Mars – Earth Connections

•October 7, 2017 • Comments Off on Mars – Earth Connections

Mars close to the Earth

Fig. 1 UV image of solar corona, indicating temperatures of millions of degrees.

As discussed in a number of previous posts, Mars became captured in a geostationary orbit 36,000 km above Mt. Kailas, in the TransHimalayas, for 14.4 years and then was released into a planetary orbit for 15.6 years. This 30-year cycle was repeated one hundred times between 3687 and 687 BC, and observed by one hundred generations of mankind who incorporated observations of these events in ancient texts. In the Rig Veda the capture periods were called kalpas and ‘days of Brahma‘. In Egyptian myth they were called ‘inundations‘ due to the tidal effect of Mars (Horus on the Horizon), which drew the Nile waters across eastern Egypt, increasing the fertility there.

During each kalpa, Mars exerted a continuous tidal effect on the Deccan Traps volcanism, drawing the subsurface asthenosphere rock upward producing an additional 20-meter thick layer, ‘traps’ meaning steps. Therefore, the Deccan Traps represent a geological clock covering approximately 3000 to 687 BC, herein dubbed the Vedic Period. It is impossible to drill through the many layers of the Deccan Traps. Instead, different provinces have been dated, where older sections of the traps are exposed. This has proven difficult for several reasons. Most significantly, theTrap’ rocks do not give the ancient dates that geologists expected, because they are less than 6,000 years old. Geologists maintain that potassium-argon, (K-Ar), dating does not work because the isotope ratios of argon in the atmosphere have changed. That is true, because the entire atmosphere of the Earth changed during the Vedic Period due to the influx of the entire Martian atmosphere.

To overcome this apparent obstacle, geologists have reverted to using the thin layers of material between the actual steps, called ‘separates’, assuming it is also of earthly origin. But these thin layers comprise material from Mars which fell from the atmosphere between kalpas. Although the (U-Pb) in zircons in the separates have a wide range of ages, those with the ages supporting the hypothetical Cenezoic period are chosen, thereby justifying the age of deepest layers of the Deccan Traps at 66 million years BP. The ‘separate’layers are proof that there was significant time between each of the one hundred rock layers.

During each kalpa, Mars exerted a ‘tidal drag’ on the lithosphere, causing it to revolve at a different rate than the mantle of the Earth. This provided a continuous source of lava from the asthenosphere for each basalt layer of the traps.  The lava that formed the Deccan Traps rose up in the Indian Ocean, the silicate material dissolved in the water and the rapid cooling produced tiny crystals, characteristic of basalt, a mafic rock. The same lava rising up beneath the continents around the world, where shallow seas existed, retained the silicates and cooled slowly forming the most beautiful felsic rock, granite, which, amazingly, exists only on the continents of the planet Earth. The less dense granite, lightens the continents  so they float higher providing more space for life. These amazing events all happened in the last 6,000 years, while mankind watched.

Rocks (maruts) and soil (waves of red dust carried by Vayu) were blasted to the Earth from hundreds of Martian volcanoes, covering the Earth, along with them the oceans, atmosphere, and biosphere, as Soma and manna. The material blasted from Mars now comprises the upper 10 to 50 km of the Earth’s crust. It includes stony, stony-iron, nickel-iron and rare earth elements – that comprise terrestrial planets. Despite this fact, geologists believe that all meteorites on Earth are from ‘asteroids’ except for a few that have oxygen isotope ratios similar to those measured by the Viking landers on Mars and a few breccias thought to be from lunar impacts.  In the cyclic catastrophism scenario, Mars was changing rapidly in the last 6,000 years, so the isotope ratios changed throughout the Vedic Period.

Innumerable rocks blasted from Mars during this period are orbiting invisibly in the inner solar system. Many are still falling to Earth, but even more are falling into the Sun at high velocities. Having relatively low masses, they are vaporized in the solar atmosphere, producing the solar corona. The high velocities of these bodies produce localized UV emissions which, because most of the ‘impacts’ are not optically resolved, have led to the generalization that the solar corona has a temperature of millions of degrees, determined primarily by the presence of UV emissions from highly ionized states of iron. The high temperature of the corona constitutes a major question in solar physics because astronomers have no idea of the innumerable rock bodies recently blasted into the inner solar system. The current view is “The high temperatures require energy to be carried from the solar interior to the corona by non-thermal processes, because the second law of thermodynamics prevents heat from flowing directly from the solar photosphere (surface), which is at about 5800 K, to the much hotter corona at about 1 to 3 MK (parts of the corona can even reach 10 MK)”.

The elements in the bodies impacting the corona are the source of the Fraunhofer absorption spectra and are currently interpreted as representing the elemental composition of the Sun. Moreover, the similarity of the solar absorption spectra to the composition of meteorites on Earth has led to the current belief that the Earth was formed from meteoritic material, originating from ancient, even pre-solar asteroids, mainly from the asteroid belt. Cyclic Catastrophism explains that there are only two types of asteroids: (1) large rocks blasted from Mars, known as Near Earth Asteroids, including short period comets, which are just near-surface rocks containing aquifers; (2) Those formed by the fusion plume from Jupiter in the last 6,000 years. The one example seen close-up, by the ESA Rosetta mission, ‘comet’ 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko.  Both classes of asteroids were produced in the last 6,000 years.

Relative Motion of Lithosphere

There are two complimentary global features on Earth that attest to the events which occurred in the Vedic Period. They are both due to the ‘tidal drag’ of Mars when it orbited close to the Earth. To their credit, modern geologists have uncovered the evidence shown in Figures 2 and 4, however, they have no idea of the cosmic events described in the ancient texts, which define an entirely new paradigm governing the recent history of the Earth and the solar system.

Fig. 2 Central Canada rapid isostatic recovery.

The first feature underlines the fact that no seasonal variations occurred on the Earth during each kalpa. The raised Himalayan-Tibetan complex acted as a ‘handle’ controlling the entire lithosphere, so when Mars, orbiting in the ecliptic plane became tidally bound to this great uplift, Mt. Kailas (31⁰ N. Lat.), was forced to remain on a temporary equator in the ecliptic plane for 14.4 years at a time. This established a temporary north pole during each of these periods, 31 ⁰ Lat from the north pole in what is now Central Canada. Unlike the north pole today, which receives some sunlight because the pole of the Earth is normally oriented toward Polaris, the temporary pole was normal to the ecliptic plane and received no sunlight during each kalpa. As a result, an enormous continental glacier, as high as 9,000 feet formed and melted 100 times at this location during the Vedic Period.

Modern-day geophysical measurements show that the Earth’s crust at this location is still experiencing the most rapid isostatic rebound on Earth, 10 mm/year, due to the cessation of this process only 2,700 years BP. Geologists assume that this continental glacier existed before 21,000 BP, during the ‘ice age’, but given the previously accepted nominal time required for complete isostatic recovery of ten thousand years, the glacier must have been in place much more recently. Desperate to explain this discrepancy, geologists have invoked a new hypothesis called ‘delayed isostatic rebound’.

Fig. 3. Rhythmic Touchet Beds on Earth

The one hundred formations and meltings of this glacier produced a number of other well-known geological features in North America, including the formation of the Great Lakes and floods from Glacial Lake Missoula and Lake Bonneville that deposited one hundred equally thick sedimentary layers in the Walla Walla valley. There are many ‘rythmic’, equally thick layers on both the Earth and Mars.

Fig. 4. Present-day motion of lithosphere revealing motion during kalpas. Mt. Kailas (red), Temporary North pole (blue).

The second, even more definitive feature shows the westward path of the lithosphere relative to the mantle during the kalpas. The velocity of the lithosphere, which was 24 km/h during the kalpas, has decreased to 1.7 cm/y in the last 2,700 years since Mars was released, but still accurately depicts the direction and global extent of the motion during the Vedic Period. Figure 4 shows the path of the highest velocity (the longest arrows) passing through the Mt. Kailas area, marked by this author in red. The path is described (disguised?) by geologists as a ‘toroidal field of degree 1’, but it is exactly the great circle that resulted from Mt. Kailas being forced to remain in the ecliptic plane. Note also that the north pole indicated by this motion is exactly at the location of the glaciation discussed above, in Central Canada (marked in blue).

Job 38:  4 Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth? declare, if thou hast understanding.

Job 38: 8 Or who shut up the sea with doors, when it brake forth, as if it had issued out of the womb?

Job 38: 11 And said, Hitherto shalt thou come, but no further: and here shall thy proud waves be stayed?

 

Juno Jupiter Mystery (Update2)

•September 28, 2017 • Comments Off on Juno Jupiter Mystery (Update2)

The Current State of JUNO

The lead scientist, Dr. Scott Bolton, admits essentially that Jupiter is not a gas giant, stating ” We’re seeing a lot of our ideas were incorrect Continue reading ‘Juno Jupiter Mystery (Update2)’

Large Craters on Jupiter

•September 9, 2017 • Comments Off on Large Craters on Jupiter

Fig. 1. Magnetic field anomalies on the solid MGH Jupiter, marking ancient impacts.

The Juno Radio Science (gravity) experiment is indicating a large “stable” homogeneous mass distribution within Jupiter out to approximately 0.972 RJ rather than the small, ten to twenty Earth-mass rocky-iron core required in the ‘gas giant’ hypothesis to quickly attract all the hydrogen and helium gases before they escaped the nascent solar system. In addition, medium scale variations in the gravity data are being interpreted as due to mass atmospheric ‘flows’. Coincidentally(?), Juno MAG data suggests four large roughly circular anomalies in the surface magnetic field in the same areas.

The nominal composition of Jupiter, Methane Gas Hydrate, is (CH4)4(H2O)23 , therefore powerful impacts and the heat of the subsequent sustained fusion reactions on the solid surface of Jupiter ‘melted’ considerable Methane Gas Hydrate in the area allowing vast amounts of methane to escape, resulting in the partial filling of the craters with pure water. In the cyclic catastrophism model, both gravity and MAG anomalies mark large basins or flooded palimpsests produced by ancient impact explosions which ejected sufficient mass to produce the terrestrial planets.

The solid MGH body of Jupiter cannot generate a magnetic field, but due to the uniformly distributed abundance of iron in the form of dust particles, ~318 times the mass of the iron in the Earth, it acts as a large, weak permanent magnet induced by the stream of 1030 high velocity helium ions (20,000 km/sec) circling a few thousand km above the equator which generate its external magnetic field. Close to the surface, the magnetic field of Jupiter measured by Juno is influenced by the field induced in the solid interior. At the locations of the large craters, the entire water-filled palimpsests have lost all their iron, therefore the induced magnetic field anomalies measured by the Juno MAG instrument correspond to the gravity anomalies which extend to slightly deeper depths.

Scientists desperately trying to explain these correspondences have generated separate models of how the ‘flows’ in the upper layer effects the measured gravity and how the deeper, internally generated magnetic field drops off with distance from the center of Jupiter of the planet (see: Constraining Jupiter’s internal flows using Juno magnetic and gravity measurements, by E. Galanti et al. Geophysical Research Letters)…”that combines both fields to constrain the depth-dependent flow field inside Jupiter. This method is based on a mean-field electrodynamic balance that relates the flow field to the anomalous magnetic field, and geostrophic balance that relates the flow field to the anomalous gravity field.”  Dozens of variables and functions in these models have been ‘adjusted’ to match a proposed model.

No problem can be solved from the same level of consciousness that created it.      Einstein

Radiometers Measuring Ammonia?

•September 2, 2017 • Comments Off on Radiometers Measuring Ammonia?

Fig. 1. Juno MWR wavelength bands

Re:  Implications of the ammonia distribution on Jupiter from 1 to 100 bars as measured by the Juno microwave radiometer, Andrew Ingersoll et al.

The Juno MWR (MicroWave Radiometer) experiment is a combination of six radiometers designed to detect infrared radiation at different wavelengths. Because longer wavelength radiation penetrates gases deeper, the radiometer channels are designed to see deeper into the assumed gas giant, Jupiter, as shown in Figure 1.  As a result, all signals received by the instrument are currently being interpreted based on the gas giant assumption.

It is a well-known fact that, although the entire equatorial zone comprises a jet-stream super-rotating to the East, the north equatorial zone is clear of clouds and as a result more heat is radiating from it.  In fact it is the band or ‘hot spot’ into which the Galileo atmospheric probe entered, which was used as an ‘excuse’ why the predicted three cloud layers were not found. See: The Galileo probe mission to Jupiter: Science overview, Young

All six of the MWR channels detect elevated heat radiation from the north equatorial zone every time Juno crosses it, but the MWR scientists are so locked into the ‘gas giant’ hypothesis, that they believe the radiation is coming from the whole range of depths shown in Figure 1. Worse yet, they have added another assumption, stated as follows:

“Variations in brightness temperature are interpreted as variations in ammonia rather than variations in physical temperature because otherwise the winds would be an order of magnitude larger than those observed. Thus, the MWR measures the distribution of ammonia below the weather layer.” ” At microwave frequencies, ammonia vapor is the main opacity source…”

This is a revival of the here-to-fore unsuccessful attempts to find ammonia on Jupiter, discussed in the above referenced paper (Young). Radiometers are passive instruments which measure heat radiation. They are not spectrometers, therefore cannot measure ammonia.

Fig. 2. MWR Ammonia distribution within Jupiter between 40 N and S Latitudes. (top). Average wind velocity (mid). Local deviations of wind velocity(bot).

A fact which is not addressed in this paper is that the notorious three cloud layers imagined in 1999, ammonia, ammonium hydrogen sulfide and water were not detected by the Galileo atmospheric probe which reached a depth of 22 bars (220 km), and therefore ammonia has never been measured on Jupiter. The compounding of the two bad assumptions has led to the ridiculous conclusion that the ammonia in Jupiter is all concentrated like a pancake at the equator down to a pressure of 240 bars in the gaseous interior of Jupiter, as shown in Figure 2.  The top of this figure is an average of data collected on two science passes, between which the data did not change significantly. The six channels are thought to cover pressure levels of 240, 30, 9, 1.5 and 0.7 bars, with corresponding brightness temperature levels of 850, 460, 330, 250, 190 and 150.This structure is hypothesized to be a band of ammonia-rich air rising in the tropics and a band of ammonia-poor air sinking in the subtropics—a Hadley circulation. These two bands correspond to the northern half of the Equatorial Band from 0 to 5 degrees N Latitude and the North Equatorial Belt at 5 t0 20 degrees N Latitude. To explain this concentration of ammonia, it is imagined rise and freeze into snow and fall back to depth, but then somehow disappears. The authors admit that

“These early MWR data reveal unexpected features that are related to the dynamics of Jupiter’s atmosphere below the visible clouds. At present the MWR analysis only includes ammonia, and one does not yet know the water abundance, the winds, or the temperatures except down to 22 bars at the Galileo probe site. Our purpose here is to pose the questions raised by the early MWR data and offer a few possible answers in the hope of stimulating further work on the dynamics of Jupiter’s atmosphere.”

This conclusion was reached because the Juno MWR team could “find no way to explain a concentration of heat at the equator in a gaseous planet”. Fortunately, the data is safely stored and can be interpreted differently, consistent with other hypothesis which can be interpreted more realistically.

Fig. 3.  Toroidal surface winds showing equatorial jet stream

Cyclic Catastrophism

As illustrated in Figure 3, a powerful vortex of hot gases rises rapidly from the fusion furnace in a depression at the center of the original impact basin about 700 km below the cloud tops. It is deflected westward beneath the visible cloud layer some 50,000 km by the rapid rotation (40,759 km/h) of Jupiter at 22º S Lat., reaching the cloud-tops as the Great Red Spot. Its counter-clockwise rotation is due to the Coriolis effect which is proportional to the velocity of the helium ions > 20,000 km/hr.
The fusion source, hidden below the surface clouds, generates 1030 3He+ ions per second powering the hot vortex producing the unique features of the Jupiter system. Due to its horizontal extent, the hot vortex induces vortical motion in the primary surface vortex (yellow), which in turn spawns surface vortices of opposite chirality to its north and south, constrained beneath by the solid MGH surface of the planet. Thus, the localized fusion ‘furnace’ drives the entire atmospheric circulation, spreading its heat over the surface, disguising its highly-localized presence.
The rising hot vortex, swept westward due to Jupiter’s rapid eastward rotation, combined with the counter-clockwise rotation of the Great Red Spot at the surface results in a tremendous wind shear where it collides with the main prograde superrotation or jetstream which dominates the equatorial zone The horizontal shear is evident in the great turbulence generated on the north side of the GRS. Heat which is transferred to the Jet Stream at that shear zone is carried completely around the planet. The rotation of the GRS at the surface, in the horizontal plane, produces the strongest retrograde wind (150 m/s) in the south equatorial belt (yellow) on its north and the prograde wind of the south tropical band as shown in Figure 8. Although the GRS is at 22ºS. Lat. the steady momentum/energy transfer and the weak Hadley circulation, result in the known surface equatorial super-rotation of Jupiter’s atmosphere.

The significance of the strong Coriolis effect is demonstrated by the wind and clouds moving eastward (prograde) in the southern equatorial zone which becomes vertical at the equator and combines with the centrifugal force of the rapidly rotating Jupiter, inducing a vertical motion of the atmosphere and clouds (Figures 3). This is also observed as a slight dip in the equatorial wind velocity at the equator. The reversal of the Coriolis effect at the equator interrupts the propagation of the vortical motion through the equatorial zone, disrupting the vortex pattern. This results in the equatorial zone winds moving to the east but the north equatorial zone 0 to 5 º N remaining clear of clouds, allowing radiation from deeper in the atmosphere to escape. North of the equatorial zone a mirror image of the southern hemisphere vortices is established, conserving angular momentum. The vortical motion of the ‘wind bands’, still not understood by Juno team, is the result of the solid MGH surface which acts as a boundary, explaining the high wind speeds measured by the Galileo atmospheric probe down to its maximum depth (22 bar, 156 km), which exceeds the predicted depths of the touted three cloud layers.

The mind is like a parachute, if it is not open it does not work.

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Ancient Calendars

•August 26, 2017 • Comments Off on Ancient Calendars

Fig. 1 Orbits of Earth, Mars and proto-Venus between Mars’ geostationary encounters geostationary encounters showing capture and release points.

As explained in a previous post, hundreds of volcanoes blazed on Mars’ surface during each 14.4 year period, a kalpa in the Rig Veda, when it remained in a geostationary orbit above Mt.Kailas. During the periods between kalpas, 15.6 years, Mars remained in an orbit which crossed that of the Earth, from which it was recaptured on Nov. 1st, as shown in Figure 1. The differences in the length of the capture and release periods were because the captures and releases occurred at the two different dates where their orbits crossed, Nov.1st  and the vernal equinox respectively. During each kalpa, Mars became tidally locked to the Tibetan-Himalayan complex, therefore to the entire lithosphere, and its added mass-moment slowed the rotation of the entire lithosphere relative to the mantle. This is known technically as ‘tidal drag’. As a result, the years during each kalpa were only 360 days long, while they reverted to 365.25 days when Mars was released.

As a result of this repeated pattern, every culture maintained two calendars, one with 365.25 and the other with 360 days per year, the Egyptians and even the Mesoamerican cultures, the Aztec and Mayan. This ubiquitous feature presents an impossible ‘coincidence’, which is only explainable as a result of cosmic events. Failing to understand the implications, anthropologists believe that both calendars were used at the same time, that the 365.25 days per year referred to a ‘solar year’ and the 360 days per year to a lunar or sacred year and that both calendars were used year round. If a society has a yearly calendar of 365.25 years, what use would be a lunar calendar? It would become out of phase with the seasons, contradicting  the primary function of calendars in ancient times, to determine agricultural dates.

The currently accepted explanation of Egyptian religion is:

“In Egypt the ‘civil calendar’ was established at some early date in or before the Old Kingdom, and is currently thought to  be based upon astronomical observations of the star Sirius, the reappearance of which closely corresponded to the average onset of the Nile flood through the 5th and 4th millennium.”

This idea has been used to explain the calendars of Egypt and other Mideastern cultures. None of these cultures worshiped the star Sirius. The Egyptians called Mars ‘the dog star’ because it was misshapen due to the Tharsis Bulge, in fact, pictographs of Anubis are a characature of Mars. The names we use today, such as Sirius, were transferred from ancient cosmic objects to stars or constellations, once Mars, Venus and Mercury left the vicinity of the Earth. What the ancient Egyptian texts were describing was that when Mars, the dog-star,  became captured over the Mt. Kailas, an inundation ensued. This was a feature that lasted throughout every capture period, not the yearly inundation experienced in modern times. When Mars was captured, its tidal attraction drew the clear waters of the Nile over all of Eastern Egypt, greatly increasing the amount of arable land. As a result, each 14.4 year kalpa in Egypt was called an inundation, also a ‘Horus tekki‘ period, because it began with the appearance of Horus (Mars).

The Aztec calendar (Figure 2) is well-known. The circle has 360 ‘days’. with five ‘bad days’ arranged in and around the center, which when added to the 360, give 365.  This gave two calendars in one. The Mayan calendar, as currently interpreted by a few scholars, is much more difficult. It has two major periods, 260 days, broken up into 20 periods, each with 13 days, and 365 days broken up into 18 periods of 20 days. No one has ever solved the reasoning for these numbers. One simple possibility is that they used the Moon during both the capture and release periods and the documents are merely stating that during the kalpas the lunar period was 13 days while in the period between kalpas, the lunar period was 20 days. This difference in the lunar period would be due to the fact that during each kalpa the Moon was revolving about the center of mass of the Earth and Mars combined, while between kalpas it was revolving about the Earth alone.

These examples illustrate the futility of the current assumption of uniformitarianism in understanding anything about the solar system.

The mind is not a vessel to be filled. It is a fire to be lighted.  Plutarch

Reading, after a certain age, diverts the mind too much from its creative pursuits. Any man who reads too much and uses his own brain too little falls into lazy habits of thinking.  Einstein

Hurrah for positive science! long live exact demonstration! Fetch stonecrop mixt with cedar and branches of lilac,
This is the lexicographer, this the chemist, this made a grammar of the old cartouches,
These mariners put the ship through dangerous unknown seas. This is the geologist, … and this is a mathematician.
Gentlemen, to you the first honors always! Your facts are useful, and yet they are not my dwelling,
I but enter by them to an area of my dwelling.   Walt Whitman

 

Juno Above the Great Red Spot (Updated)

•August 1, 2017 • Comments Off on Juno Above the Great Red Spot (Updated)

Fig. 1 Juno passing above the GRS and the hot-spot, should encounter slower scattered helium ions that are detectable by the JEDI instrument.

On July 12, 2017 Juno passed directly over the Great Red Spot (GRS) and we are told that all sensors were operating. Because of the unique significance of the GRS in the Methane Gas Hydrate model of Jupiter presented in this blog site, we are anticipating some of the findings in this post.  A fusion reaction on the surface of Jupiter, ~ 700 km below the cloud tops produces an intense ‘tornado’ (Coriolis) of 1030 helium ions (3He+), which blast out of the GRS every second. They collide with the inner radiation belt, composed of the same helium ions at the O’Donaghue hot-spot, adding ions and imparting angular momentum of the rapidly spinning Jupiter to the belt. The high kinetic energy helium ions (>20,000 km/sec) which penetrate the hot-spot are captured in the magnetic field generated by what is presently known as the  ‘inner radiation belt’ and are carried helically toward the magnetic poles, producing the constant auroral ovals.

Amazingly, the kinetic energy of the invisible helium ions which dominate the Jupiter system, produce the excess luminosity, the multiple zonal wind bands (vortices) and the largest magnetosphere in the solar system. These helium ions have not been detected for three reasons (1) the helium ions are moving too fast to be detected by the JEDI SSD-TOF instrument; (2) All of the ions, newly produced by this reaction ( p + d -> 3He+ + γ ) are moving at the same velocity (>20,000 km/sec); (3) they are quickly lost from the system in < 30 sec and are continuously replaced by new ones with the same velocity. Due to the small (6 cm) size of its the JEDI cavity it cannot measure Time Of Flight of the helium ions the time of flight necessary to identify them. They are not radioactive, do not react chemically and do not radiate as a result of collisions, either at the O’Donaghue hot spot or where they strike the atmosphere creating the auroral ovals. However, storms of fast helium ions were detected by energetic particle detectors on Ulysses, Cassini, Galileo orbiter and probe at several AU from the Jupiter system. Because these ions are continuously produced at the rate of 1030/s, many are continuously being lost, either thru return paths to Jupiter’s atmosphere or to space.

Fig.2 Artist’s impression of Hot Spot above Jupiter’s GRS where helium ions collide with inner radiation belt. (O’Donaghue)

What is required is a process which reduces the velocities of a large enough sample of these helium ions within Juno’s orbit for the JEDI detector to identify them. The best chance to do this is on PJ7 above the hot-spot. Since 1030 ions per second are impacting the even more concentrated ion beam which circles the planet, where there must be sufficient collisions which scatter and produce  a distribution of velocities within the JEDI range. The only problem which might arise is that the JEDI TOF feature has been turned off during the 20 minute period of closest approach to avoid damage by the currently unknown high energy particles in the inner radiation belt.

Fig. 3 Juno crossing fusion crater

In the MGH model, there is a huge crater or palimpsest, partially filled in by water ice, centered 50,000 km to the east of the GRS, on the fusion reaction. As Juno makes the GRS pass it will detect the northern and southern edges of this impact crater roughly equal distances north and south of the GRS. This crater will be detected by both the Radio Science (gravity) and MAG (magnetic field) systems. As mentioned in previous posts, both systems are seeing anomalies from earlier impacts, but have as yet not made the connection, since the mindset of the entire Juno team remains on the old ‘gas giant’ hypothesis.

The six passive MWR radiometers will undoubtedly detect the hot-spot, but as on all prior science passes, they will interpret the signal in each wavelength channel as coming from different depths, instead of realizing that all channels are seeing the same heat source.

 

Jupiter’s ‘Synchrotron’ Radiation

•July 29, 2017 • Comments Off on Jupiter’s ‘Synchrotron’ Radiation
Jupiter Radiation Belts

Fig. 1.  Cassini scans of Jupiter’s inner radiation belt

“Synchrotron radiation is the electromagnetic radiation emitted when charged particles are accelerated radially, i.e., when they are subject to an acceleration perpendicular to their velocity (a ⊥ v). It is produced, for example, in synchrotrons using bending magnets, undulators and/or wigglers. If the particle is non-relativistic, then the emission is called cyclotron emission.” (1)
Radiation from Jupiter’s inner radiation belt was measured by the Cassini probe on 2-3 January 2001 when on its way to Saturn (Figure 1). The horizontally polarized radiation scans are shown on the left and vertically polarized scans, above and below the belt, are shown on the right. The horizontally polarized radiation is more powerful, but the intensity of both are very low – each horizontal/vertical pair of images shown in Figure 1 required a one hour scan across the disk of Jupiter. In the Methane Gas Hydrate hypothesis, these are both the result of unidirectional flows of intense (1030/sec), energetic (20,000 km/s) helium ions. At this velocity a helium ion travels from the fusion source, 700 km below the cloud-tops, through the GRS and once completely around the planet in 15 seconds.

Syncrotron_radiation_energy_flux

Fig. 2 Radiation patterns (A) Non-relativistic cyclotron and (B) Relativistic synchotron particles.

This was interpreted in 2002 as synchrotron radiation due to ultra-relativistic electrons with energies > 50 MeV. (2) The models constructed to explain the ultra-relativistic radiation (γ>>1) assumed the radiation detected was only that beamed in the direction of motion of the particles, as shown in (B) on the right in Figure 2. (3) Since the radiation from both the east and west of Jupiter are almost equally powerful, this assumption implied a ‘belief’ that the electrons are moving both prograde and retrograde (equatorial mirroring) in keeping with the analogy of the Earth’s Van Allen belts.
Controverting the above view, recent Juno JEDI measurements have determined that the ratio of energetic particles to ions near the inner radiation belt is much less than 1, indicating that most of the particles are ions, not electrons. (4) Only protons and heavier ions such as sulfur and oxygen were identified by Solid State Detector-Time-Of-Flight coincidence measurements, but no high energy helium ions, which we propose dominate the beam, because no JEDI TOF measurements were attempted within 20 minutes of closest approach to insure the health and safety of the instrument. The measured 90 degree pitch angles of the ions were interpreted as due to ‘equatorial mirroring’- thus assuming bidirectional velocities of the ions, prograde and retrograde, again, as in the Van Allen belts of Earth. Noting the previously determined decline of ion intensities immediately planetward of Io’s orbit (6 RJ), the authors attempt to explain the obvious question of the origin of the ions in the inner radiation belt, between 1.4 and 1.2 RJ suggesting a process of ‘stripping of neutral atoms’.

Given the inner radiation belt comprises fast helium ions, 3He++ circulating exclusively prograde, raises the question of the origin of the supposed synchrotron radiation, discussed above. The power of the radiation is given by:


Thus the power radiated by the ion beam would be reduced by their mass ratios (e/3He)4 =(1/6000)4 -> 1.66×10-16 but scaled by their energy, ~ 104 MeV, +2 positive charge giving (2e)and their great numbers, estimated to be 1031.

Cyclotron Radiation
However, if as proposed herein, the helium ions all circle Jupiter prograde at 20,000 km/s, a completely different situation would attain. This velocity results in a Lorentz factor essentially 1 (non-relativistic) meaning that the beaming assumed for the electron model would not be a factor for the proposed ion beam. Thus, the angular distribution of this cyclotron radiation would be similar to that shown in Figure 2 (A), with radiation in all azimuth directions but strongest when the angle between velocity and acceleration is +/- 90 degrees, that is, from the zones to both the west and east of Jupiter. This is exactly where the measured radiation is strongest (Figure 1). Thus, the proposed unidirectional ion beam produces the radiation both on the west and east sides of Jupiter. Assuming radiation was continuously received from all ions scanned by Cassini would greatly increase the total number of ions relative to electrons contributing to the image. The helium ion inner radiation belt also explains the slight east-west asymmetry of the radiation shown in Figure 1, which is due to the greater density of ions directly above the Great Red Spot, where they collide with the ion beam, as shown in Figure 1 of a previous post. The vertically polarized radiation, on the right side of in Figure 1 above, is radiation from the helium ions which are flowing to the poles, consistent with the MGH hypothesis. It is not as powerful as the main belt, because fewer helium ions follow that path. The vertically polarized sources in Figure 1 are smeared due to the horizontal scanning process and where superimposed on the disk of Jupiter are removed. The thermal radiation from the disk of Jupiter is much stronger than from the belts, so it is subtracted from the observed radiation signal, leaving the observed disk of Jupiter black in most scans.