Solar System Cosmogony

•November 28, 2017 • Comments Off on Solar System Cosmogony

Solar System Formation

It is an accepted idea among astronomers, that solar systems may be born in cold Large Dark Nebulae (LDN), but this view has not been applied to our system.  This is indeed the origin of our solar system, which comprises the complement of element abundances in the LDM. Radio astronomy has detected  the most plentiful elements and molecules, composed of hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, sulfur, nitrogen, and greatly enhanced fractions of deuterium in some LDNs. Heavy elements, formed by previous generations of stars are present in the form of ‘dust’ particles, which make the LDNs dark. At temperatures below 50 K, the surfaces of the tiny dust grains, or nano particles, ~ 10 μm or less, provide the catalyst for atoms to form molecules, which completely coat them. At these low temperatures, the most plentiful elements, H > O > C naturally form highly deuterated Methane Gas Hydrates (MGH), the nominal composition of which, (CH4)4(H2O)23, matches their abundances in our solar system. MGH crystallizes naturally in the low temperatures of LDNs, made more stable due to the enhanced deuterium levels. MGH is a known clathrate, in which twelve or more water molecules form cages which physically encapsulate all manner of ‘foreign’ (dust) particles. Because the heavy elements are already coated with ice, the formation of MGH provides the means for accretion of the dust particles  – a problem which is never adequately addressed in the currently accepted, Laplace et al., models of accretion of the terrestrial planets. As the elements, close to the rotational center of the LDN, contract to form the proto-star, the giant planets, which comprise the nascent solar system are already forming. This is the only ‘accretion’ that takes place in a solar system.

Terrestrial Planet Formation

The terrestrial planets are formed, perhaps billions of years later, when a body from the local galaxy passes through the system and impacts one of the giant planets, in our system Jupiter. Due to their highly deuterated, densely packed solid MGH composition, the impact compresses and heats the local MGH initiating an enormous fusion explosion, producing a plasma cloud which rebounds into the inner solar system containing the known abundances of the elements and, over time, contracts, soldifies and forms a new terrestrial planet. In this paradigm, each terrestrial planet is formed by a unique explosive impact, that is, each has a unique age. Based on the currently accepted paradigm of planetary science, unifromitarionism, the terrestrial planets are all the same age, 4.6 billion years. If this were true we would have no additional information.

Venus

However, we do have lots of information on this process, in the current states of both Jupiter and Venus. Proto-Venus was born of such an explosive impact on Jupiter only 6,000 years BP (Before the Present). Dozens of probes have visited both Jupiter and Venus and provided volumes data consistent with this recent explosive impact, but the meaning has been obscured by the current uniformitarian assumption, that the terrestrial planets are all 4.6 billion years old. The fact that Venus has a surface temperature of 864 degrees F, hot enough to melt lead and zinc, is rotating counter to its orbital motion and the rotation has decreased by 6 minutes in the last 30 years and has no magnetic field proves it is a molten sphere of heavy elements. Only the heaviest elements have condesnsed, forming what will become its mantle. All the lighter elements blasted from Jupiter 6,000 years ago are still floating in the inner solar system and will only settle to the surface after it cools. In fact, that material, called “inter stellar material”, 60 tons of which is falling to Earth every day is also what causes the zodiacal light and 65,000 house-sized comets falling to Earth every day. My Venus paper explains the data collected to date, including its bimodal atmosphere, the lowest 50 km of which is dominated by sulfur jetting from over a million small domes imaged by Magellan, directly to 50 km where it forms a unique 2-km thick lower cloud layer comprised of three types of sulfur crystals. This, and not carbon dioxide, is the origin of the high surface pressure of 92 atmospheres.

Jupiter

The Juno mission has now made 10 science passes close to Jupiter, revealing an near homogenous distribution of mass throughout, as predicted by the Methane Gas Hydrate composition. Four  anomalies of mass and magnetic field  have been detected on the surface, which are the result of the impacts out of which the existing planets, Mars, Earth, Venus and perhaps the Moon, were created. The recent impact, 6,000 BP, left behind a slowly declining fusion reaction on Jupiter’s surface, the products of which exit the cloud-tops as the Great Red Spot. This impact also produced the Galilean moons evidenced by their inverse mass to orbital radius relationship. The fusion reaction is producing 1030 helium nuclei (~10 MeV) per second, the kinetic energy of which is warming the entire planet, generating the multiple zonal vortices and releasing the heavy element particles encapsulated in the MGH, which comprise the visible clouds. The high energy helium nuclei are circling the planet, generating its unique, powerful, magnetodisk due to their double electrical charge, which has made it impossible for the JEDI energetic particle detector to identify them. The circulating helium nuclei are currently recognized only as the ‘inner radiation belt’, imagined as something to be avoided, but have not ben identified by any Juno instruments.

No Big Bang

The impact explosion out of which proto-Venus was born has profound consequences for Big Bang cosmology. The ancient texts of every culture tell that the explosion caused the entire Earth to cry out. Therefore the entire Earth was the sensor which detected the gravitational impulse due to the instantaneous blasting of the Venus mass more than fifty million miles. The radiation from the explosion is speeding outward in all directions isotropically, except in the shadow of Jupiter, leaving a cold spot. As this radiation procedes, small amounts are reflected back toward the Earth by dust in the Milky Way galaxy. This reflected radiation is still being received and cosmologists claim it is radiation from the Big Bang. despite established alignments with our solar system, known as the ‘axis of evil‘, and the large-scale anomalies of the microwave sky. These same alignments first detected by WMAP, have been confirmed by Planck to have a number of highly improbable alignments with the plane and direction of motion (kinetic vector) of our solar system and multipole alignments, with a likelihood or combined probability < 0.008%. Furthermore, the  foreground nature of the observed radiation has been corroborated by the finding that the magnitude of the Planck radiation, measured ~10 years after WMAP, over the entire sky is several percent less than the WMAP, which could not be the case if it were from the big bang. Conversely, the recent radiation from the birth of Venus would be expected to decline rapidly. Any future measurements will confirm this unequivably. Cosmologists ignore these negating factors and continue to expound about the big bang, the evidence for which is non-existent. The primordial isotope ratios found in the Cytherian atmosphere, the high concentration of deuterium and the small amount of 40Ar (= 36Ar) compared to that on Earth are the result of the high temperature of the explosive impact which created a pure plasma, out of which primordial isotopes formed. This means that many ‘Little Bangs’ have  created deuterium and it is not the product of the ‘Big Bang’. This could be proven unequivocally by the detection of 26Al in Venus’ atmosphere, a primordial element with a half-life 7.17×105 years.

The Future of Planetary Science?

The failure to understand both Venus and Jupiter is already leading to discussions of additional billion-dollar probes most likely ten years in the future. These will waste the careers of the next generation of aspiring planetary scientists if they remain suffocated by the uniformitarian paradigm.

Job 38:3-7

Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth? declare, if thou hast understanding. Who hath laid the measures thereof, if thou knowest? or who hath stretched the line upon it? Whereupon are the foundations thereof fastened? or who laid the corner stone thereof; When the morning stars sang together, and all the sons of God shouted for joy?

 

 

 

Sunspots ala CyclicCatastrophism (Update)

•November 22, 2017 • Comments Off on Sunspots ala CyclicCatastrophism (Update)

Fig. 1 Fifty years of constant Sun observation. Credit: NAOJ/Nagoya University/JAXA

This post is a response to “Variation of the Solar Microwave Spectrum in the Last Half Century”, Masumi Shimojo et al.  Astrophysical Journal, Volume 848, Number 1. The abstract states: “… we found that the microwave spectra at the solar minima of Cycles 20–24 agree with each other. These results show that the average atmospheric structure above the upper chromosphere in the quiet-Sun has not varied for half a century, and suggest that the energy input for atmospheric heating from the sub-photosphere to the corona have not changed in the quiet-Sun despite significantly differing strengths of magnetic activity in the last five solar cycles.”

See Figure 1.

Cyclic Catastrophism

Fig. 2 ‘comet’ 67P, a Juno asteroid, 533 kg/m,3 dimensions 4.34 km × 2.60 km × 2.12 km

The number of posts concerning sun spots on this site can be seen simply by entering clicking here . The reason for this interest is the link between the sun spots and the impact on Jupiter out of which proto-Venus was created 6,000 years ago. The fusion explosion ‘left behind’ on Jupiter was manifested as a two-million km plume, known as Juno, which could be seen rotating left and right every nine hours for thousands of years and was therefore imagined to be Zeus’ shield (Aegis) used in combat (Figure 3) . The same impact created the Galilean moons. The birth of Venus proved that Jupiter comprises the full range of the known solar system abundances distributed evenly throughout its solid, methane gas hydrate body and the material ejected by the plume had the same composition. The longevity of the plume, now manifest as the Great Red Spot 6,000 years later, proves that Jupiter is highly deuterated. As the plume material cooled, condensed and solidified, small plastic pieces, travelling in similar directions, combined (splatted) to form grotesque, black, low density, strangely tough bodies, exemplified by 67P Churymov-Gerasiemento (Figure 2). Many millions of these were ejected throughout the solar system due to the vector sum of Jupiter’s orbital velocity 13.7 km/s and its rapid spin, some 12 km/s, forming all of the main-belt and Kuiper belt asteroids. One obvious class of these Juno asteroids are the Trojans, of which there are known to be more than a million ‘orbiting’ at Jupiter’s Lagrange points.

One class of these Juno asteroids has been invisible to astronomers until recently, the Kreutz sungrazers. The sun-staring probes, SOHO and STEREO, have observed over 2,500 of these asteroids dissappearing into the Sun since 1995 and several hundred more are now known to be in exactly the same orbit, approaching the sun from below the ecliptic plane, because they were ejected from 22 degrees S Latitude, the location of the Great Red Spot.

Sun Spots

Fig. 3  Sun Spot Butterfly diagram (top) shows latitude of spots versus date within each cycle.

What is currently known as the solar, or sun spot cycle, has a period of ~11 years, slightly less than Jupiter’s orbital period, due to the relativistic precession of their orbits close to the Sun (Figure 3). Each ‘butterfly’ cycle begins with spots at high north and south latitudes because the Kreutz orbit is inclined and slightly eccentric due to the inclination and eccentricity of Jupiter’s orbit at the times of the ejections. The spots are symmetrically located (N-S) because those bodies which impact on the approach are coming from the south and if they just miss the Sun, they pass through the ecliptic, then impact on the north of the far side. For short periods between the active periods (the butterflys) the Kreutz orbit fails to hit the sun, allowing observations of the undisturbed solar surface, which is the subject of the cited paper, then the next 11-year-cycle begins (Figure 1).

Despite the SOHO and STEREO observations, that none of the Kreutz

Fig. 4 Polarity reversal at of Suns Magnetic Field at sunspot max (top and bottom)

sungrazers have survived their Sun encounters, solar scientists insist that they are not the cause of sunspots, partly because their coal-like color results in the underestimation of their masses, while scientists assume they are composed of water ice. these Juno asteroids are very  hard as proven by Rosetta’s Philae lander. Perhaps the most important reason is that the sunspots can be seen to be magnetically polarized  by studying the iron spectra within them. Even more deceptive, the spots are polarized in the direction opposite to the sun’s magnetic field at the beginning of each active period. To complicate the picture, the magnetic field of the sun reverses at the peak of each cycle, as shown in Figure 4 at top and bottom. Because of these magnetic ‘anomalies’ the scientists believe the spots are generated by the magnetic field deep within the Sun. The additional facts which corroborate the cyclic catastrophism hypothesis are: (a) the sunspots are several thousand degrees cooler than the normal surface; (b) always exhibit the spectrum of iron and water; and (c) based upon Doppler shifts are plunging into the Sun at 30,000 km/hr.

Due to the variation of the active periods, the cited paper notes with surprise that in the four quiescent periods between four active sun spot periods, the microwave radiation from the Sun has been exactly the same: ” …  that the average atmospheric structure above the upper chromosphere in the quiet-Sun has not varied for half a century, and suggest that the energy input for atmospheric heating from the sub-photosphere to the corona have not changed in the quiet-Sun… despite significantly differing strengths of magnetic activity in the last five solar cycles.”

Magnetic Features of the Juno Asteroids

The 67P-like, Juno asteroids condensed and crystalized from the hot plume while still within the enormous magetic field of Jupiter. As they approached the Sun they became oriented opposite the sun’s magnetic field. As a result, they strike the surface of the sun oriented opposite the existing solar magnetic field direction.  The impacts of the large number of reverse-oriented Juno asteroids at the peak of each cycle is sufficient to reorient the observed magnetic field of the entire Sun. This proves that the field is a superficial, surface aspect of the sun, due only to the explosive impact on Jupiter ~ 6,000 years BP. This view is supported by the observations noted in the cited paper, that the good old, constant sun lies beneath the influx of Juno asteroids and will be there for millions of more years.

Composition of the Sun

The currently accepted composition of the Sun has been effected by the events of cyclic catastrophism in two ways. The Juno asteroids have disguised the composition of the solar interior, evidenced by the emission lines from the photosphere. Secondly, during the same period innumerable small rocky/iron bodies blasted from Mars when it orbited the Earth 3687 to 687 BC, are continually falling into the corona, or atmosphere of the Sun, which is 200 solar radii from the visible surface. The UV radiation from these impacts has, until recently, been interpreted as temperature of the entire layer at millions of degrees, but since the impacts have been telescopically resolved, they have been labeled nanoflares. But solar scientists still believe that the nanoflares are being shot upward 200 solar radii by the magnetic field of the Sun.

This results in another misinterpretion, that the Fraunhofer, or absorption spectra, due to the elements in these small bodies deposited in the corona, give information on the composition of the Sun itself. Further, the similarities of the absorption spectra with the non-volatile elements in meteorites on Earth has led to the idea that the entire solar system formed from meteorites.

1 Peter 2:12  Having your conversation honest among the Gentiles: that, whereas they speak against you as evildoers, they may by your good works, which they shall behold, glorify God in the day of visitation.

 

 

 

Castle Deep in Lake Van

•November 19, 2017 • Comments Off on Castle Deep in Lake Van

Castle Beneath Lake Van

Fig. 1.  Lake Van Turkey in which the ruins of 3,000-year old castle have been found

As discussed in previous posts, the planet sometimes called priori-Mars in earlier posts, i.e. Mars before it finally lost its solid core, Mercury, in 687 BC, was captured in a geostationary orbit above Mt. Kailas one hundred times for 14.4 years and escaped into a planetary orbit crossing that of the Earth for 15.6 years (Figure 2.). Therefore, these cycles were each 30 years long. ‘Scientists’ scoff at this, because it is a miracle far beyond their ability to explain using the laws of physics, which this author has done. Cyclic Catastrophism, the subject of this blog site, explains it in the context of a complete resurfacing and rebuilding of the continents of the Earth for mankind, which resulted in the ‘collateral’ reorganization of the inner solar system. The denial of this intervention into the world has led science into the dead-ends of evolution of human beings from apes, gradualism in geology, uniformitarianism  in planetary science and the arrogance of astrophysicists bragging that they can fathom the creation of the universe in a small

Fig. 2. Orbits of Earth, Mars and proto-Venus between Mars’ geostationary encounters geostationary encounters showing capture and release points.

amount of radiation they call the Cosmic Microwave Background. which wais actually generated by the impact on Jupiter 6,000 years ago, out of which Venus was born, currently being reflected back to the Earth from dust in space. The cosmic encounters that were required to accomplish this great change in the Earth provide profound knowledge of the physics for those who dare to pull their heads out of the proverbial sand of ‘consensus science’.  Earth is not a simple pale-blue, ordinary, dot, but a unique place in the universe. Is there intelligent life in the universe? You bet! But it is not in humankind. It has been demonstrated lavishly to our ancestors in the last 6,000 years, the observations of which have been passed down through ancient texts.

These captures and releases of priori-Mars, between 3687 and 687 BC, affected the Earth in many ways. It drew waters to form a stationary flood 5,000 meters high surrounding the Tibetan-Himalayan complex and covering northern India, Indra’s ‘home on Earth’. the flood waters were called the samudra or ‘confluence of waters’, mentioned hundreds of times in the Rg Veda,  The water was drawn horizontally, not lifted vertically, from the periphery of the spherical ‘cap’ centered at Mt. Kailas, emptying the Mediterranian, Red, Caspian, North seas, and lake Van for  14.4 years at a time, called a kalpa in the RgVeda. The repeated desiccations were the cause of the ‘Messinian Salinity Crisis’ and the records of human life found beneath the North Sea. The east-west flooding across the Eurasian Continent at the captures and releases of Mars, resulted in the invention of a salty Tethys ocean currently believed to have separated Laurasia and Gondwanda over 65 million years ago. In response to the floods, the pyraramids, tells and ziggurats were built around the world and the tidal effect made it possible for Akhenaten to build a city at Amarna in normally arid eastern Egypt. Geologists should understand that the orbiting priori-Mars, locked onto the Tibetan-Himalayan Complex, caused the entire lithosphere of the Earth, as a single unit, to rotate in a different direction and speed than the mantle of the Earth (tidal drag), allowing fresh lava to rise up into the continents and cool slowly to raise great masses of granite to float them higher and eliminate vast areas covered with shallow seas like the north american continent. Geologists have found incontrovertable evidence of this motion of the entire lithosphere, but cannot explain it in the currently accepted gradualism paradigm. The slowing of the Earth’s rotation during these cycles resulted in the need for two calendars of 360 and 365.25 during this 3,000-years period. Indeed, the 360 days per year allows the calculation of the speed difference of the lithosphere versus the mantle, during each kalpa. The entire foundations of life previously on priori-Mars when it was in an interior orbit, were blasted to the Earth from hundreds of volcanoes in its northern hemisphere by convulsions in its interior caused by alignments with the Moon, and greater ones when aligned with the Moon and Sun, which as stated in the Hebrew Torah, were matched intentionally to provide the maximum tidal effect on priori-Mars at the vernal equinox and solar and lunar eclipses.

The tidal drag of priori-Mars on the lithosphere also demonstrates how the Moon was captured, which happened during the Younger Dryas, resulting in the stabilization of the Earth and the initiation of the Holocene era.

 Isaiah 65:17 For, behold, I create new heavens and a new earth: and the former shall not be remembered, nor come into mind. …

1 Corinthians 3:18-19 Let no man deceive himself. If any man among you seemeth to be wise in this world, let him become a fool, that he may be wise. For the wisdom of this world is foolishness with God. For it is written, He taketh the wise in their own craftiness.

 

The Mystery of Jupiter’s Clouds

•November 12, 2017 • Comments Off on The Mystery of Jupiter’s Clouds

Fig. 1. Jupiter clouds which remain unidentified

Most people do not realize that the various colored clouds which cover the entire giant planet Jupiter are still a mystery. The first probe that reached the vicinity of Jupiter was Pioneer 10 in 3 Dec. 1973, roughly 34 years ago.  Since that mission another 12 missions have visited the giant, each carrying a different complement of instruments. Juno, currently orbiting Jupiter, has made eight close passes to refine the data of earlier missions without explaining the makeup of the clouds.

Planetary scientists still believe that the giant planets comprise 90% hydrogen and 10% helium, however, this assumption is being seriously challenged by the Juno gravitational, magnetic field and energetic particle data. Admittedly, nothing about the planet is turning out to be what they expected. This science has been plagued by the ‘gas giant’ assumption, with monumental steps being taken to make the data fit the the hypothetical model, rather than trying to understand their implications. The uniformitarion paradigm is the only one used to interpret data from every planet in the solar system.

Spectrometers can determine gaseous molecules by studying the spectral lines due to their chemical reactions or radiation emitted when high energy particles impact them. Molecules radiate more spectral lines in infrared spectrum when the air molecules impact one another due to collisions with other atoms. However, particulate aerosols suspended in an atmosphere, like volcanic clouds and smoke, usually <1 μm (micron), only radiate in broad spectral regions, seen as different colors, which do not enable the determination of their elemental composition.

Based on the ‘gas giant’ hypothesis, scientists predicted three distinct layers: ammonia, ammonium sulfide and water molecules.  Since ammonia has not been identified, the hypothesis has been changed to ammonia ice, i.e. particles, suspended in the upper atmosphere. The colors of the clouds are now thought to be caused by aerosols “probably the result of subtle chemical reactions of the trace elements in Jupiter’s atmosphere”. The gases that have been definitely identified are water and methane, but the amount of water is less than expected, leading to an estimated low amount of oxygen.

The Cyclic Catastrophism paradigm posits that Jupiter is a highly deuteraed, solid, low density Methane Gas Hydrate (MGH) body which formed cold in a Large Dark Nebula (LDN) where it incorporated the abundances of all the known elements in the solar system. MGH is a known clathrate,  in which twelve or more water molecules form cages which physically encapsulate foreign atoms and molecules. Ancient texts of numerous cultures describe the birth of Venus out of the head of Jupiter, roughly 6,000-years BP (Before the Present). These ‘myths’ are telling the modern era, via cyclic catastrophism, what actually took place recently before their eyes in the heavens, much of it close above the Earth. The conclusions drawn from these seemingly simple myths reveal the true nature of every planet in the solar system.

Fig. 2 The expanded incandescent Jupiter and the plume, known as Juno.

The impact explosion from which Venus was born, triggered a fusion reaction on Jupiter, called Juno, which has diminished for 6,000 years, but still drives all the features we observe on Jupiter. As it burns, the heat releases the entire range of elements trapped in the local area. The elements react to form unique compounds in the high temperature around the fusion reaction, producing particulate aerosols as the hot vortex rises to the surface and cools, appearing as the Great Red Spot. These particulate clouds being continuously formed from the entire range of known elements, form the clouds of Jupiter. One good example is CS, carbon sulfide, which forms tiny red crystals as it cools. These crystals are what makes the GRS red. CS is also present in the high temperature lower atmosphere of Venus, still unrecognized by planetary scientists.

Amazingly, planetary scientists do not know that all the known elements are present in enormous numbers in and on Jupiter, most distributed throughout the entire planet,

Fig. 3 Shoemaker-Levy 9 Impacts on Jupiter.

but over the last 6,000-years vast numbers have been cast into the atmosphere and have settled to the surface. Many heavy elements were revealed by the impacts of the larger Shoemaker-Levy 9 fragments on the solid surface of Jupiter, which caused fusion explosions, the rising mushroom clouds from which produced the ‘main events’ more than six minutes after they entered the atmosphere.

All of the giant planets are known to have methane in their atmospheres. This has never been satisfactorily explained. Its presence becomes obvious when we note their nominal composition, Methane Gas Hydrate, is (CH4)4(H2O)23. Therefore methane, which does not condense, is continuously being released by the fusion burning on Jupiter and by any comets that impact on the surfaces of the other giants.. Water is also released but as it rises in the hot vortex it combines with many of the heavy elements producing compounds that become unrecognizable aerosols and that which does not form complex compounds, condenses and falls as rain to the surface of Jupiter forming an ice mountain range which I have predicted lies to the east of the GRS at 22 deg. S. Latitude. The Juno gravity instrument should detect this feature.

2 Peter 3:5-7 For this they willingly are ignorant of, that by the word of God the heavens were of old, and the earth standing out of the water and in the water: Whereby the world that then was, being overflowed with water, perished. But the heavens and the earth, which are now, by the same word are kept in store, reserved unto fire against the day of judgement and perdition of ungodly men.

 

 

 

Unidentified Helium Ions on Jupiter?

•November 3, 2017 • Comments Off on Unidentified Helium Ions on Jupiter?

Fig.1 JEDI ion summary for PJ1 showing Time of Flight through the instrument as a function of energy from Solid State Devices. The energy distribution tentatively marked Mg/Na by JEDI team, is “off the chart”.

As discussed in a recent post, the Juno JEDI data for PJ1 revealed a large number of particles with a unique high energy distribution, which is consistent with the origin of Jupiter’s energy proposed on this site – a continuous nuclear fusion reaction on the surface, producing 1030 high energy light helium nucleons, 3He++ per second. Because these are all being produced by the same fusion reaction, they all are given the same energy, 4.98 MeV.  This post clarifies the fusion reaction which is taking place on Jupiter.

The sequence of reactions thought to power the Sun are:

  • p + p -> d + e+ + v     (p is proton, e+ is a positron and v is a neutrino)
  • p + d -> 3He+ + γ       (d is deuteron, γ  gamma ray and 3He+ is an isotope of helium)
  • 3He  + 3He -> 4He + p + p

This sequence is thought to be initiated by the fusion of two protons, or hydrogen nuclei, which require a very high pressure and temperature (velocity) to overcome the mutual Coulomb repulsion. If as discussed on this site, Jupiter formed as a cold, highly deuterated, solid methane gas hydrate in a LDN, the Sun was also highly deuterated, and the first reaction above was not necessary . The second reaction above was triggered on surface of Jupiter by an impact 6,000-years BP, which has slowly declined but still burns only 700 km below the cloud-tops 50,000 km east of the Great Red Spot. The reaction, usually written   p + d -> 3He+ + γ , is taking place at the lowest temperature of any nuclear fusion, e.g. the temperature of the reaction on Jupiter. It is contained by the high atmospheric pressure. The low temperature on the Methane Gas Hydrate Jupiter eliminates the third step in the solar process because the  3He+ isotopes cannot fuse.

The published equation above implies that the nuclear fusion of a proton and a deuteron produces a light helium ion, 3He+, with two protons and one neutron, because that is the only particle observed. But nuclear fusion must produce nuclear particles, not ions. Therefore the reaction first produces a light helium nucleus, 3He++ . The acquisition of an electron, changing 3He++ to 3He+ occur rapidly in a laboratory environment, so it has never been noted, but cannot be occurring on the massive 1030  nucleons (4.98 MeV) per second being generated on Jupiter because they are constrained to a vortex by the Coriolis effect. Moving at 17,800 km/s, these doubly ionized particles, currently known only as the inner radiation belt, are lost to space or return to the poles in less than thirty seconds because the system is in equilibrium. As a result, they are the primary form of helium encountered by Juno.

This explains the fact that ‘storms’ of stable, high energy ions were detectd by earlier missions: Ulysses, Cassini, and the Galileo orbiter, at great distances from Jupiter – because they had been dispersed through the enormous clouds of electrons surrounding the Jupiter system. Although the Galileo atmospheric probe was close to Jupiter, it also identified large numbers of high energy helium ions, 3He+ “of unknown origin” because some of the  3He++ ions captured electrons as they passed through the massive atmospheric heat shield, which had not yet been ejected and thereby became identifiable. This continuous ionization process in the outer reaches of Jupiter, by which the massive numbers of helium nuclei, 3He++, become the stable singly ionized 3He+, is producing a diffuse radiating cloud surrounding the Jupiter system. The concentrated streams of powerful 3He++ continuously impact the poles producing the far UV auroral ovals.

What is ignored in the literature is that nuclear fusion reactions must produce nuclear particles, not atoms with electrons. Thus the reaction on Jupiter is producing 1030 light helium nuclei3He++, with energies of 4.98 MeV. These are not stable and can capture an electron to form the stable  3He+. The author suggests that their unique high energy distribution has been detected (marked in Figure 1 as Mg/Na), but that the double charge is preventing the JEDI ion detector from measuring the Time of Flight (TOF) correctly, thereby misidentifying the ions. The TOF is measured by electrons ejected when the ion passes thru two layers (start and stop) of foil and amplified by microchannel plates. The double charge on the ions is delaying the start pulse.

 

 

To see a world in a grain of sand, And a heaven in a wild flower, Hold infinity in the palm of your hand, And eternity in an hour.

– William Blake

Mars – Earth Connections

•October 7, 2017 • Comments Off on Mars – Earth Connections

Mars close to the Earth

Fig. 1 UV image of solar corona, indicating temperatures of millions of degrees.

As discussed in a number of previous posts, Mars became captured in a geostationary orbit 36,000 km above Mt. Kailas, in the TransHimalayas, for 14.4 years and then was released into a planetary orbit for 15.6 years. This 30-year cycle was repeated one hundred times between 3687 and 687 BC, and observed by one hundred generations of mankind who incorporated observations of these events in ancient texts. In the Rig Veda the capture periods were called kalpas and ‘days of Brahma‘. In Egyptian myth they were called ‘inundations‘ due to the tidal effect of Mars (Horus on the Horizon), which drew the Nile waters across eastern Egypt, increasing the fertility there.

During each kalpa, Mars exerted a continuous tidal effect on the Deccan Traps volcanism, drawing the subsurface asthenosphere rock upward producing an additional 20-meter thick layer, ‘traps’ meaning steps. Therefore, the Deccan Traps represent a geological clock covering approximately 3687 to 687 BC, herein dubbed the Vedic Period. It is impossible to drill through the many layers of the Deccan Traps. Instead, different provinces have been dated, where older sections of the traps are exposed. This has proven difficult for several reasons. Most significantly, theTrap’ rocks do not give the ancient dates that geologists expected, because they are less than 6,000 years old. Geologists maintain that potassium-argon, (K-Ar), dating does not work because the isotope ratios of argon in the atmosphere have changed. That is true, because the entire atmosphere of the Earth changed during the Vedic Period due to the influx of Martian atmosphere.

To overcome this apparent obstacle, geologists have reverted to using the thin layers of material between the actual steps, called ‘separates’, assuming it is also of earthly origin. But these thin layers comprise material from Mars which fell from the atmosphere between kalpas. Although the (U-Pb) in zircons in the separates have a wide range of ages, those with the ages supporting the hypothetical Cenezoic period are chosen, thereby justifying the age of deepest layers of the Deccan Traps at 66 million years BP. The ‘separate’layers are proof that there was significant time between each of the one hundred rock layers.

During each kalpa, Mars exerted a ‘tidal drag’ on the lithosphere, causing it to revolve at a different rate than the mantle of the Earth. This provided a continuous source of lava from the asthenosphere for each basalt layer of the traps.  The lava that formed the Deccan Traps rose up in the Indian Ocean, the silicate material dissolved in the water and the rapid cooling produced tiny crystals, characteristic of basalt, a mafic rock. The same lava rising up beneath the continents around the world, where they were shallow, retained the silicates and cooled slowly forming the most beautiful felsic rock, granite, which, amazingly, exists only on the continents of the planet Earth. The less dense granite, lightened the continents so they float higher providing more space for life. These amazing events all happened in the last 6,000 years, while mankind watched.

Rocks (maruts) and soil (waves of red dust carried by Vayu) were blasted to the Earth from hundreds of Martian volcanoes, covering the Earth, along with them the oceans, atmosphere, and biosphere, as Soma and manna. The material blasted from Mars now comprises the upper 10 to 50 km of the Earth’s crust. It includes stony, stony-iron, nickel-iron and rare earth elements – that comprise terrestrial planets. Despite this fact, geologists believe that all meteorites on Earth are from ‘asteroids’ except for a few that have oxygen isotope ratios similar to those measured by the Viking landers on Mars and a few breccias thought to be from lunar impacts.  In the cyclic catastrophism scenario, Mars was changing rapidly in the last 6,000 years, so the isotope ratios of its rocks changed throughout the Vedic Period.

Innumerable rocks blasted from Mars during this period are orbiting invisibly in the inner solar system. Many are still falling to Earth, but even more are falling into the Sun at high velocities. Having relatively low masses, they are vaporized in the solar atmosphere, producing the solar corona. The high velocities of these bodies produce localized UV emissions which, because most of the ‘impacts’ are not optically resolved, have led to the generalization that the solar corona has a temperature of millions of degrees, determined primarily by the presence of UV emissions from highly ionized states of iron. The high temperature of the corona constitutes a major question in solar physics because astronomers have no idea of the innumerable rock bodies recently blasted into the inner solar system. The current view is “The high temperatures require energy to be carried from the solar interior to the corona by non-thermal processes, because the second law of thermodynamics prevents heat from flowing directly from the solar photosphere (surface), which is at about 5800 K, to the much hotter corona at about 1 to 3 MK (parts of the corona can even reach 10 MK)”.

The elements in the bodies impacting the corona are the source of the Fraunhofer absorption spectra but are currently interpreted as representing the elemental composition of the Sun. Moreover, the similarity of the solar absorption spectra to the composition of meteorites on Earth has led to the current belief that the Earth was formed from meteoritic material, originating from ancient, even pre-solar asteroids, mainly from the asteroid belt. Cyclic Catastrophism explains that there are only two types of asteroids: (1) large rocks blasted from Mars, known as Near Earth Asteroids, including short period comets, which are just near-surface rocks containing aquifers; (2) Those formed by the fusion plume from Jupiter in the last 6,000 years. The one example seen close-up, by the ESA Rosetta mission, ‘comet’ 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko.  Both classes of asteroids were produced in the last 6,000 years.

Relative Motion of Lithosphere

There are two complimentary global features on Earth that attest to the events which occurred in the Vedic Period. They are both due to the ‘tidal drag’ of Mars when it orbited close to the Earth. To their credit, modern geologists have uncovered the evidence shown in Figures 2 and 4, however, they have no idea of the cosmic events described in the ancient texts, which define an entirely new paradigm governing the recent history of the Earth and the solar system.

Fig. 2 Central Canada rapid isostatic recovery.

The first feature underlines the fact that no seasonal variations occurred on the Earth during each kalpa. The raised Himalayan-Tibetan complex acted as a ‘handle’ controlling the entire lithosphere, so when Mars, orbiting in the ecliptic plane became tidally bound to this great uplift, Mt. Kailas (31⁰ N. Lat.), was forced to remain on a temporary equator in the ecliptic plane for 14.4 years at a time. This established a temporary north pole during each of these periods, 31 ⁰ Lat from the north pole in what is now Central Canada. Unlike the north pole today, which receives some sunlight because the pole of the Earth is normally oriented toward Polaris, the temporary pole was normal to the ecliptic plane and received no sunlight during each kalpa. As a result, an enormous continental glacier, as high as 9,000 feet formed and melted 100 times at this location during the Vedic Period.

Modern-day geophysical measurements show that the Earth’s crust at this location is still experiencing the most rapid isostatic rebound on Earth, 10 mm/year, due to the cessation of this process only 2,700 years BP. Geologists assume that this continental glacier existed before 21,000 BP, during the ‘ice age’, but given the previously accepted nominal time required for complete isostatic recovery of ten thousand years, the glacier must have been in place much more recently. Desperate to explain this discrepancy, geologists have invoked a new hypothesis called ‘delayed isostatic rebound’.

Fig. 3. Rhythmic Touchet Beds on Earth

The one hundred formations and meltings of this glacier produced a number of other well-known geological features in North America, including the formation of the Great Lakes and floods from Glacial Lake Missoula and Lake Bonneville that deposited one hundred equally thick sedimentary layers in the Walla Walla valley. There are many ‘rythmic’, equally thick layers on both the Earth and Mars.

Fig. 4. Present-day motion of lithosphere revealing motion during kalpas. Mt. Kailas (red), Temporary North pole (blue).

The second, even more definitive feature shows the westward path of the lithosphere relative to the mantle during the kalpas. The velocity of the lithosphere, which was 24 km/h during the kalpas, has decreased to 1.7 cm/y in the last 2,700 years since Mars was released, but still accurately depicts the direction and global extent of the motion during the Vedic Period. Figure 4 shows the path of the highest velocity (the longest arrows) passing through the Mt. Kailas area, marked by this author in red. The path is described (disguised?) by geologists as a ‘toroidal field of degree 1’, but it is exactly the great circle that resulted from Mt. Kailas being forced to remain in the ecliptic plane. Note also that the north pole indicated by this motion is exactly at the location of the glaciation discussed above, in Central Canada (marked in blue).

Job 38:  4 Where wast thou when I laid the foundations of the earth? declare, if thou hast understanding.

Job 38: 8 Or who shut up the sea with doors, when it brake forth, as if it had issued out of the womb?

Job 38: 11 And said, Hitherto shalt thou come, but no further: and here shall thy proud waves be stayed?