Correction: I mistakenly identiified the H3+ mentioned in the following article as He3+. H3+ is actually an isotope of Hydrogen, the hyperfine structure of which has been used to calculate the temperatures high in the atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus.
A paper titled “Temperature changes and energy inputs in giant planet atmospheres: what are we learning from H3+“ (Oct. 2012) states in its Conclusion: “Short-term variations in the temperatures of all three planets [Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus] appear to result from changes within the thermosphere itself, either within the lower hydrocarbon-rich auroral regions on Jupiter or even directly at the peak H3+ emission, as we have now measured at Saturn. These dramatic changes in temperature are one potential source for the elevated equatorial temperatures measured in all the giant planets.”
The temperatures in the upper atmospheres of Jupiter, Saturn and Uranus were measured by studying the hyperfine spectra of the H3+, but the authors attribute the temperature fluctuations to down-to-earth causes, such as auroras, extreme ultraviolet radiation from the Sun, the magnetosphere, with some remaining admittedly “unexplained”. There has been no accepted explanation of the high temperatures of the upper atmospheres of the giant planets.
A much more instructive article which appeared in Nature, July 2016, by a group of Boston University astrophysicists led by J. O’Donoghue have revealed that the high temperature, concentrated 800 kilometers directly above the Great Red Spot is hotter than the hottest lava on the surface of the Earth, 1,300 °C. (2,400 °F.)! This is an important observation made by high resolution measurments of H3+ microwave radiation mentioned above. Due to the localized heating, the authors propose that this very high temperature is caused by an unidentified material rising from the interior and causing acoustic waves. It is difficult to imagine this could heat such high temperatures.
Cyclic Catastrophism proposes that the high temperature is due to a continuous tornado of invisible high velocity helium ions (He3+) from a nuclear fusion reaction (p + d -> He3+ + γ) on the surface of the solid methane gas hydrate planet Jupiter which swirls upward below the cloud tops, and becomes visible as the Great Red Spot (Fig. 1).
Juno, Jupiter’s wife looking through the clouds.
The reaction is the residual of a 6,000 old impact on Jupiter which triggered the largest explosion ever observed in the solar system, from which proto-Venus and the proto-Galilean moons were born. As shown in Figure 2, this impact ‘lit up’ Jupiter (Fig.2), triggering a steady-state nuclear fusion in the crater that has slowly declined, but still sends massive numbers of extremely fast helium ions (He3+ ) through the Great Red Spot, producing all of the well-known features of Jupiter: (a) its temperature excess; (b) the multiple zonal wind bands; (c) its enormously extended magnetic field; and (d) its brightly glowing auroras.
The He3+ ions which are being created at a rate of 10³¹/second are invisible because they have a radiative life span of 16,000 years, i.e. they do not radiate. Since they freely mix with the H3+(triatomic hydrogen ion) their high speed collisions cause the H3+, which does radiate in the microwave range (3.33 to 3.46 cm), to show its heat. As shown in Figure 2, the original plume of hot flames from this blazing nuclear furnace extended two million km from the planet, to the orbit of Callisto, sweeping around with Jupiter’s rotation every 8 or 9 hours, and ‘painting’ the Galilean moons producing their striking differences.
This wide flaming plume could be seen from the Earth extending from the glowing swollen atmosphere of Jupiter for thousands of years. It was called the aegis of Zeus, (the Greek name for Jupiter) and interpreted as his shield wielded in battle because it moved back and forth due to Jupiter’s rapid rotation. Aegis literally means ‘terrible storm’, implying the ancient peoples could see its actual form. The plume was also called Hera, Zeus‘ wife. The most appropriate myth, and the one adopted by the SWRI/NASA/JPL team running the JUNO probe, is that Juno, Jupiter’s wife, kept peering though Jupiter’s clouds to see if he was misbehaving – a perfect match to the image in Figure 2. Both Hera and Juno were said to be covered with ‘goat skins’, used in combat. Juno is often shown with a peacock (Figure 3), because it was reminiscent of flaring plume on Jupiter. In the Rg Veda, the plume was described as the part “left behind” when Aditi (proto-Venus) was created and was described as an elephant (head), Mrtaanda, which “kept appearing and disappearing”, also due to Jupiter’s rotation. Proto-Venus’ Vedic name was descriptive of its early rampaging throughout the solar system, literally ‘diti‘ means bounded, but in Sanskrit (as in English) prefix ‘a‘ negates the meaning, therefore Aditi meant ‘unbounded’.
In addition to the creation of proto-Venus and the Galilean moons, the Jupiter plume material condensed and froze into innumerable black, low density bodies with the full range of solar system element abundances inherited from Jupiter, many of which stuck together (splatted) due to their similar velocities, forming larger asteroids, an example of which is ‘comet’ 67P Churyumov Gerasimenko. These bodies were blasted into all reaches of the solar system by the velocity of the plume supplemented by the spin and orbital velocities of Jupiter. The original impact, therefore the plume was at 22 ° South Latitude, combined with Jupiter’s obliquity and inclination, these bodies were ejected into orbits with inclinations up to 25 degrees resulting in the main asteroid belt, the Kuiper belt, and millions more into the inner solar system, such as the Kreutz sungrazers, thousands of which have been observed by Sun staring probes like SOHO in the last decade. The inclinations of those ejected into the inner solar system cause them to arc below and above the plane of the solar system, sparing the Earth from their impacts.
During the last 6,000 years, a number of large bodies from the Jupiter (Juno) plume have impacted Saturn resulting in nuclear explosions on its highly deuterated methane gas hydrate surface, inflating its atmosphere (d=0.687) and ejecting water which has formed its many satellites and rings. In recent decades several ‘spots’ have been observed in its atmosphere thought to be ‘storms’ in the ‘gas giant’ hypothesis, which are actually mushroom clouds reaching the cloud-tops, from nuclear impacts. Also, shadows of ejected material regularly appear on its rings. Plume bodies have also impacted Uranus and Neptune and triggered nuclear fusions on their surfaces, explaining one of many unanswered questions about the giant planets – their hot upper atmospheres and the continual presence of methane and He3+.
All of these ‘mysterious’ observations and many more, are the result of the enormous impact explosion on Jupiter 6,000 years ago observed by every creature on Earth.
Prov. 25:2 It is the glory of God to conceal [these] things; but the glory of kings is to search [them] out.