In the last fifteen years, I have been led on a great intellectual adventure. Inspired by Immanuel Velikovsky’s Worlds in Collision, I began a search of ancient myth for the truth about how recent planetary encounters affected the Earth and mankind. This quest led to the revealing of a sequence of close encounters of Venus, Mars and Mercury with the Earth from about 3700 to 700 BC. The physics of these encounters, in turn, have led to a completely new perspective on the origins and makeup of all the planets in our solar system. The intricate detail – how the events were triggered, the number of encounters (100), the separations and final disposal of the planets to safe distances from the Earth and, most importantly, the realization that these encounters resulted in the rejuvenation of the Earth at the expense of the now-barren Mars, has made clear to me the very real intrusions of Yehovah into the world, which are alluded to in the Bible.
Whether by design or not, the failure to understand or accept the 3000 years of cosmic chaos has led modern scientists to completely erroneous concepts of the origin and makeup of the entire solar system. This situation was exquisitely prophesied some 2000 years ago: 1 Cor 1:19-20 KJV) For it is written, I will destroy the wisdom of the wise, and will bring to nothing the understanding of the prudent. Where is the wise? where is the scribe? where is the disputer of this world? hath not God made foolish the wisdom of this world?
(1 Cor 2:6-7 NIV) We do, however, speak a message of wisdom among the mature, but not the wisdom of this age or the rules of this age, who are coming to nought. No, we speak of God’s secret wisdom that has been hidden and that God destined for our glory before time began.
To my well-meaning friends, who implore me to exclude any mention of God, in order to ‘be accepted’ in academic circles. Why should I want to be accepted by the scientific community? They are in error in every respect and my faith has revealed the real truth. There will be no compromise.
The Vedic Period
Roughly 6000 years ago a period of cosmic chaos was triggered by the impact of a giant asteroid or rogue planet on Jupiter. A blazing plasma cloud thousands of times larger than Jupiter itself rebounded and condensed into a new planet, proto-Venus. This flaming proto-planet carried much of the excess energy of the impact into the inner solar system, initiating an ‘organized’ chaos which lasted throughout the Bronze and Iron ages. This single impact and its aftermath explain the origin of all the terrestrial planets in a completely new way, but the most significant fact vis-a-vis dark matter are its implications for the makeup of the giant planets.
Because of their low average densities, astrophysicists, beginning with Rupert Wildt at Gottengen in 1930, have accepted the notion that Jupiter and Saturn are ‘gas giants,’ comprising exotic states of hydrogen. But the rebound of proto-Venus from the impact on Jupiter witnessed by the earliest generations of mankind, implies that the largest planets in the solar systemare solid bodies comprising a form of matter which is not currently acknowledged. There is considerable observational evidence pointing to Jupiter’s solid nature, but the entire scientific ‘priesthood’ continues to ignore it without a single questioning voice. They explain-away the Great Red Spot as a ‘storm,’ in spite of the fact that it has remained at the same latitude for 350 years. They claim that Jupiter’s great energy excess is ‘primordial’ and no scientist has yet been able to explain the multiple zonal wind bands, the existence of which demand a solid surface below the clouds. Moreover, the Galileo atmospheric probe failed to find the three highly touted cloud layers in its upper atmosphere. Obvious clues to the solid makeup of both Jupiter and Saturn are in ‘plain sight’ of our telescopes andsdeep-space probes. That is, all of their satellites and rings, with the exception of Io, are believed to comprise primarily water-ice, including three of the enormous Galilean ‘moons,’ which are comparable in size to Mercury and the Moon. Where do they think all that water came from? It is so obvious that these all formed as a result of impacts on the primaries (Jupiter and Saturn), which ‘splashed’ their water into orbits around them. In fact, the enormous Galilean moons were formed by material ejected from Jupiter in the last 6000 years!
The low densities of Jupiter and Saturn do indeed imply the presence of vast amounts of hydrogen, but there is another, solid form in which it is combined with oxygen (water), carbon (methane), and nitrogen (ammonia), the three next most abundant elements in the universe after hydrogen and helium. It is not difficult to determine this material. The continual great abundance of methane on all the giant planets provides an important clue. The obvious candidates are methane gas hydrates, a solid form of water and methane also found beneath the oceans of the Earth, which has been the object of considerable research in recent decades, because of its potential as a future energy source. They are defined as follows:
Natural gas hydrates are solids that form from a combination of water and one or more hydrocarbon or non-hydrocarbon gases. In physical appearance, gas hydrates resemble packed snow or ice. In a gas hydrate, the gas molecules are “caged” within a crystal structure composed of water molecules. Sometimes gas hydrates are called “gas clathrates”. Clathrates are substances in which molecules of one compound are completely “caged” within the crystal structure of another. Therefore, gas hydrates are one type of clathrate. Per unit volume, gas hydrates contain a tremendous amount of gas. For example, 1 cubic meter of hydrate disassociates at atmospheric temperature and pressure to form 164 cubic meter of natural gas + 0.8 cubic meters of water (Kvenvolden, 1993). [webmineral.com gives the empiracle formula 8(CH4) 46(H2O)].
The natural gas component of gas hydrates is typically dominated by methane, but other natural gas components (e.g., ethane, propane, CO2) can also be incorporated into a hydrate.
Gas hydrates require high pressure and low temperatures, exactly the conditions within the giant planets. The ‘foreign’ molecules, primarily methane, are essential for their formation, in that they support the crystal structure of the water molecules. In addition, evidence suggests that this property allowed the giant planet Jupiter to encapsulate most of the heavy elements in the nascent solar system in its interior as it accreted. The presence of heavy elements is implied by the earliest human observations of proto-Venus condensing from the enormous plasma cloud which rebounded from the impact on Jupiter, 6000 years ago. Recently, a wide range of heavy element spectra were observed in high intensity ‘main events’ which occurred some six minutes after each of the most massive fragments of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 impacted Jupiter’s solid surface. The six minute delays were due to the time required for the towering mushroom clouds to rise above the cloud-tops and become visible.
If Jupiter were pure gas hydrate (assuming no compression), its density would only be 0.80 g/cm3, but the incorporation of most of the heavy elements, plus a small degree of compression in the deep interior, has resulted in its measured average density, 1.33 g/cm^3. In contrast, the average density of Saturn is only 0.6873 g/cm^3, implying that it comprises almost pure methane clathrate with a thick atmosphere inflating its apparent volume. The logical conclusion is that the heavy elements in the nascent solar disk were only blown out to the radius of Jupiter, where, in the form of dust particles, their surfaces acted as catalysts on which primordial atomic hydrogen, H, became molecular hydrogen H2 , and subsequently water ice and methane. Thus each dust grain became the nucleus of ice crystals, many of which adhered to form ‘snowflakes’ and the very familiar tendency of snowflakes to stick to one another made it possible for accretion of the giant planets to begin at the smallest scale – something that the dust particles alone could never do. Thus there was a beautiful symbiotic relationship between the dust particles and hydrogen, oxygen and carbon that made possible the accretion of the giant planets and the incorporation of all the heavy elements within Jupiter. This was the only accretion in the solar system. Scientists believe that Jupiter is almost pure hydrogen and, based on its overall temperature excess, estimate that the core temperature is as high as 25,000 K. In a convective atmosphere they expected to find, at least enough water to form a layer of water-ice clouds touted in all the textbooks, but the cloud layer was not found and the mass spectrometers found very little water in the atmosphere. The reason is that the water is all frozen in the gas hydrate body of the planet.
Terrestrial Planet Formation
The encapsulation of all the heavy elements within the gas hydrates made possible the later formation of the terrestrial planets by unique impacts on the giant planets, probably Jupiter (although because of its lesser iron content, the Moon might have been born out of Saturn). Based on the example of Venus’ recent birth, the obvious conclusion is that all terrestrial planets rebounded from similar impacts as very hot (>10,000 K) plasma clouds and temporarily lost the much more plentiful lighter elements, in the form of two multi-million-mile long, black comet-tails, as described in the Rig Veda. These lighter elements, O, C, N, were destined to become the surface layers, oceans and atmosphere of the terrestrial planets. As the proto-planet cooled, it swept up and recaptured these lighter elements in its atmosphere and subsequently on its surface (Venus is still early in this stage). Because water dominates within Jupiter (~ 236 of its 318 Earth-masses are water, based on the formula for gas hydrates given above), the ejected water was sufficient to form vast oceans on the terrestrial planets and because considerable sodium and chlorine were also lost to space, the oceans were salty from the beginning. This explains two additional mysteries which astrophysicists cannot currently explain – the origin of the vast amount of water in our oceans and why it is salty.
Water, Water Everywhere
The significant point relative to the question of dark matter is that the giant planets comprise primarily water, good old H2O, and therefore vastly more water is present in our solar system than is dreamed of by modern day astrophysicists, and in every secondary planetary nebula. I estimate the total oxygen in the four giant planets to be approximately 290 Earth masses! This should not be surprising, since oxygen and hydrogen are two of the three most abundant atomic species in the universe. However, astrophysicists today believe that the only oxygen in the outer solar system is that present as water ice within Uranus, Neptune, the satellites and rings orbiting the giant planets, and the imagined Kuiper Belt objects – perhaps 20 Earth-masses. This enormous difference, 290 versus 20 Earth masses of water, has profound implications.
Two relatively recent discoveries by space telescopes provide additional clues to the watery nature of the universe:
1. In Jan 2007 UC Berkeley astronomers announced that the 12 million year-old red dwarf AU Microscopii is surrounded by a disk with the texture of ‘fluffy snow,’ determined by studying the polarization of the reflected (visible) light. The adjective did not necessarily mean that they thought it was water, only ‘dust.’ I maintain that this was water in its pre-accretion state (snowflakes), as described above, which exhibited no gaseous spectra because of the low vapor pressure of water ice at typical space temperatures.
2. Evidence of water vapor swirling around a nearby star has been seen by the Submillimeter Wave Astronomy Satellite (SWAS), a small radio observatory launched by NASA in 1998. Its sensors have focused on a giant star, designated IRC+10216 (CW Leonis) located 500 light-years from Earth in the direction of the constellation Leo. This is a red giant which is expanding in its death-throes, consuming the planets which once orbited it. The report states:
“’What makes the results we are reporting so unusual is that we have found a cloud of water vapour around a star where we would not ordinarily have expected to find water,’ said Gary Melnick of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ‘It seems that the water vapour comes from icy comets that are melting due to the heat from the star, which is much hotter than our Sun … There must be about four Earth-masses of frozen water around IRC+10216 to produce the vapour cloud we see. [My emphasis]
In order to justify this explanation they estimate that the comets circling CW Leonis have a total mass broadly similar to the original mass of our Solar System’s Kuiper Belt, imagined to be as many as 70,000 icy bodies, however, only 1,000 known icy bodies have been discovered to date, circling our Sun beyond the orbit of Neptune. The emphasized quote reflects modern astrophysicists view of our solar system, i.e. that water is only present in the form of comets, satellites of the giant planets and the icy bodies imagined to exist in the Kuiper Belt. Given that world-view, the large amount of water in CW Leonis is difficult to explain. I maintain that what is happening in CW Leonis is that its expanding red giant star is vaporizing its giant planets, thereby revealing a portion of their enormous water content. This rare event is making visible a vast quantity of water because the heat of the star is converting it to a gaseous form for a brief period, allowing it to be identified by infra-red spectrometers. But most water in space is in the form of invisible ice ‘conglomerates,’ because as soon as the water vapor temperature drops below freezing, molecules combine to form ice particles, the vapor pressure of which is infinitesimal. This means that ice particles do not sublime to release gaseous water vapor, thereby rendering it invisible to spectrometers. In addition, the evidence suggests that these particles combine to form loosely bound conglomerates (comets?) in the weightlessness of space. If clouds of ice particles are optically thick, as in the case of AU Microscopii, they can be imaged by reflected light but the molecules cannot be identified. Astronomers refer to these as dust clouds, but have no idea that they consist mostly of water. Thus vast clouds of water exist in deep space and remain invisible to our observations.
The lack of understanding of the mass of water in our own solar system is carried over to the rest of the universe. If the giant planets are primarily methane gas hydrates, the mass of water in the solar system planets is close to 325 Earth-masses, as opposed to the current ‘establishment’ estimate of 22 Earth-masses! During the lifetime of the universe, innumerable planetary systems have formed and died. Although early planetary systems probably did not have as much oxygen available at their formation as our own, more and more oxygen has been produced in each star. By the time our Sun formed, a vast abundance of oxygen was present and became incorporated into it. This is evidenced by the vast amount of oxygen in the gas-hydrates of the outer planets, since the solar disk formed in the earliest stages of the Sun. Moreover, assuming the Sun has been producing additional oxygen for 4.5 billion years, it contains vastly more oxygen than imagined by astrophysicists.
It is absolutely amazing how little astronomers know about the Sun, particularly the elemental abundance of oxygen. As recently as 2004 the latest study acknowledged an ‘oxygen crisis,’ meaning that spectroscopic studies cannot measure enough oxygen to be theoretically compatible with heliosiesmology studies. One of the major impediments to the spectrographic study of the Sun lies in another aspect of ‘biblical’ catastrophism.
Tens of thousands of convulsions of priori-Mars, while orbiting only 33,000 km from the Earth, blasted innumerable rocks into space during the Bronze and Iron Ages. A number are 20 km-long ‘potato-shaped’ bodies, now called NEAs and short period comets. The mass of rocks ejected is easily estimated when one considers that the northern third of Mars today is seven kilometers lower than the rest of the planet. Innumerable smaller surface rocks were also ejected. These comprise the most common type of meteorite, called carbonaceous chondrites. ‘Carbonaceous’ derives from the presence of numerous organic compounds, implying they were surface rocks. The ‘chondrules’ are tiny spheres, 0.5 to 2 millimeters in size, composed of olivine and pyroxene, with smaller amounts of glass and iron-nickel metal. These same rocks are spread throughout the inner solar system, comprising the regolith on the near side of the Moon and covering the entire surface of Mercury. But infinitely more have fallen and are still falling toward the Sun. They vaporize in the solar corona, causing (currently unexplained) temperatures of millions of degrees, but their elements remain in the solar atmosphere. Unfortunately, astronomers assume that their absorption spectra represent the elemental abundance within the Sun. To compound their error, they claim that the fact that the spectra of the carbonaceous chondrite meteorites obtained in the laboratory match the absorption spectra of the Sun’s atmosphere, implies that these meteorites are primordial, i.e. that they are the most ancient material out of which the terrestrial planets accreted. There are several problems with their hypothesis.
First – solid rocks, or grains with densities of 2.0 g/cm3 cannot form in the weightlessness of space – they can only form on a planet with a strong gravitational field; Second – the near-spherical shapes of the tiny chondrules indicate that they were once molten droplets at temperatures >2000 K floating freely in the air. There is no way that such temperatures could be attained just floating in space. These chondrules were the result of continuous volcanic reactions on priori-Mars throughout the Vedic period which sprayed molten rock from the interior in many lava fountains.
Since carbonaceous chondrites are believed to be primordial, astrophysicists assume that their oldest ages give the age of the Sun. However, since the terrestrial planets are formed by inique impacts on Jupiter, the earliest being priori-Mars (4.5 billion years), the Sun may be much older than currently believed.
The vast amount of oxygen produced in stars during the fifteen billion years since the big bang and blasted into intergalactic space as each one dies, quicky combines with ever-present hydrogen to form water. The elemental abundances within the stars favor the formation of water over all other molecules when they die and this becomes incorporated into subsequent generations of stars. Much of this water would be expected to be floating around within galaxies where the stars lived and died, consistent with the concentrations of dark matter in the vicinity of galaxies. As a result, I suggest that the ‘dark matter,’ the ‘invisible’ mass infusing each galaxy is primarily water-ice crystals, or more probably loosely bound conglomerations of ice crystals, which form in the frozen weightlessness of interstellar space.
Dark matter was originally imagined to comprise exotic new types of particles, called ‘WIMPS’ (weakly interacting massive particles), that were possibly large but undetectable – maybe even floating under our noses. It is with great humility that I can announce to the world that WIMPS have been observed, not in distant galaxies but right in the vicinity of the Earth. The discoverer, who would rather not be identified in the present context, is Louis Frank, a scientist at the University of Iowa. In ultraviolet images taken by the NASA Polar satellite he discovered a vast multitude of 20 to 40-ton, house-sized comets falling to Earth at a rate of 25,000 per day. Because modern astrophysics has no explanation for this great mass of water right ‘under our noses,’ Prof. Frank has been vilified and ostracized by the scientific community – a tendency with which I am quite familiar. When this controversy became public, I emailed Prof. Frank, in order to explain the source of the water, but because of his great desire to be accepted by the scientific ‘community,’ the last thing he wanted was to associate himself with my extremely radicle catastrophism. At that date I had not yet considered any connection between the water in the solar system and dark matter. I explained that this water, which pervades the inner solar system, is left over from the creation of proto-Venus , only 6000 years ago. However, due to the considerations stated above, I now believe that Louis Frank’s small comets are local examples of the form of WIMPS, which pervade the galaxies, either within planetary nebulae or in interstellar space. The significant attributes of these WIMPS are that they are low density conglomerates of water which, in spite of their massive influx to the Earth, have remained invisible to all our instruments and telescopes up to 1997, indeed, the presence of which is still vehemently denied by most scientists. Based on the number actually observed in a limited space and time, Prof. Frank estimates that at their current rate these comets would raise the ocean levels one inch every 20,000 years, no doubt dealing the global warming lobby a serious blow. The excess water in interstellar space is in the same form, i.e. ordinary water and also completely invisible, reinforcing the fact that this is the mysterious ‘Dark Matter.’
(1 Cor 1:27-29 KJV) But God hath chosen the foolish things of the world to confound the wise; and God hath chosen the weak things of the world to confound the … mighty; And base things of the world, and things which are despised, hath God chosen, yea, and things which are not, to bring to nought things that are: That no flesh should glory in his presence [so that no one may boast before him].