto-Venus rampaged through the solar system and its many aspects were given names called the ‘sons of Aditi‘, such as Surya, Pushan, MitraVaruna and Agni. The two close (Agni) encounters with the Earth (4000 BC) caused the oceans to flow across the continents leaving a layer of salty ocean-bottom material which destroyed all of the pre-existing reptilian life forms, the dinosaurs. The Tibetan-Himalayan complex acted as a ‘handle’ by which Agni tidally overturned the entire lithosphere as a unit, preparing it to be mobile for the encounters with Indra, which followed.

The rampaging proto-Venus then sheparded the planet Mars (Indra), which was at that time in an orbit closer to the Sun than the Earth and full of the life forms now on Earth, into an orbit which crossed the Earth’s orbit, as shown in Figure 2. Then began an incredible 3,000-year process by which the entire life on Mars (Indra) was transferred to the Earth, including its fertile red soil, water, atmosphere (the Vayu), huge rocks and minerals (the Maruts) and the sprouts of all living plants (Soma). Animal life was transported by other means.

Fig.2  Orbits of Earth, Mars and proto-Venus between Mars' geostationary encounters geostationary encounters showing capture and release points.

Fig.2 Orbits of Earth, Mars and proto-Venus between Mars’ geostationary encounters showing capture and release points.

This miraculous transfer took place during one hundred 30-year cycles (3687 to 687 BC) dictated by the orbits of the Earth and Mars shown in Fig. 2.  When Earth and Mars both approached a Nov. 1 crossing point, Mars (Indra) became captured in a geostationary orbit above Mt. Kailash, only about 33,000 km surface to surface. This was possible due to the massive tidal force of Mars, which orbited in the plane of the solar system, drawing Kailash into the ecliptic plane where in remained for 14.4 years, a manvantara, also called a kalpa. This resulted in the entire lithosphere of the Earth rotating more slowly than the mantle and at an angle of 31 degrees with respect to  the equator  causing enormous changes in the continents and accounts for the 360 day calendars used during each kalpa.

Although Mars was very close to the Earth, it was not enough to transfer anything to the Earth.  The explosive transfers were caused only when the Moon, or the Sun and Moon combined, passed behind the large disc (mandela) of Mars causing enormous convulsions within it. The north pole of Mars remained oriented toward the Earth during each kalpa and it was covered with hundred of volcanoes which blasted everything on the surface and from the interior covering the Earth with life. See  Surya Siddhanta

The volcanoes were seen as many points of light on Mars and were imagined to be fires burned by those holy ones who’s souls had gone to heaven and were also called the circum-polar stars. The patterns formed by these lights were called nakshatras, some 27 of which had well-known names, which were used instead of numbers as a universal clock as Mars revolved approximately once a day.  Indra appeared as wide as ten fingers held by the viewer at arms-length and remained stationary in the sky, day and night. Its huge size reflected millions of times more sunlight than the Moon and ancient peoples watched it day and night like a huge television in the sky with only one channel. Because of the continual changes in its illumination and the consequent shadows, the Vedic people knew Mars in much more detail than NASA probes.

Denali

All cultures on Earth believed that the souls of the deceased would go to Mars, the firmament or heaven. Therefore, each time it was captured – around Nov. 1, seances would be held in an attempt to contact those who were thought to be in heaven.  Therefore, the ‘lights’ referred to in the festival of Denali were the ‘volcano lights’ on Mars, thought to be sacred fires (oblations) lit by their ancestors who had gone to heaven. This idea is reflected in the Christian ‘All Saints Day’ and Halloween.

Each geostationary encounter (kalpa) ended on the vernal equinox in its fourteenth year when, through a complex combination of events Mars was released into the orbit shown in Figure 2 for 15.6 years, for ‘rest and recuperation’. The most spectacular feature on the surface of Mars (the Vedic Purusha, Hindu Brahma) was a tall flaming column or pillar (Egyptian Osiris) at Mars north pole (facing the Earth) composed of intertwined hardened lava columns, from which the largest bodies were blasted toward the Earth. Also called the ‘axis mundi‘ (the axis of the worlds) referring to Mars and Earth. It rose slowly over a number of months at the beginning of each kalpa, called a day of Brahma and collapsed at the end of each kalpa, said to lie down on the coils of the snake sesha during a ‘night of Brahma‘. Hindu myth provides the valuable, although not exact, clue that ‘a night of Brahma equaled a day of Brahma and that he lived one hundred ‘holy days’. This is consistent with the Vedas which claim there were 99 Indras, and an explanation is given which indicates that something happened to lose one encounter. This confirms that the Vedic Period comprised one hundred 30-year cycles, which ended in 678 BC, at which date the planets Mars, Venus and Mercury the former solid core of Mars during the Vedic Period, entered their current orbits.

Hot ‘Gas Giants’? Updated w/video – Correction

•September 17, 2016 • Comments Off on Hot ‘Gas Giants’? Updated w/video – Correction

Correction: I mistakenly identiified the H3+ mentioned in the following article as He3+.  H3+ is actually an isotope of Hydrogen, the hyperfine structure of which has been used to calculate the temperatures high in the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus.

A paper titled “Temperature changes and energy inputs in giant planet atmospheres: what are we learning from H3+ (Oct. 2012) states in its Conclusion: “Short-term variations in the temperatures of all three planets [Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus] appear to result from changes within the thermosphere itself, either within the lower hydrocarbon-rich auroral regions on Jupiter or even directly at the peak H3+ emission, as we have now measured at Saturn. These dramatic changes in temperature are one potential source for the elevated equatorial temperatures measured in all the giant planets.”

Artist's impression of Jupiter's GRS heating the upper atmosphere. Researchers from Boston University’s (BU) Center for Space Physics report today in Nature that Jupiter’s Great Red Spot may provide the mysterious source of energy required to heat the planet’s upper atmosphere to the unusually high values observed. Sunlight reaching Earth efficiently heats the terrestrial atmosphere at altitudes well above the surface—even at 400 miles high, for example, where the International Space Station orbits. Jupiter is over five times more distant from the Sun, and yet its upper atmosphere has temperatures, on average, comparable to those found at Earth. The sources of the non-solar energy responsible for this extra heating have remained elusive to scientists studying processes in the outer solar system.

Fig. 1 Artist’s impression of Jupiter’s GRS heating the upper atmosphere by acoustic waves.

The temperatures in the upper atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus were measured by studying the hyperfine spectra of the H3+, but the authors attribute the temperature fluctuations to down-to-earth causes, such as auroras, extreme ultraviolet radiation from the Sun, the magnetosphere, with some remaining admittedly “unexplained”.  There has been no accepted explanation of the high temperatures of the upper atmospheres of the giant planets.

A much more instructive article which appeared in Nature, July 2016, by a group of Boston University astrophysicists led by J. O’Donoghue have revealed that the high temperature, concentrated 800 kilometers directly above the Great Red Spot is hotter than the hottest lava on the surface of the Earth,  1,300 °C. (2,400 °F.)!  This is an important observation made by high resolution measurments of H3+ microwave radiation mentioned above.  Due to the localized heating, the authors propose that this very high temperature is caused by an unidentified material rising from the interior and causing acoustic waves.  It is difficult to imagine this could heat such high temperatures.

 Cyclic Catastrophism

Cyclic Catastrophism proposes that the high temperature is due to a continuous tornado of invisible high velocity helium ions (He3+) from a nuclear fusion reaction (p + d  ->  He3+ +  γ) on the surface of the solid methane gas hydrate planet Jupiter which swirls upward below the cloud tops, and becomes visible as the Great Red Spot (Fig. 1).

Juno, Jupiter’s wife looking through the clouds.

The reaction is the residual of a 6,000 old impact on Jupiter which triggered the largest explosion ever observed in the solar system, from which proto-Venus and the proto-Galilean moons were born. As shown in Figure 2, this impact ‘lit up’ Jupiter (Fig.2), triggering a steady-state nuclear fusion in the crater that has slowly declined, but still sends massive numbers of extremely fast helium ions (He3+ ) through the Great Red Spot, producing all of the well-known features of Jupiter: (a) its temperature excess; (b) the multiple zonal wind bands; (c) its enormously extended magnetic field; and (d) its brightly glowing auroras.

The He3ions which are being created at a rate of 10³¹/second are invisible because they have a radiative life span of 16,000 years, i.e. they do not radiate.  Since they freely mix with the H3+(triatomic hydrogen ion) their high speed collisions cause the H3+, which does radiate in the microwave range (3.33 to  3.46 cm), to show its heat.  As shown in Figure 2, the original plume of hot flames from this blazing nuclear furnace extended two million km from the planet, to the orbit of Callisto, sweeping around with Jupiter’s rotation every 8 or 9 hours, and ‘painting’ the Galilean moons producing their striking differences.

Fig. 3 Juno's peacock suggested Jupiter's hot glowing plume.

Fig. 3 Juno’s peacock suggested Jupiter’s hot glowing plume.

This wide flaming plume could be seen from the Earth extending from the glowing swollen atmosphere of Jupiter for thousands of years. It was called the aegis of Zeus, (the Greek name for Jupiter) and interpreted as his shield wielded in battle because it moved back and forth due to Jupiter’s rapid rotation. Aegis literally means ‘terrible storm’, implying the ancient peoples could see its actual form. The plume was also called HeraZeus‘ wife. The most appropriate myth, and the one adopted by the SWRI/NASA/JPL team running the JUNO probe, is that Juno, Jupiter’s wife, kept peering though Jupiter’s clouds to see if he was misbehaving – a perfect match to the image in Figure 2.  Both Hera and Juno were said to be covered with ‘goat skins’, used in combat. Juno is often shown with a peacock (Figure 3), because it was reminiscent of flaring plume on Jupiter. In the Rg Veda, the plume was described as the part “left behind” when Aditi (proto-Venus) was created and was described as an elephant (head), Mrtaanda, which “kept appearing and disappearing”, also due to Jupiter’s rotation. Proto-Venus’ Vedic name was descriptive of its early rampaging throughout the solar system, literally ‘diti means bounded, but in Sanskrit (as in English) prefix ‘a‘ negates the meaning, therefore Aditi meant ‘unbounded’.

In addition to the creation of proto-Venus and the Galilean moons, the Jupiter plume material condensed and froze into innumerable  black, low density bodies with the full range of solar system element abundances inherited from Jupiter, many of which stuck together (splatted) due to their similar velocities, forming larger asteroids, an example of which is ‘comet’ 67P Churyumov Gerasimenko. These bodies were blasted into all reaches of the solar system by the velocity of the plume supplemented by the spin and orbital velocities of Jupiter. The original impact, therefore the plume was at 22 ° South Latitude, combined with Jupiter’s obliquity and inclination, these bodies were ejected into orbits with inclinations up to 25 degrees resulting in the main asteroid belt, the Kuiper belt, and millions more into the inner solar system, such as the Kreutz sungrazers, thousands of which have been observed by Sun staring probes like SOHO in the last decade. The inclinations of those ejected into the inner solar system cause them to arc below and above the plane of the solar system, sparing the Earth from their impacts.

During the last 6,000 years, a number of large bodies from the Jupiter (Juno) plume have impacted Saturn resulting in nuclear explosions on its highly deuterated methane gas hydrate surface, inflating its atmosphere (d=0.687) and ejecting water which has formed its many satellites and rings. In recent decades several ‘spots’ have been observed in its atmosphere thought to be ‘storms’ in the ‘gas giant’ hypothesis, which are actually mushroom clouds reaching the cloud-tops, from nuclear impacts. Also, shadows of ejected material regularly appear on its rings. Plume bodies have also impacted Uranus and Neptune and triggered nuclear fusions on their surfaces, explaining one of many unanswered questions about the giant planets – their hot upper atmospheres and the continual presence of methane and He3+.

All of these ‘mysterious’ observations and many more, are the result of the enormous impact explosion on Jupiter 6,000 years ago observed by every creature on Earth.

Prov. 25:2  It is the glory of God to conceal [these] things; but the glory of kings is to search [them] out.

The monster which attacked Mars

•August 24, 2016 • Comments Off on The monster which attacked Mars
Fig. 1 Svarbhānu attacking Mars (mandala)

Fig. 1 Svarbhānu attacking Mars (mandala)

In Hindu myth, Rāhu and Ketu are imagined to represent demons which cause eclipses of the ‘Moon’.  In astronomy these points are the nodes of the orbit of the Moon. They were mythologically imagined to be the head (Rāhu) and body (Ketu) of the Rg Vedic Svarbhānu, a demon which tried to attack or eat Indra, as depicted at the top of Figure 1.
Cyclic Catastrophism explains that during each kalpa, when Mars was in its geostationary orbit, above Mt. Kailas, it passed through phases of illumination, similar to the Moon, every day.  It approached full illumination around midnight because it orbited close to the ecliptic plane.  Due to its great size and proximity to the Earth it would pass, at least partially, through the shadow of the Earth at approximately 11;15 PM as seen in the Aryan lands, what is now the Punjab. At these times the Earth’s atmosphere would refract the red light and scatter the blue, resulting in a partial eclipse with a reddening of a portion of Mars.  The serpent aspect was likely due to cloud formations on the limb of the Earth which produced striations and variations in the shadow. When passing through exact alignments Mars would be

Fig.2 Ouroboros eclipse of Mars.

Fig.2 Ouroboros eclipse of Mars.

completely eclipsed, producing an ouroboros, as shown in Figure 2. Normally Mars would be partially eclipsed. These alignments of the Earth with Mars may also have produced rumblings within the Earth, adding to the notion that this was a monster. Interestingly, the Figure 1 shows the Moon in the background at the approximate scale it was seen in Vedic times, about 1/11 the size of Mars, proving that it was not the Moon that was being attacked, but Mars.

These eclipses were interpreted similarly in most ancient cultures.  It was the origin of the Egyptian deity, the Apep Dragon, imagined to attack Horus (Ra) every night. The Egyptian myth gives specific details which verify the origin of the phenomenon, stating that the shadow would first appear on the left side of the planet, by stating that the serpent was hiding in wait in the western mountain,

Fig. 3 Egyptian Temple

Fig. 3 Egyptian Temple

Bakhu, one of the two imaginary ‘mountains’ thought to support Mars in its stationary position in the sky. These two imaginary mountains in the sky were the inspiration of the shapes of the entrances of all Egyptian temples (Fig. 3). This emphasizes that each culture saw Mars (Indra or Horus) in a unique direction but stationary in the heavens – a phenomenom never experienced in modern times. Also that each saw the eclipses at different times of (their) days.

The Exodus

•August 17, 2016 • Comments Off on The Exodus

The Passover

Based on interpretations of the Rg Veda, Egyptian, Greek, and Roman myth plus the Bible, Cyclic Catastrophism claims that Mars was captured in the same geostationary orbit above Mt. Kailas, and released one hundred times. Each capture lasted ~14.4 years and each release ~15.6 years. Therefore each cycle took ~30 years.  These astronomical cycles governed most human ceremonial activities and archaeologically are noted by two calendars in every ancient culture, 360 and 365.25 days per year. The slower  rotation taking place due to the mass moment of Mars in geostationary orbit. The capture period was called the ‘inundation’ in Egypt because tidal effect of Mars drew the clear Nile waters into Eastern Egypt for the entire 14.4 years, increasing the production of crops. Modern day Egyptologists interpret the ‘inundation’ as referring to the yearly increase in the Nile flow.

The most spectacular event in each cycle was the release of the worn-out Mars from its geostationary orbit. This occurred on the vernal equinox of the fourteenth year of its capture at which date proto-Venus’ orbit attained inferior conjunction relative to the Earth-Mars pair. At the same time the Moon and Sun were closely aligned. Based on the anticipation of this event the Egyptians scheduled the elaborate Heb Sed Festivals, or Festival of the tail, constructing special structures and preparing numerous feasts, primarily to celebrate the pharaohs 30-year reign.  The ‘tail’ referred to the comet-like tail of proto-Venus. Originally, each pharaoh’s reign was ideally associated with a 30-year cycle of capture and release of Mars and at the end of the festival he was sacrificed and mummified in preparation for:i(a) his ritual ascent to the duat on Mars; (b) proceeding through its interior (amenta); and (c) mounting the solid iron core (Hathor) which then was blasted from Mars like a spaceship imagined to carry him ‘to the gods’ (see post).

The solid iron core first appeared through the Valles Marineris as the ‘eye of Horus’ but then exited Mars, zoomed low around the Earth to the East, boosting its speed while the outer shell of Mars, with a huge 4000 km wide flaming hole,  drifted to the west, passing over the Middle East. Egyptian myth tells that it took eight days for the solid core to catch up to the outer shell as it drifted away from the Earth.  This ‘passing over’ was the origin of the Jewish pesach, or passover festival which is still celebrated for eight days by Chasidic jews. It is also celebrated in the Rg Veda as the festival of ‘nine nights’.

The Exodus

Understanding the Exodus requires a little more information. Upon each capture of Mars in its geostationary orbit above Mt. Kailas, in the TransHimalayas, its tidal effect drew waters form all across the Eastern Hemisphere toward the Himalayas to an altitude of 5,000 meters, surrounding the highest Himalayas. This caused a day of flooding across Northern Egypt and in the Levant as the Mediterranean and Red Seas  were emptied.  This 30-year flood was the reason that the Egyptians built the pyramids and the other cultures in the Levant lived on tells. Therefore 14.4 years later, at each release of Mars, there was no water in the Red Sea, thus it was referred to as the wilderness in the Bible. This had happened some seventy-five times before the Exodus and everyone in the area knew the physical events that occurred each time. At the same time, the Egyptians were celebrating the Heb Sed festival, so it was the perfect time for the Jews to cross the ‘Red Sea’ wilderness.  The outer shell of Mars with the flaming 4,000 km gap in the side was the “pillar of cloud” in the day and the “pillar of fire” at night that guided Moses and the Jews, which was at first before them and as it continued to drift to the West moved between them and the pursuing Egyptian army.

When the solid iron core of Mars exited the planet, it looped close to the Earth moving East. Although it was not as massive as the outer shell of Mars it zoomed much closer to the Earth, therefore half of the water in the 5,000 meter high tidal bulge around the Himalayas flowed east and the other half flowed west with the outer shell. The Lord told Moses exactly when to cross the wilderness, and after they did the waters coming back to the emptied Mediterranean and Red Seas converged in the Red Sea drowning the pursuing Egyptian Army and preventing any pursuit for the next 15.6 years.

The Date of the Exodus

The exact date of the Exodus and the name of the Egyptian pharaoh at the time,  has never been proven, but cyclic catastrophism may help resolve the date. Assuming simplistically each complete cycle took 30-years, but based on the Vishnu Purana, which states that “the seven holy rishis lived 3030 years” gives 30.3-years per cycle. Given that the last (the one-hundredth) cycle ended in 687 BC, the Exodus had to have been a multiple of 30.3 years earlier than 687. Assuming this occurred 25 cycles prior to 687 produces a date of 1444.5 which is very close to the popular date 1446.

Interpretation of Arabic Epistle

•August 11, 2016 • Comments Off on Interpretation of Arabic Epistle

The three pages below translate the arabic script on the drawing.

 

Drawing as it appeared in Clube and Napier book "Coherent Catastrophism"

Drawing as it appeared in Clube and Napier book “Coherent Catastrophism”

Rowson2Rowson3

Rowson1

Mars the Egyptian Horus

•July 24, 2016 • Comments Off on Mars the Egyptian Horus

Cyclic Catastrophism

Fig.1. Tharsis region on Mars called the Face of Horus

Fig.1. Tharsis region on Mars called the Face of Horus

In the cyclic catastrophism scenario, the living planet Mars was repeatedly captured in a geostationary orbit above Mt. Kailas for 14.4 years and released into a holding obit for 15.6 years. This 30-year cycle was repeated one hundred times between 3687 and 687 BC and is the subject of all ancient myths during this period. The rocks, soil, oceans, minerals, atmosphere, flora and fauna that were blasted from this planet were the origin of all life on Earth today. Its tidal drag on the lithosphere relative to the mantle changed the shapes, buoyancy, and location of the continents in 3,000 years.

The axis of rotation of the lithosphere of the orbiting Mars, marked by a ’pillar’  at its north pole (Osiris in Egyptian myth) remained oriented toward Mt. Kailas in the TransHimalayas during each encounter. As a result, the Egyptians were able to see several significant features on its equator as it rotated daily. By far the most prominent was a massive uplifted ‘continent’ about the size of North America on Mars, currently called the Tharsis Bulge. This bulge includes five very large volcanoes and a great 4,000 km rift called Valles Marineris.  It was formed by the tidal force of proto-Venus during their close encounters prior to Mars’ first capture by the Earth. During the the entire period it was raised much higher, having settled isostatically in the last 2,700 years. This greatly enlarged bulge was tidally forced to remain on the limb of the rotating planet when it orbited the Earth, its asymmetrical shape leading to the epithet ‘the dog star’ – nothing to do with Sirius as currently thought.

Face of Horus

When viewed from Egypt, the Tharsis Bulge was imagined to be a large ‘face’ on Mars, which the Egyptians originally interpreted as the face of a lion, as suggested by the form of the sphinx, the Egyptian name for which was ‘Horus Am Akhet”, (Horus on the Horizon) toward which it apparently stared, day and night. Later dynasties interpreted the same feature as ‘The Face of Horus’, the most common Egyptian name for the planet. This understanding reveals many ‘mysteries’ in the ancient Egyptian texts. The feature as photographed by space probes orbiting Mars (Figure 1) color-coded to show relative elevations, is outlined by the author to clarify the discussion. Because Egypt was not directly beneath the orbiting planet, the ‘face’, on its equator, was visible on a daily basis due to the planet’s rotation about its axis. Horus’ eyes were the outer two of the three aligned volcanoes, Arsia and Ascraeus Mons. Horus’ pronounced nose or ‘beak’ was formed in the gray area, as indicated by the concentric series of closely spaced, almost circular faults, now collapsed. This pronounced beak-like feature and Mars’ stationary position in the sky led to one hieroglyph for Horus, which is simply a standing falcon.

Fig. 1 Mars Tharsis Bulge and Valles Marineris in bas relief from Akhenaton's reign

Fig. 2 Mars Tharsis Bulge and Valles Marineris in bas relief from Akhenaton’s reign

Figure 2, a magnified portion of a stone relief of Akhenaten as a Sphinx worshiping the Aten, currently in the Kestner Museum in Hanover, Germany, depicts the Tharsis Bulge on Mars at its center, which was the Egyptian ‘Face of Horus’. The three aligned volcanos are present with Olympus Mons above and the Valles Marineris cutting into the ‘mouth’.  This 3,000 -year old relief proves unequivocally the close proximity of Mars to the Earth in ancient times. (The triangular reticles in the image are obviously artifacts.) During the geostationary encounters, Mars was larger because it still had its solid iron core (Mercury) so the Tharsis Bulge seems smaller in comparison to the overall planet in this relief. It was inset as a way of showing it was stationary in the heavens and the standing falcon announces ‘Horus’. The rays extending down toward the Earth terminate as leaves, thereby depicting life being imparted to the Earth. Thus the Egyptians understood that this was the primary role of Mars. in spite of its many convulsions.

Horus the Child

Fig. 3 Egyptian statue of Horus the Child

Fig. 3 Egyptian statue of Horus the Child

The Egyptians had a unique and popular epithet for Horus, ‘Heru P Kart’ (Horus the Child) based on the features observed on Mars. The features on which this epithet were based are clearly exhibited in an ancient Egyptian statue of Horus the Child (Figure 3), leaving no doubt that they originated from the features on Mars. Horus is extending a finger on his left hand into his mouth. His head is shaved except for a child’s knot on the left side of his head and he has a Ureaus deity extending from the crown on his forehead. A comparison of the statue of Figure 3 with the photograph of the Tharsis Bulge on Mars (Figure 1) leaves no doubt that the ‘Face of Horus’ feature on Mars inspired this unique epithet for Horus. His ‘finger’ is the western end of the Valles Marineris, which extends into the ‘mouth’ of the figure from its left. He was imagined to be a child because he kept his finger in his mouth. The notion that children’s head should be shaved, except for a ‘side-lock of youth’, obviously originated from the volcano Alba Patera, an unusually flat but wide feature extending thousands of kilometers on Mars. All surface features on Mars were very clear during the encounters because the planet appeared some 530 times the area of the full moon and as it orbited with the Earth and rotated about its axis, shadows revealed every nuance of vertical relief. Additional proof derives from the presence of the Ureaus (snake-like deity originating in the underworld (the Amenta) on the child’s royal crown, which corresponds to the location of Olympus Mons, the largest volcano in the solar system, in the forehead of the ‘Face of Horus’.  This continually erupted during encounters shooting a large, wavering plume high into the air as illustrated  by the author. This epithet for Horus has been passed down through the last 2,700 years with no real understanding of its origin. Finally, it becomes obvious from the surface feature on Mars.

Job 37:23 Touching the Almighty, we cannot find him out: he is excellent in power, and in judgment, and in plenty of justice: he will not afflict.

Jupiter Rules Saturn

•July 19, 2016 • Comments Off on Jupiter Rules Saturn
Fig. 1. NASA Cassini probe imaged 'spokes' showing new material still being blasted from Saturn into the rings.

Fig. 1. NASA Cassini probe imaged ‘spokes’ showing new material still being blasted from impacts on Saturn into the rings.

As already noted by Galileo and Cassini missions, there are few similarities between Jupiter and Saturn, the greatest differences being in their magnetic fields. Their greatest similarity lies in their (as yet unknown) composition – both are are solid, frozen, highly deuterated methane gas hydrate bodies (MGH), not ‘gas giants’. As such, the two planets comprise almost 300 earth masses of water! The average density of Jupiter (δ=1.33) is the result of water-ice forming on dust grains at the snow-line, the slow, cold accretion in the presence of abundant methane, thereby incorporating all of the heavy elements in the nascent solar system. The low density of Saturn, relatively pure MGH (δ=0.9), is the result of the bombardment of bodies from Jupiter in the last 6,000 years which have greatly expanded its atmosphere (δ=0.7) and produced its extensive ring system. Sufficiently large impacts on the highly deuterated MGH surface of Saturn result in fusion explosions which are currently interpreted as ‘storms’ based on the ‘gas giant’ hypothesis. These produce H and OH ions and carbon from CH4, primary constituents of MGH and blast the water which continually produces changes in the rings (Figure 1).

Fig.2. Jupiter's Inner Radiation Belt (red & yellow.

Fig.2. Jupiter’s Inner Radiation Belt (red & yellow)

A slowly declining fusion reaction in the crater of an enormous impact explosion on Jupiter 6,000 years ago has ejected an uncountable number of bodies into all parts of the solar system, but has now declined to the lowest temperature fusion reaction. The kinetic energy of the stable ³He+ ions produced in this reaction (d + p → ³He+  + γ) result in the ‘temperature excess’, multiple ‘wind bands’ (surface vortexes) and the enormous magnetic field of Jupiter. The field is generated by the ³He+ (10^30/s), which emanates from the fusion reaction, rises in a hot vortex which is

Fig. 3 Massive numbers of He ions blasting at high velocities toward the west.

Fig. 3 Massive numbers of He ions blasting at high velocities toward the west.

swept westward by the rapid rotation of Jupiter to the East and exits above the cloud-tops through the Great Red Spot at 22º South Latatude (Figure 2). The high velocities imparted by the fusion reaction and the westward orientation of the GRS vortex (Figure 3) result in the inner radiation belt (a blizzard) of pure ³He+, orbiting Jupiter to the West. Amazingly, although ³He+ is an ion, it is known to be stable, and the great number orbiting Jupiter are the origin of the enormous Jovian magnetic field, often described as the largest ‘structure’ in the solar system.
Currently the magnetic field of Jupiter is believed to be produced in the interior of Jupiter, driven by the rapid rotation of the planet to the East. So it should be quite surprising to the ‘gas giant’ devotees when the JEDI energetic particle detector senses a blizzard of ³He+ ions coming from the opposite direction of Jupiter’s rotation. This, combined with data from the Juno MWR and gravity experiments should validate the new cyclic catastrophism view.