Venus Slowing Rotation 2
Based on Venus Express orbiter data the European Space Agency recently announced that Venus’ “surface features were not quite where they should be”. The scientists concluded that the rotation of Venus, measured very accurately by the NASA Magellan and Venera 15/16 radar imaging satellites in the early 1980’s, has slowed sufficiently, in a mere 20 years, to cause a difference of as much as 20 km in the expected positions of surface features. Any such rapid change is impossible based on the currently accepted uniformitarian dogma, i.e. the belief that planets cannot change on time scales of less than millions or even billions of years. As a result, no scientist in the world can explain this slowing. Indeed, no one has explained any of the features pictured in Figure 1 from the NASA Pioneer final report. The original figure included only the altitudes and temperatures of the significant atmospheric layers, but gave no explanation of their chemistry. I have added the atmospheric chemistry at the appropriate elevations, based on the Cyclic Catastrophism view that Venus is a hot new planet formed cataclismicly from an impact on Jupiter some 6,000 years before the present. Figure 1 was included in my paper presented at an American Geophysical Union meeting in 2002, titled “An Alternate View of Venus”, the paper is available at:
Because Venus (actually proto-Venus because it has not yet acquired its oceans and atmosphere) is a new planet it is releasing enormous amounts of heat. Three different Pioneer Venus instruments measurements confirm that Venus is radiating 250 times that being radiated by the Earth. But a primary mechanism for the release of heat from the super-heated interior is not even imagined by modern science. It is by the high velocity jetting of hot sulfur 8 (S8, a crown-shaped ring molecule, Figure 3) from over two hundred thousand small domes, imaged (radar) by the NASA Magellan probe (Figure 2), directly to 48 km at which altitude (119.25 C) it becomes monoclinic sulfur. Continuing one or two km higher, rhombic crystals (95.5 C) form. This reaction is exothermic and reversible. In fact, the heat released and the resulting turbulence in the lower cloud layer, were noted, but not explained, in the Pioneer Venus report. The exact coincidence of these temperatures with the altitude of the lower cloud layer leave no doubt to the identification of S8. Although the lower atmosphere of Venus is at the temperature of gaseous S8, it could not be detected by the PV probe because the S8 molecule mass was beyond the range of the mass spectrometer.
Why is Venus’ Rotation Slowing?
It is the continuous (continuing) high speed ejection of S8 gas through over 200,000 small domes that releases angular momentum from the planet slowing Venus’ rotation. The jetting S8 gas is also the cause of the unexplained source of the high speed, high altitude wind that circles the entire planet in four-days. This has baffled scientists because there seemed no way that the small amount of angular momentum of the slowly rotating Venus, where a single day takes 243 Earth days, could be transferred to the high altitude clouds.
Lower Cloud Layer
The Pioneer Venus probe failed to identify the the chemical makeup of the lower cloud layer which extends around the entire planet. This was because the instrument (nephalometer) was based on the assumption that the cloud comprised spherical droplets. The PV final report concluded only that the cloud ‘must be composed of crystals’, which were not identified. This is consistent with the composition of the lower cloud layer suggested herein – crystals which are ‘stacks’ of the crown-shaped (S8) ring molecules. Thus the entire lower atmosphere is primarily S8. Such abrupt element changes with altitude can only occur in a mass-flow environment, that is, the rapid continuous upward flow from the 200,000 plus small domes. All planetary scientists have accepted the assumption that Venus is ancient, in which case S8 would not be present and the atmosphere would be well mixed. But the very fact that the lower cloud layer is equally present on the day and night side of the planet on which a day is 243 Earth-days long, proves that it is produced by heat from the interior and not the Sun. This fact should also put to rest the outlandish threat that human environmental action on Earth will result in it becoming another Venus. Earth was a Venus-like planet, but about 3.9 billion years ago.
High Surface Pressure
The great mass of the heavy S8 in the lower atmosphere is what causes the high surface pressure of Venus, which is 91 times that on Earth, equivalent to a depth of 3000 feet of water. Not having detected the S8, scientists assume that this pressure is caused by an enormous amount of carbon dioxide, which would have to be some 30,000 times the amount in Earth’s atmosphere.
Carbon Monosulfide (CS) Mistaken for CO2 in Lower Atmosphere
Figure 1 also presents a clue to another atmospheric feature – a red haze which extends upward from about 31 km to the lower cloud layer (50 km). I suggest that this is due to the crystallization of rising carbon monosulfide (CS), which is known to form small red crystals as it cools through 200 C. Interestingly, this red haze corresponds to the altitude range through which carbon dioxide (CO2) and carbon monoxide (CO) ‘mysteriously’ disappear from the descending mass spectrometer record. Since planetary scientists assume that the entire atmosphere of Venus is carbon dioxide, they claimed that the dropout was the result of the mass spec input ‘leak’ being clogged by a droplet of sulfuric acid as it descended through this range, in spite of the fact that other channels continued to register data. The formation of CS crystals in the upward mass flow of the lower atmosphere suggests that the CO2 channel which appeared to begin functioning again below 31 km may have actually been sensing CS gas, since its molecular weight is almost identical to CO2.
Raw Lava on Venus Surface
The Sensitive Radiometer on the main PV probe began receiving strong signals, indicating a high infra red or visible red radiation from the surface, as soon as it descended through the lower cloud layer. The PV report stated that “signals in all channels increased unreasonably” and, believe it or not, the data was thrown out. The presence of raw lava on the ground was also indicated when the Soviet Venera landers found that they did not need the lights they had included for photography of Venus’ surface. This reddish light was not sunlight that had penetrated the clouds, it was light radiating from cracks fillled with raw lava that was being scattered in the lower atmosphere.
The thin basalt rock crust which is direct contact with the raw lava interior would be expected to be much hotter than 445, but it is being cooled by the evaporation of the sulfur rain.
The Future of Venus
If the atmosphere of Venus were CO2, then the prospect of it ever becoming an Earth-like planet would be very slim. But just as the planet has slowed significantly in the last 20 years, it has also cooled somewhat. As it does, the jetting and therefore the altitude of the lower cloud layer, which defines the inhospitable Hadesphere, has also decreased in this period. A probe should be sent to measure the rate of this decline. The reason is that the temperature and pressure just above the lower cloud layer are very Earth-like. Once this layer reaches the surface, Venus will be cool enough to allow water to condense on its surface, and mankind will begin to explore this newly-born planet, and eventually live there .
Any Prospects of Change?
NASA engineers have done a miraculous job of designing and executing many space missions. The data collected should all be assumed accurate and is available to the entire world community. But scientists have tried to force the interpretation of the data to fit the preconceived, completely unfounded assumptions of the early planetary scientists. As a result, nothing taught today concerning the cosmogony, history or composition of the Sun or the planets is correct. One would like to believe that the very significant slowing of Venus’ rotation would prompt a review of this complete body of knowledge, but so far, the response has been the head-in-the-sand variety. Are we destined to pass this entire distorted body of misinformation to yet another generation?