Image of Constant Fusion on Jupiter

•December 3, 2017 • Comments Off on Image of Constant Fusion on Jupiter

Fig. 1. Fusion reaction flowing to GRS below clouds. Reflected energy from NEB.

The primary evidence, that Jupiter is a solid, highly deuterated Methane Gas Hydrate (MGH) planet, lies in its high temperature, multiple zonal ‘wind bands’ (vortices) and powerful magneodisk, all of which are driven by a continuous nuclear fusion reaction on the MGH surface located  ~50,000 km east of the Great Red Spot. Depending on the positions and densities of the clouds, a number of IR images give clear pictures of the fusion reaction and its flow to the Great Red Spot, as in Figure 1.

This fusion of deuterium and protons was triggered by the impact, 6,000-years BP, out of which proto-Venus was born. The hot expanded Jupiter and the plume which shot 2 million km into space, rotating left-to-right every 9-10 hours, were observed by all human cultures for 5,000 years, and called Juno by the Romans. The confirmation of Jupiter’s high deuteration is proven by the slow, 6,000-year decline of the reaction, now the lowest temperature fusion possible, confined by the high atmospheric pressure at the surface, some 700 km beneath the cloud-tops.

                                    p + d -> 3He++ +γ

As discussed previously the primary source of energy from this reaction is the kinetic energy of light, fast (20,000 km/s), 3He++, helium nuclei. These form a hot, counter-clockwise, vortex (Coriolis), which is swept west beneath the cloud-tops due to Jupiter’s rapid eastward rotation, 17,275

Fig. 2. A portion of the 3He++ particles deflected to the poles to form auroral ovals.

km/hr, appearing as the Great Red Spot (Figure 1). The reaction produces 1030/s of these unique particles, all of which have the same high energy, They exit the GRS and, given the angular momentum of Jupiter, circle to the east (prograde), forming what is currently known only as the ‘inner radiation belt’ thought to be ‘mirroring’ ions, the origin of which are unknown. This monoenergetic, circling stream of positively charged high speed particles (yellow in Fig. 2) constitures an electic current that produces the powerful, unique magnetodisk of Jupiter. These particles are invisible, but produce cyclotron/synchrotron radiation currently attributed to electrons. Portions of the stream exiting the GRS are also deflected to the poles, forming the constant auroral ovals (blue Fig. 2). The Juno JEDI ion instrument has been powered down near the inner radiation belt to protect the instrument, minimizing the chance of identifying the particles.

 

Solar System Cosmogony

•November 28, 2017 • Comments Off on Solar System Cosmogony

Solar System Formation

It is an accepted idea among astronomers, that solar systems may be born in cold Large Dark Nebulae (LDN), but this view has not been applied to our system.  This is indeed the origin of our solar system, which comprises the complement of element abundances in the LDM. Radio astronomy has detected  the most plentiful elements and molecules, composed of hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, and greatly enhanced fractions of deuterium in some LDNs. Heavy elements, formed by previous generations of stars are present in the form of ‘dust’ particles, which make the LDNs dark. At temperatures below 50 K, the surfaces of the tiny dust grains, or nano particles, ~ 10 μm or less, provide the catalyst for atoms to form molecules, which completely coat them. At these low temperatures, the most plentiful elements, H > O > C naturally form highly deuterated Methane Gas Hydrates (MGH), the nominal composition of which, (CH4)4(H2O)23, matches their abundances in our solar system. MGH crystallizes naturally in the low temperatures of LDNs, made more stable due to the enhanced deuterium levels. MGH is a known clathrate, in which twelve or more water molecules form cages which physically encapsulate all manner of ‘foreign’ (dust) particles. Because the heavy elements are already coated with ice, the formation of MGH provides the means for accretion of the dust particles  – a problem which is never adequately addressed in the currently accepted, Laplace et al., models of accretion of the terrestrial planets. As the elements, close to the rotational center of the LDN, contract to form the proto-star, the giant planets, which comprise the nascent solar system are already forming. This is the only ‘accretion’ that takes place in a solar system.

Terrestrial Planet Formation

The terrestrial planets are formed, perhaps billions of years later, when a body from the local galaxy passes through the system and impacts one of the giant planets, in our system Jupiter. Due to their highly deuterated, densely packed solid MGH composition, the impact compresses and heats the local MGH initiating an enormous fusion explosion, producing a plasma cloud which rebounds into the inner solar system containing the known abundances of the elements and, over time, contracts, soldifies and forms a new terrestrial planet. In this paradigm, each terrestrial planet is formed by a unique explosive impact, that is, each has a unique age. Based on the currently accepted paradigm of planetary science, unifromitarionism, the terrestrial planets are all the same age, 4.6 billion years. If this were true we would have no additional information.

Venus

However, we do have lots of information on this process, in the current states of both Jupiter and Venus. Proto-Venus was born of such an explosive impact on Jupiter only 6,000 years BP (Before the Present). Dozens of probes have visited both Jupiter and Venus and provided volumes data consistent with this recent explosive impact, but the meaning has been obscured by the current uniformitarian assumption, that the terrestrial planets are all 4.6 billion years old. The fact that Venus has a surface temperature of 864 degrees F, hot enough to melt lead and zinc, is rotating counter to its orbital motion and the rotation has decreased by 6 minutes in the last 30 years and has no magnetic field proves it is a molten sphere of heavy elements. Only the heaviest elements have condesnsed, forming what will become its mantle. All the lighter elements blasted from Jupiter 6,000 years ago are still floating in the inner solar system and will only settle to the surface after it cools. In fact, that material, called “inter stellar material”, 60 tons of which is falling to Earth every day is also what causes the zodiacal light and 65,000 house-sized comets falling to Earth every day. My Venus paper explains the data collected to date, including its bimodal atmosphere, the lowest 50 km of which is dominated by sulfur jetting from over a million small domes imaged by Magellan, directly to 50 km where it forms a unique 2-km thick lower cloud layer comprised of three types of sulfur crystals. This, and not carbon dioxide, is the origin of the high surface pressure of 92 atmospheres.

Jupiter

The Juno mission has now made 10 science passes close to Jupiter, revealing an near homogenous distribution of mass throughout, as predicted by the Methane Gas Hydrate composition. Four  anomalies of mass and magnetic field  have been detected on the surface, which are the result of the impacts out of which the existing planets, Mars, Earth, Venus and perhaps the Moon, were created. The recent impact, 6,000 BP, left behind a slowly declining fusion reaction on Jupiter’s surface, the products of which exit the cloud-tops as the Great Red Spot. This impact also produced the Galilean moons evidenced by their inverse mass to orbital radius relationship. The fusion reaction is producing 1030 helium nuclei (~10 MeV) per second, the kinetic energy of which is warming the entire planet, generating the multiple zonal vortices and releasing the heavy element particles encapsulated in the MGH, which comprise the visible clouds. The high energy helium nuclei are circling the planet, generating its unique, powerful, magnetodisk due to their double electrical charge, which has made it impossible for the JEDI energetic particle detector to identify them. The circulating helium nuclei are currently recognized only as the ‘inner radiation belt’, imagined as something to be avoided, but have not ben identified by any Juno instruments.

No Big Bang

The impact explosion out of which proto-Venus was born has profound consequences for Big Bang cosmology. The ancient texts of every culture tell that the explosion caused the entire Earth to cry out. Therefore the entire Earth was the sensor which detected the gravitational impulse due to the instantaneous blasting of the Venus mass more than fifty million miles. The radiation from the explosion is speeding outward in all directions isotropically, except in the shadow of Jupiter, leaving a cold spot. As this radiation procedes, small amounts are reflected back toward the Earth by dust in the Milky Way galaxy. This reflected radiation is still being received and cosmologists claim it is radiation from the Big Bang. despite established alignments with our solar system, known as the ‘axis of evil‘, and the large-scale anomalies of the microwave sky. These same alignments first detected by WMAP, have been confirmed by Planck to have a number of highly improbable alignments with the plane and direction of motion (kinetic vector) of our solar system and multipole alignments, with a likelihood or combined probability < 0.008%. Furthermore, the  foreground nature of the observed radiation has been corroborated by the finding that the magnitude of the Planck radiation, measured ~10 years after WMAP, over the entire sky is several percent less than the WMAP, which could not be the case if it were from the big bang. Conversely, the recent radiation from the birth of Venus would be expected to decline rapidly. Any future measurements will confirm this unequivably. Cosmologists ignore these negating factors and continue to expound about the big bang, the evidence for which is non-existent. The primordial isotope ratios found in the Cytherian atmosphere, the high concentration of deuterium and the small amount of 40Ar (= 36Ar) compared to that on Earth are the result of the high temperature of the explosive impact which created a pure plasma, out of which primordial isotopes formed. This means that many ‘Little Bangs’ have  created deuterium and it is not the product of the ‘Big Bang’. This could be proven unequivocally by the detection of 26Al in Venus’ atmosphere, a primordial element with a half-life 7.17×105 years.

The Future of Planetary Science?

The failure to understand both Venus and Jupiter is already leading to discussions of additional billion-dollar probes most likely ten years in the future. These will waste the careers of the next generation of aspiring planetary scientists if they remain suffocated by the uniformitarian paradigm.

Job 38:3-7

Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth? declare, if thou hast understanding. Who hath laid the measures thereof, if thou knowest? or who hath stretched the line upon it? Whereupon are the foundations thereof fastened? or who laid the corner stone thereof; When the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy?

 

 

 

Sunspots ala CyclicCatastrophism (Update)

•November 22, 2017 • Comments Off on Sunspots ala CyclicCatastrophism (Update)

Fig. 1 Fifty years of constant Sun observation. Credit: NAOJ/Nagoya University/JAXA

This post is a response to “Variation of the Solar Microwave Spectrum in the Last Half Century”, Masumi Shimojo et al.  Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848, Number 1. The abstract states: “… we found that the microwave spectra at the solar minima of Cycles 20–24 agree with each other. These results show that the average atmospheric structure above the upper chromosphere in the quiet-Sun has not varied for half a century, and suggest that the energy input for atmospheric heating from the sub-photosphere to the corona have not changed in the quiet-Sun despite significantly differing strengths of magnetic activity in the last five solar cycles.”

See Figure 1.

Cyclic Catastrophism

Fig. 2 ‘comet’ 67P, a Juno asteroid, 533 kg/m,3 dimensions 4.34 km × 2.60 km × 2.12 km

The number of posts concerning sun spots on this site can be seen simply by entering clicking here . The reason for this interest is the link between the sun spots and the impact on Jupiter out of which proto-Venus was created 6,000 years ago. The fusion explosion ‘left behind’ on Jupiter was manifested as a two-million km plume, known as Juno, which could be seen rotating left and right every nine hours for thousands of years and was therefore imagined to be Zeus’ shield (Aegis) used in combat (Figure 3) . The same impact created the Galilean moons. The birth of Venus proved that Jupiter comprises the full range of the known solar system abundances distributed evenly throughout its solid, methane gas hydrate body and the material ejected by the plume had the same composition. The longevity of the plume, now manifest as the Great Red Spot 6,000 years later, proves that Jupiter is highly deuterated. As the plume material cooled, condensed and solidified, small plastic pieces, travelling in similar directions, combined (splatted) to form grotesque, black, low density, strangely tough bodies, exemplified by 67P Churymov-Gerasiemento (Figure 2). Many millions of these were ejected throughout the solar system due to the vector sum of Jupiter’s orbital velocity 13.7 km/s and its rapid spin, some 12 km/s, forming all of the main-belt and Kuiper belt asteroids. One obvious class of these Juno asteroids are the Trojans, of which there are known to be more than a million ‘orbiting’ at Jupiter’s Lagrange points.

One class of these Juno asteroids has been invisible to astronomers until recently, the Kreutz sungrazers. The sun-staring probes, SOHO and STEREO, have observed over 2,500 of these asteroids dissappearing into the Sun since 1995 and several hundred more are now known to be in exactly the same orbit, approaching the sun from below the ecliptic plane, because they were ejected from 22 degrees S Latitude, the location of the Great Red Spot.

Sun Spots

Fig. 3  Sun Spot Butterfly diagram (top) shows latitude of spots versus date within each cycle.

What is currently known as the solar, or sun spot cycle, has a period of ~11 years, slightly less than Jupiter’s orbital period, due to the relativistic precession of their orbits close to the Sun (Figure 3). Each ‘butterfly’ cycle begins with spots at high north and south latitudes because the Kreutz orbit is inclined and slightly eccentric due to the inclination and eccentricity of Jupiter’s orbit at the times of the ejections. The spots are symmetrically located (N-S) because those bodies which impact on the approach are coming from the south and if they just miss the Sun, they pass through the ecliptic, then impact on the north of the far side. For short periods between the active periods (the butterflys) the Kreutz orbit fails to hit the sun, allowing observations of the undisturbed solar surface, which is the subject of the cited paper, then the next 11-year-cycle begins (Figure 1).

Despite the SOHO and STEREO observations, that none of the Kreutz

Fig. 4 Polarity reversal at of Suns Magnetic Field at sunspot max (top and bottom)

sungrazers have survived their Sun encounters, solar scientists insist that they are not the cause of sunspots, partly because their coal-like color results in the underestimation of their masses, while scientists assume they are composed of water ice. these Juno asteroids are very  hard as proven by Rosetta’s Philae lander. Perhaps the most important reason is that the sunspots can be seen to be magnetically polarized  by studying the iron spectra within them. Even more deceptive, the spots are polarized in the direction opposite to the sun’s magnetic field at the beginning of each active period. To complicate the picture, the magnetic field of the sun reverses at the peak of each cycle, as shown in Figure 4 at top and bottom. Because of these magnetic ‘anomalies’ the scientists believe the spots are generated by the magnetic field deep within the Sun. The additional facts which corroborate the cyclic catastrophism hypothesis are: (a) the sunspots are several thousand degrees cooler than the normal surface; (b) always exhibit the spectrum of iron and water; and (c) based upon Doppler shifts are plunging into the Sun at 30,000 km/hr.

Due to the variation of the active periods, the cited paper notes with surprise that in the four quiescent periods between four active sun spot periods, the microwave radiation from the Sun has been exactly the same: ” …  that the average atmospheric structure above the upper chromosphere in the quiet-Sun has not varied for half a century, and suggest that the energy input for atmospheric heating from the sub-photosphere to the corona have not changed in the quiet-Sun… despite significantly differing strengths of magnetic activity in the last five solar cycles.”

Magnetic Features of the Juno Asteroids

The 67P-like, Juno asteroids condensed and crystalized from the hot plume while still within the enormous magetic field of Jupiter. As they approached the Sun they became oriented opposite the sun’s magnetic field. As a result, they strike the surface of the sun oriented opposite the existing solar magnetic field direction.  The impacts of the large number of reverse-oriented Juno asteroids at the peak of each cycle is sufficient to reorient the observed magnetic field of the entire Sun. This proves that the field is a superficial, surface aspect of the sun, due only to the explosive impact on Jupiter ~ 6,000 years BP. This view is supported by the observations noted in the cited paper, that the good old, constant sun lies beneath the influx of Juno asteroids and will be there for millions of more years.

Composition of the Sun

The currently accepted composition of the Sun has been effected by the events of cyclic catastrophism in two ways. The Juno asteroids have disguised the composition of the solar interior, evidenced by the emission lines from the photosphere. Secondly, during the same period innumerable small rocky/iron bodies blasted from Mars when it orbited the Earth 3687 to 687 BC, are continually falling into the corona, or atmosphere of the Sun, which is 200 solar radii from the visible surface. The UV radiation from these impacts has, until recently, been interpreted as temperature of the entire layer at millions of degrees, but since the impacts have been telescopically resolved, they have been labeled nanoflares. But solar scientists still believe that the nanoflares are being shot upward 200 solar radii by the magnetic field of the Sun.

This results in another misinterpretion, that the Fraunhofer, or absorption spectra, due to the elements in these small bodies deposited in the corona, give information on the composition of the Sun itself. Further, the similarities of the absorption spectra with the non-volatile elements in meteorites on Earth has led to the idea that the entire solar system formed from meteorites.

1 Peter 2:12  Having your conversation honest among the Gentiles: that, whereas they speak against you as evildoers, they may by your good works, which they shall behold, glorify God in the day of visitation.

 

 

 

Castle Deep in Lake Van

•November 19, 2017 • Comments Off on Castle Deep in Lake Van

Castle Beneath Lake Van

Fig. 1.  Lake Van Turkey in which the ruins of 3,000-year old castle have been found

As discussed in previous posts, the planet sometimes called priori-Mars in earlier posts, i.e. Mars before it finally lost its solid core, Mercury, in 687 BC, was captured in a geostationary orbit above Mt. Kailas one hundred times for 14.4 years and escaped into a planetary orbit crossing that of the Earth for 15.6 years (Figure 2.). Therefore, these cycles were each 30 years long. ‘Scientists’ scoff at this, because it is a miracle far beyond their ability to explain using the laws of physics, which this author has done. Cyclic Catastrophism, the subject of this blog site, explains it in the context of a complete resurfacing and rebuilding of the continents of the Earth for mankind, which resulted in the ‘collateral’ reorganization of the inner solar system. The denial of this intervention into the world has led science into the dead-ends of evolution of human beings from apes, gradualism in geology, uniformitarianism  in planetary science and the arrogance of astrophysicists bragging that they can fathom the creation of the universe in a small

Fig. 2. Orbits of Earth, Mars and proto-Venus between Mars’ geostationary encounters geostationary encounters showing capture and release points.

amount of radiation they call the Cosmic Microwave Background. which wais actually generated by the impact on Jupiter 6,000 years ago, out of which Venus was born, currently being reflected back to the Earth from dust in space. The cosmic encounters that were required to accomplish this great change in the Earth provide profound knowledge of the physics for those who dare to pull their heads out of the proverbial sand of ‘consensus science’.  Earth is not a simple pale-blue, ordinary, dot, but a unique place in the universe. Is there intelligent life in the universe? You bet! But it is not in humankind. It has been demonstrated lavishly to our ancestors in the last 6,000 years, the observations of which have been passed down through ancient texts.

These captures and releases of priori-Mars, between 3687 and 687 BC, affected the Earth in many ways. It drew waters to form a stationary flood 5,000 meters high surrounding the Tibetan-Himalayan complex and covering northern India, Indra’s ‘home on Earth’. the flood waters were called the samudra or ‘confluence of waters’, mentioned hundreds of times in the Rg Veda,  The water was drawn horizontally, not lifted vertically, from the periphery of the spherical ‘cap’ centered at Mt. Kailas, emptying the Mediterranian, Red, Caspian, North seas, and lake Van for  14.4 years at a time, called a kalpa in the RgVeda. The repeated desiccations were the cause of the ‘Messinian Salinity Crisis’ and the records of human life found beneath the North Sea. The east-west flooding across the Eurasian Continent at the captures and releases of Mars, resulted in the invention of a salty Tethys ocean currently believed to have separated Laurasia and Gondwanda over 65 million years ago. In response to the floods, the pyraramids, tells and ziggurats were built around the world and the tidal effect made it possible for Akhenaten to build a city at Amarna in normally arid eastern Egypt. Geologists should understand that the orbiting priori-Mars, locked onto the Tibetan-Himalayan Complex, caused the entire lithosphere of the Earth, as a single unit, to rotate in a different direction and speed than the mantle of the Earth (tidal drag), allowing fresh lava to rise up into the continents and cool slowly to raise great masses of granite to float them higher and eliminate vast areas covered with shallow seas like the north american continent. Geologists have found incontrovertable evidence of this motion of the entire lithosphere, but cannot explain it in the currently accepted gradualism paradigm. The slowing of the Earth’s rotation during these cycles resulted in the need for two calendars of 360 and 365.25 during this 3,000-years period. Indeed, the 360 days per year allows the calculation of the speed difference of the lithosphere versus the mantle, during each kalpa. The entire foundations of life previously on priori-Mars when it was in an interior orbit, were blasted to the Earth from hundreds of volcanoes in its northern hemisphere by convulsions in its interior caused by alignments with the Moon, and greater ones when aligned with the Moon and Sun, which as stated in the Hebrew Torah, were matched intentionally to provide the maximum tidal effect on priori-Mars at the vernal equinox and solar and lunar eclipses.

The tidal drag of priori-Mars on the lithosphere also demonstrates how the Moon was captured, which happened during the Younger Dryas, resulting in the stabilization of the Earth and the initiation of the Holocene era.

 Isaiah 65:17 For, behold, I create new heavens and a new earth: and the former shall not be remembered, nor come into mind. …

1 Corinthians 3:18-19 Let no man deceive himself. If any man among you seemeth to be wise in this world, let him become a fool, that he may be wise. For the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God. For it is written, He taketh the wise in their own craftiness.

 

The Mystery of Jupiter’s Clouds

•November 12, 2017 • Comments Off on The Mystery of Jupiter’s Clouds

Fig. 1. Jupiter clouds which remain unidentified

Most people do not realize that the various colored clouds which cover the entire giant planet Jupiter are still a mystery. The first probe that reached the vicinity of Jupiter was Pioneer 10 in 3 Dec. 1973, roughly 34 years ago.  Since that mission another 12 missions have visited the giant, each carrying a different complement of instruments. Juno, currently orbiting Jupiter, has made eight close passes to refine the data of earlier missions without explaining the makeup of the clouds.

Planetary scientists still believe that the giant planets comprise 90% hydrogen and 10% helium, however, this assumption is being seriously challenged by the Juno gravitational, magnetic field and energetic particle data. Admittedly, nothing about the planet is turning out to be what they expected. This science has been plagued by the ‘gas giant’ assumption, with monumental steps being taken to make the data fit the the hypothetical model, rather than trying to understand their implications. The uniformitarion paradigm is the only one used to interpret data from every planet in the solar system.

Spectrometers can determine gaseous molecules by studying the spectral lines due to their chemical reactions or radiation emitted when high energy particles impact them. Molecules radiate more spectral lines in infrared spectrum when the air molecules impact one another due to collisions with other atoms. However, particulate aerosols suspended in an atmosphere, like volcanic clouds and smoke, usually <1 μm (micron), only radiate in broad spectral regions, seen as different colors, which do not enable the determination of their elemental composition.

Based on the ‘gas giant’ hypothesis, scientists predicted three distinct layers: ammonia, ammonium sulfide and water molecules.  Since ammonia has not been identified, the hypothesis has been changed to ammonia ice, i.e. particles, suspended in the upper atmosphere. The colors of the clouds are now thought to be caused by aerosols “probably the result of subtle chemical reactions of the trace elements in Jupiter’s atmosphere”. The gases that have been definitely identified are water and methane, but the amount of water is less than expected, leading to an estimated low amount of oxygen.

The Cyclic Catastrophism paradigm posits that Jupiter is a highly deuteraed, solid, low density Methane Gas Hydrate (MGH) body which formed cold in a Large Dark Nebula (LDN) where it incorporated the abundances of all the known elements in the solar system. MGH is a known clathrate,  in which twelve or more water molecules form cages which physically encapsulate foreign atoms and molecules. Ancient texts of numerous cultures describe the birth of Venus out of the head of Jupiter, roughly 6,000-years BP (Before the Present). These ‘myths’ are telling the modern era, via cyclic catastrophism, what actually took place recently before their eyes in the heavens, much of it close above the Earth. The conclusions drawn from these seemingly simple myths reveal the true nature of every planet in the solar system.

Fig. 2 The expanded incandescent Jupiter and the plume, known as Juno.

The impact explosion from which Venus was born, triggered a fusion reaction on Jupiter, called Juno, which has diminished for 6,000 years, but still drives all the features we observe on Jupiter. As it burns, the heat releases the entire range of elements trapped in the local area. The elements react to form unique compounds in the high temperature around the fusion reaction, producing particulate aerosols as the hot vortex rises to the surface and cools, appearing as the Great Red Spot. These particulate clouds being continuously formed from the entire range of known elements, form the clouds of Jupiter. One good example is CS, carbon sulfide, which forms tiny red crystals as it cools. These crystals are what makes the GRS red. CS is also present in the high temperature lower atmosphere of Venus, still unrecognized by planetary scientists.

Amazingly, planetary scientists do not know that all the known elements are present in enormous numbers in and on Jupiter, most distributed throughout the entire planet,

Fig. 3 Shoemaker-Levy 9 Impacts on Jupiter.

but over the last 6,000-years vast numbers have been cast into the atmosphere and have settled to the surface. Many heavy elements were revealed by the impacts of the larger Shoemaker-Levy 9 fragments on the solid surface of Jupiter, which caused fusion explosions, the rising mushroom clouds from which produced the ‘main events’ more than six minutes after they entered the atmosphere.

All of the giant planets are known to have methane in their atmospheres. This has never been satisfactorily explained. Its presence becomes obvious when we note their nominal composition, Methane Gas Hydrate, is (CH4)4(H2O)23. Therefore methane, which does not condense, is continuously being released by the fusion burning on Jupiter and by any comets that impact on the surfaces of the other giants.. Water is also released but as it rises in the hot vortex it combines with many of the heavy elements producing compounds that become unrecognizable aerosols and that which does not form complex compounds, condenses and falls as rain to the surface of Jupiter forming an ice mountain range which I have predicted lies to the east of the GRS at 22 deg. S. Latitude. The Juno gravity instrument should detect this feature.

2 Peter 3:5-7 For this they willingly are ignorant of, that by the word of God the heavens were of old, and the earth standing out of the water and in the water: Whereby the world that then was, being overflowed with water, perished. But the heavens and the earth, which are now, by the same word are kept in store, reserved unto fire against the day of judgement and perdition of ungodly men.

 

 

 

Undetectable Helium Ions on Jupiter?

•November 3, 2017 • Comments Off on Undetectable Helium Ions on Jupiter?

Fig.1 JEDI ion summary for PJ1 showing Time of Flight through the instrument as a function of energy from Solid State Devices. The energy distribution tentatively marked Mg/Na by JEDI team, is “off the chart”.

As discussed in a recent post, the Juno JEDI data for PJ1 revealed a large number of particles with a unique high energy distribution, which is consistent with the origin of Jupiter’s energy proposed on this site, a continuous nuclear fusion reaction on the surface, producing 1030 high energy helium ion/isotopes per second. This post explains why the Juno JEDI instrument is not identifying these particles correctly.

The sequence of reactions thought to power the Sun are:

  • p + p -> d + e+ + v     (p is proton, e+ is a positron and v is a neutrino)
  • p + d -> 3He+ + γ       (d is deuteron, γ  gamma ray and 3He+ is an isotope of helium)
  • 3He  + 3He -> 4He + p + p

This process is thought to be initiated by the fusion of two protons, or hydrogen nuclei, which requires a very high pressure and temperature (velocity) to overcome the mutual Coulomb repulsion. However, Jupiter  formed as cold, highly deuterated, solid methane gas hydrate. The second reaction above was triggered on Jupiter by an impact 6,000-years BP, which burns only 700 km below the cloud-tops 50,000 km east of the Great Red Spot. The reaction, usually written   p + d -> 3He+ + γ , is taking place at the lowest temperature of any nuclear fusion, e.g. the temperature of the reaction on Jupiter. It is contained by the high atmospheric pressure, perhaps in a depression, on the solid surface of Jupiter, at ~800 km below the cloud-tops. The low temperature on the Methane Gas Hydrate Jupiter eliminates the third step in the solar process because the  3He+ isotopes cannot fuse. As a result, a stream of high energy (9 MeV) 3He+ isotopes are produced, the circulation of which constitutes an electric current. This is one of the few aneutronic fusion reactions known. Instead of generating heat from dangerous neutrons, it produces a direct current, if the positive ions can be controlled as they are on Jupiter by Coriolis efect. The literature shows the fusion of a proton and a deuteron producing 3He+, implying the helium ions produced are singly charged. Considerable theoretical work has been done on the  3He+, giving the wavelength of a ground-state transition as 3.46 cm in H II regions, but the fusion active today on Jupiter, the high deuterium fraction on Venus and the radiation from the same impact currently being reflected back to the Earth, show that there no evidence of a ‘big bang’. .

These singly charged light helium isotopes are stable, having been found in gases rising from the Earth. What is ignored in the literature is that nuclear fusion reactions must produce nuclear particles, not atoms with electrons. Thus the reaction on Jupiter is producing 1030 doubly ionized helium isotopes, 3He++, all in the same high energy state. But these are not stable and can capture an electron to form the stable  3He+. Although their high energy distribution is recognized, (marked in Figure 1 as Mg/Na), I maintain that the double charge is preventing the JEDI ion detector from measuring the Time of Flight (TOF) correctly, thereby misidentifying the ions. The TOF is measured by electrons ejected when the ion passes thru two layers (start and stop) of foil and amplified by microchannel plates. The double charge on the ions is delaying the start pulse.

The acquisition of an electron, changing 3He++ to 3He+ would take place rapidly in a laboratory environment or a LDN, so it has never been noted, but cannot happen to the continuous, concentrated stream of  1030  ions per second being generated on Jupiter. Moving at 20,000 km/s, these doubly charged 3He++ isotopes/ions, which form the inner radiation belt and the auroral ovals, are lost to space or return to Jupiter in less than twenty seconds because the system is in equilibrium. As a result, they are the species which are encountered by Juno, and misidentified.

This also explains the fact that uncountable numbers of stable, high energy 3He+ ions have been identified by earlier missions. Ulysses, Cassini, and the Galileo orbiter at great distances from Jupiter, identified ‘storms’ of stable high energy helium ions 3Hebecause they had been dispersed through the enormous clouds of electrons surrounding the Jupiter system. Although the Galileo atmospheric probe was close to Jupiter, it also identified large numbers of high energy helium ions, 3He+ “of unknown origin” because some of the  3He++ ions captured electrons as they passed through the massive atmospheric heat shield, which had not yet been ejected and thereby became identifiable.

To see a world in a grain of sand, And a heaven in a wild flower, Hold infinity in the palm of your hand, And eternity in an hour.

– William Blake

More on Juno MWR Ammonia (Update)

•October 13, 2017 • Comments Off on More on Juno MWR Ammonia (Update)

Fig. 1. Aligned IR, visible photographs & MWR ‘ammonia’ in the cloud-free, North Equatorial Zone, best seen in the IR image.

Juno MWR scientists claim their radiometers are measuring an ammonia concentration near the equator of Jupiter and a depletion at all other latitudes.  A paper: “The distribution of ammonia on Jupiter from a preliminary inversion of Juno microwave radiometer data” by Li, Ingersoll, Janssen, Levin, Bolton et al. concludes as follows: “We have assumed that ammonia and water are well mixed below a sufficiently deep level in Jovian atmosphere. Finding a special place on Jupiter that resembles an ideal adiabat allows us to connect the deep abundances to shallow levels where they are measured by the Juno MWR … the EZ is a candidate for such a special place. An ideal adiabat with deep ammonia abundance of 350 ppm matches the measured brightness temperatures of channels 1, 2, and 3 but overestimates those of channels 4 and 5 by about 20 K. This discrepancy suggests that ammonia is more concentrated in the upper atmosphere than the uniformly mixed deep layers, probably due to the reevaporation of precipitated ammonia.”…  “The map of ammonia concentration was derived by assuming that there is no lateral temperature gradient on the equipotential surface, because both numerical simulations [e.g., Kaspi et al., 2009; Schneider and Liu, 2009] and infrared observations [e.g., Simon-Miller et al., 2006] suggest that lateral temperature differences could be weak (less than 10 K). If a large temperature contrast across equipotential surface are realized, as proposed by Allison [2000], they could imply some revision to our preliminary retrieval of the distribution of ammonia.”

The equipotential surface referred to is the equatorial zone (EZ) of Jupiter, the southern half of which is filled with aerosols while the northern half is clear (Figure 1, IR image). The MWR observations are referenced to an altitude of 0.5 bars. Because the MWR is thought to measure the absorption of IR radiation by ammonia, the calculated ammonia concentration increases shown are determined by the decreases in the brightness temperature in each channel. 

Fig. 2  Vortical surface winds showing eastward equatorial jet stream north of GRS. Coriolis becomes vertical at equator combining with the centrifugal force preventing vortical propagation of aerosols to North Equatorial Zone.

The Methane Gas Hydrate Model

A large temperature contrast across the Equatorial Zone is exactly what is proposed in the Methane Gas Hydrate Jupiter paper (Figure 2). A continuous fusion reaction of protons with deuterium on the surface of Jupiter, less than 800 km below the cloud-tops produces heat in the form of the kinetic energy of doubly ionized helium nuclei with only one neutron:

                                             p + d -> 3He++                                   (1)

These rise westward in the form of a vortex (Coriolis) of 1030/s, 9MeV,  3He++ ions,  to the Great Red Spot due to Jupiter’s rapid rotation, generating a westward surface vortex (yellow) which encircles the planet.  This, in turn, spawns secondary surface vortices of opposite chirality and direction to its north and south.  The fast 3He++ ions delineate the primary vortex, exit the planet via the Great Red Spot, and form the inner radiation belt which is the source of Jupiter’s magnetic field. The clouds in the surface vortices are formed by the high temperature reactions of the full range of known solar system elements, as oxides, sulfides, sulfates, carbonites and carbonates, being released from the methane gas hydrate by the heat of the fusion reaction, which crystallize as the vortex rises and expands. Because of this complex elemental makeup, the compounds comprising the visible clouds have never been identified. Juno scientists, lacking any positive detection of ammonia, suggest that they might be ‘ammonia snow’.

Fig. 3. MWR channel 1 at top, low temperature at top. Arrows mark low temp of rising aerosols at equator.

Generally, the ‘top’ of each vortex is currently termed a ‘zone’, while the converging areas between vortices, alternately ascending and descending, are called belts. However, the surface vortex comprising the eastward moving, south equatorial zone, north of the main vortex (yellow) is prevented from spawning a vortex to its north because the Coriolis effect becomes vertical at the equator, adding to the centrifugal force due to the rapid rotation of Jupiter, causing the aerosols to rise vertically forming clouds, as shown in the visible image (center) of Figure 1, Figure 2 and as low temperature spikes in the MWR used in the cited paper (Figure 3).  This prevents the aerosols from being carried across the equator, resulting in an aerosol-free, north equatorial zone, as shown in the IR image (left) in Figure 1 and the low temperature from 0 to 5 degrees north in Figure 3. Since clouds are not present, the lower temperature radiation in this zone is from the solid methane gas hydrate surface of the planet, approximately 800 km below the cloud-tops.

The Figures 1 (IR), 2, and 3 show the apparent hot-spots at the northern edge of the equatorial zone (NEB) which correspond to large visible clouds in visible range photo (middle).  In the Li paper, this radiation is described as:

“The positive brightness temperature anomaly in the North Equatorial Belt (NEB) at 10–20°N is the other prominent feature in the spectra; it can be interpreted as a significantly low concentration of ammonia. The high brightness temperature in the NEB in channels 5 and 6 is consistent with ground-based observations [Bjoraker et al., 2015; Fletcher et al., 2016]. The largest temperature anomaly is on the southern side of the NEB at shallow depth, and then it gradually shifts to the northern side of the NEB at greater depth. The slope change in the spectra was never expected or observed before. Although the NEB and the South Equatorial Belt (SEB) look similar in both the visible images and the infrared images at 5 μm [Orton et al., 2017], they are very different in the microwave spectrum. The brightness temperature anomaly in the NEB continues to 50–60 bars, while the brightness temperature anomaly in the SEB diminishes at about 10 bars. This huge north-south asymmetry is also not expected.” They interpret this hot-spot as strongly ammonia depleted, shown as the  blue area of Figure 1.

 

Fig. 4. Galileo Probe entry point (circled), directly north of fusion reaction.

In the solid Methane Gas Hydrate Jupiter hypothesis, the fusion source, which heats the entire planet and is the source of Jupiter’s magnetic field and auroral ovals, is on the surface, 800 km below the cloud-tops at 22 deg. S. Latitude (Figure 4). Although the primary source of energy from it is the kinetic energy of the 3He++ ions rising toward the Great Red Spot, the gamma radiation (γ) in equation (1 above) on the surface heats the immediate area, radiating in all directions.  Some of this radiation passes through the clear zone discussed above and is reflected upward by the clouds shown in the visible image in Figure 1, and seen in IR as hot-spots. Amazingly, the Galileo Atmospheric Probe entered the brightest of these spots, directly north of the fusion reaction, circled in a photo on the cover of Science Magazine, 10 May, 1996, by a Galileo scientist (Glenn Orten?), which featured the first detailed results of that mission. As a result, this reflected radiation spectrum, mentioned in the Li paper above, is quite different from the near-surface radiation of the South Equatorial Belt. This is the same hot-spot which the Juno MicroWave Radiometer scientists interpret as being mysteriously depleted in ammonia.

The Methane Gas Hydrate hypothesis predicts that Jupiter is ~80% water by weight. The water detected by the Galileo probe was released by the heat of the fusion reaction, and rains out of the hot vortex as it rises and expands. This leads to the suggestion that a linear mountain range on the surface extends thousands of km eastward from the Great Red Spot at 22 deg. S Latitude. This may have been observed by Juno gravity and MWR on PJ 7 which passed over the GRS.

The article refers several times to: ” the ammonia abundance range given by Galileo Probe Mass Sprectrometer.” which entered Jupiter’s atmosphere in the clear zone. It measured methane, water, argon, neon, and hydrogen sulfide and detected krypton and xenon. However, Ammonia was not detected, only inferred from the attenuation of the sunlight, in order to justify the gas giant hypothesis.

Romans 12:2 And be not conformed to this world: but be ye transformed by the renewing of your mind, that ye may prove what is that good, and acceptable, and perfect, will of God.