ALMA Images Reveal Origin of Giant Planets

•January 17, 2019 • Comments Off on ALMA Images Reveal Origin of Giant Planets

Fig. 1 ALMA images reveal many giant planets forming in orbits of protoplanetary systems.

1. Introduction
The solar system comprises two fundamentally different types of planets: giant and terrestrial. At present, the origin of these two classes of planets are not understood. The recent Atacama Large Millimeter/sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) images of more than twenty young star systems provide information suggesting the origin and composition of giant planets. At the temperatures of these systems (<50 K) planets form from the same particles of ice that are being imaged.

Solid Methane gas hydrate (MGH) forms naturally at the extremely low temperatures in the outer reaches of Large Dark Nebulae. In MGH, a clathrate, twelve or more water molecules form rigid cage-like, structures. Most of these physically encapsulate a methane molecule, but larger cages can envelope a wide range of ‘foreign’ molecules or atoms, maximizing the mass of particles incorporated. The nominal composition of pure MGH is (CH4)8(H2O)46, with an average density of 0.9 g/cm3. Tests have shown that MGH is two orders of magnitude stronger than water ice at 208 K and the difference increases with decreasing temperature. The strength is further enhanced in highly deuterated MGH.

2. Giant Planet Formation
Millimeter studies of Large Dark Nebulae (LDN 1689N, 134, 154, 1544)1 report a 1010 enhancement of deuterium fractionation in the form of ND3 and D3 molecules in their colder outer reaches (20 K). Surfaces of dust particles in dark nebulae act as catalysts for the formation of simple molecules, H2 (D2) which then combine forming ices, primarily H2O, HDO, D2O, encapsulating the heavy elements in the form of dust or nanoparticles. Accretion continues at the next stage by the formation of deuterated MGH. By this symbiotic process, clathrate giant planets accrete the complete heavy element abundances in nascent stellar systems increasing their average densities to ~ 1.33 g/cm3.

Young star systems revealed in the ALMA images are natural progressions of LDNs as they contract, and their intrinsic angular momentum becomes manifest. As observed in the LDNs, high concentrations of deuterium are present in the cold outer reaches of protoplanetary systems where giant planets form prior to the initiation of nuclear fusion in the proto-star. Increasing gravitational pressure during accretion compensates for later increases in temperature (Fig. 1). Cold hydration makes possible the incorporation of the noble gases, argon, krypton, and xenon which have been detected in Jupiter by the Galileo atmospheric probe.

As observed in the ALMA images, the giant planets alone comprise the nascent star system. The MGH composition of giants suggests that they are ~ 85% water. Therefore, the giant planets in the solar system comprise 275 earth-masses of water. All the icy satellites and rings orbiting the giant planets are due to impacts which ejected material, primarily water into the surrounding space and releasing methane in their atmospheres.

Magnetic Field

Fig. 2. Fusion reaction energy flowing to GRS. Reflected energy from NEB.

A powerful recent impact at 22º S. Lat. on Jupiter produced a slowly declining fusion reaction, p + d => 3He++ + 4.98 MeV, on its surface consuming the tightly bound deuterium, which is therefore not detected. 1031/s fast doubly charged helion fusion products (17,800 km/s) produce the excess luminosity, the multiple zonal wind vortices are constrained by Coriolis effect and the solid surface, and exit the atmosphere through the Great Red Spot. Given the angular momentum of Jupiter, they orbit prograde at 1.08 RJ generating Jupiter’s powerful exterior magnetosphere, currently interpreted as an “inner radiation belt”.2

Fig. 3. Helion stream (yellow) which produces Jupiter’s magnetic field. Vortical streams (blue) deflected to the poles, form auroral ovals.

Two powerful vortical streams are deflected by the existing magnetic field to the poles, producing the constant auroral ovals. The north-south asymmetries of the magnetic field and atmospherics are due to the location of the energy source at the Great Red Spot, at 22º S Lat. No magnetic field is generated in the solid MGH interior of Jupiter, but iron and nickel dispersed in dust particles act as a weak permanent magnet, its field induced by the exterior magnetic field.

Atmosphere
The heavy elements, released from the MGH by the fusion heating, react to form high temperature compounds, cooling as they rise more slowly through the GRS vortex forming solid particulate aerosols, such as CS which forms tiny red crystals, producing the color of Jupiter’s red spot and clouds. These particles fall to the surface of Jupiter beneath the cloud-tops as rapidly as they are released. As a result, the clouds cover only ~ 60 degrees of latitude centered on the GRS. Some of these particles are carried within the polar vortices and cause spurious emissions within the constant auroral ovals.

Gravity
The heavy element aerosols have been collecting on the surface beneath the clouds since the fusion reaction was reduced to solely proton deuterium (1935). Its distribution is affected by the surface wind. This is currently being interpreted as a deep atmospheric signal, but as Juno coverage increases is being understood to be static.

Fig. 4. The blue oceans at both poles of Jupiter.thern exposure of Jupiter’s surface extends to lower latitudes tha the Southern.

6. Polar Oceans
Poleward of the cloud-covered ~ 60º centered on the GRS, the blue oceans of melted surface MGH are visible. The polar regions are warmed by the polar vortices of high energy helions which form the auroral ovals. The depth of this water layer will determine whether future astronauts will require boots or boats.

3. Terrestrial Planets
The ALMA images have stimulated papers suggesting that the images will provide information on the accretion of the terrestrial planets. However, the primary message of the ALMA data suggested herein is that the giant planets are solid, highly deuterated, methane gas hydrate bodies with a full complement of the known solar system element abundances, in the form of its average density 1.33 as compared to pure MGH with a density of 0.9 g/cm3. Most significant, the most abundant elements, hydrogen and oxygen, are in the form of H2O.

The proposed ongoing fusion reaction implies that a highly energetic (geologically) recent impact has demonstrated the suitability, even the probability, that an impact created a new terrestrial planet. The only terrestrial planet which is hotter and less well understood than Jupiter is Venus, or is it proto-Venus?

Fig. 5. Shoemaker-Levy 9 Impacts on Jupiter

The impacts of the larger fragments of Shoemaker-Levy 9 ‘comet’ produced ‘main events’ delayed by 10 minutes, which were never adequately interpreted. These delays were the time that the mushroom clouds from the fusion explosions on the surface took to rise to the cloud-tops, becoming visible. The complete abundance of elements, high deuterium and water content of the giant ice planets are ideal sources for producing terrestrial planets. Impacts on these giants instantaneously compress and heat the deuterated surface producing powerful fusion explosions exponentially increasing the energy of the impacts. Heavy elements blasted into the inner solar system by these impacts quickly collapse releasing gravitational and recombination radiation forming a hot, near-spherical molten core/mantle of a terrestrial proto-planet, which has no inherent spin. This radiation pressure disburses the lighter elements throughout the inner solar system, producing equinoctial lights, which eventually become captured by the extant planets and the new planet when it cools.3 The rampaging, molten proto-planet interacts with extant terrestrial planets to circularize is orbit, potentially changing others.

4. Conclusion
ALMA images reveal twenty icy young stellar systems, <50 K, each with several giant planets. LDN studies suggest the giant planets comprise highly deuterated MGH known to form naturally at these temperatures. This suggests a re-interpretation of Galileo and Juno mission data will provide a basic understanding of the giant planets.

References
1 .E.Roueff. Interstellar deuterated ammonia: from NH3 to ND3, (2005), DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20052724.
2 P. Kollmann et al. A heavy ion and proton radiation belt inside of Jupiter’s rings, Geophysical Research Letters, 16June, 2017, p.5259 5268.
3 L. A. Frank J. B. Sigwarth, Atmospheric holes: Instrumental and geophysical effects, JGR, 1Jan 1999.

History of Grand Canyon

•January 10, 2019 • Comments Off on History of Grand Canyon

Geology

“Grand Canyon is the result of a distinct and ordered combination of geologic events. The story begins almost two billion years ago with the formation of the igneous and metamorphic rocks of the inner gorge. Above these old rocks lie layer upon layer of sedimentary rock, each telling a unique part of the environmental history of the Grand Canyon region.

Then, between 70 and 30 million years ago, through the action of plate tectonics, the whole region was uplifted, resulting in the high and relatively flat Colorado Plateau.

Finally, beginning just 5-6 million years ago, the Colorado River began to carve its way downward. Further erosion by tributary streams led to the canyon’s widening.

Still today these forces of nature are at work slowly deepening and widening the Grand Canyon.”

Cyclic Catastrphism

Fig. 1. Orbits of Earth, Mars and proto-Venus between Mars’ geostationary captures encounters geostationary encounters showing capture and release points.

In preparation for the re-surfacing of the Earth, the lithosphere was inverted four times without changing its rotation rate. These inversions caused the oceans to rush across the continents, covering them with up to four layers of ocean-bottom material, the boundaries between which are currently called Mid Lithosphere Discontinuities, These ensured the complete destruction of the former reptilian flora and fauna dominated by the dinosaurs.. They also thickened  and reduced the viscosity of the asthenosphere by heating it.

The living planet Mars, with its core Mercury in a Venus-like orbit, was  then sheparded by the still molten proto-Venus into an orbit that intersected that of the Earth (Figure 1).

Fig. 2. Lithospere motion relative to mantle. (Differential Rotation … Ricardi et al JGR May 1991)

Mars then became captured in a geostationary orbit above Mt. Kailas 44,400 km from the Earth (center to center). Mars’ moment, thereby attached to the lithosphere, forced it to rotate independently of the mantle with Mt. Kailas (31 ° N Lat.) remaining in the ecliptic plane, forcing a marathon 14.4-year tropical temperature on the Himalayas (Figure 2). This motion also forced a point in Central North America (Canada) 59° Lat. into a 14.4-year marathon of sunless winter, resulting in the accumulation of estimated 9,000 ft Laurentine glacier, which completely covered northern North America as far south as Wisconsin. Then due to a close inferior conjunction and aphelion of proto-Venus, Mars was released into its intersecting orbit (Figure 1) for 15.6 years.  This 30-year cycle was repeated ninety-nine times

During these capture periods, convulsions within Mars, induced by alignments with the Moon or the Sun and Moon combined, blasted the atmosphere, oceans, soil, rocks and vegetation (as living sprouts, manna) to the Earth. This material formed many layers of wet soil and rocks in ninety-nine rhythmic horizontally bedded layers of sedimentary rocks that covered the continents of the Earth, including the area of the Grand Canyon and floods from the melting Lauurentine glacier formed the Colorado river and the rhythmics of Walla Walla, separated by “less than forty varves (years)” in Washington State. During the same periods the tidal drag of Mars  caused the entire lithosphere of the Earth to revolve 24 km/h westward relative to the mantle as a unit, thus all ancient cultures had calendars of 360  and 365.25 days/year . The silicate material at the top of the mantle acted as a bearing and its ample silicate lava flowed up into the continents where they were shallow.

During each release period, the silicate lava beneath the continents cooled and crystallized expanding as low density granite causing an uplifting of the continents where they were shallow, these cratons, although homogeneous, have recently been found to have been emplaced incrementaly. During these 15.6-year periods the Laurentine glacier, returned to normal seasons, melted and the massive discharge of water flowed across what is now known as the USA, found its way to the sea. In the farthest northwest these flows caused the Scablands of J. Harlen Bretz  when the glacial damns were breached. Farther to the East, the melting glacier sent flows across the originally low-lying western states which found their way to what is now called the Colorado River.

Therefore each cycle accumulated an additional layer of wet, soft sedimentary rock which was raised at the same pace due to the formation of subsurface granite and just as quickly was eroded away by rivers during the subsequent 15.6 years. Ninety-nine of these cycles built the mountain ranges, continents, canyons and provided the millions of species of flora and fauna which constitute our beautiful new world. Since the solid material from Mars was primarily soil and water, the Earth is covered by many sedimentary layers except where granite cratons rose through them, exclusively in the continents of the Earth, The

Fig.3 The North American Craton

North American craton remains hidden below the surface.

Mars’ tidal drag also repositioned the continents to their present locations, creating the subduction zones on their west coasts. North and South America were moved even farther west by the horizontal tidal force of Mars 35,000 km above the Himalayas, stretching open the mid-Atlantic rift and creating the Pacific ‘Rim of Fire”. This motion also produced the Rockies, North and South American Cordilleras and the Basin and Range Provence on the west coast.

Zircon (U-Pb) Dating

Based on the ancient myths of RgVeda, Egypt, Celts, Greeks and clues in the Bible, these ninety-nine 30-year geostationary encounters with Mars took place between 3700 and 687 BC. Otherwise they could not have been observed and ancient texts composed about them.  Because the Earth is covered by sedimentary rock from hundreds of volcanoes on Mars the suspiciously ubiquitous zircons give a wide range of ages, all characteristic of the more ancient Mars, not of the Earth.

This entire resurfacing (terraforming) of the Earth was cotemporaneous with the Biblical period from Genesis to the time of Isaiah, 687 BC, who wrote:

Isaiah 65:17 For, behold, I create new heavens and a new earth: and the former shall not be remembered, nor come into mind.

Not only is the evidence present around the world in agreement with the myths, but the caveat in this verse holds true, since academics are completely blind to both the changes in the heavens and the Earth. This period is currently called the Cenezoic and dated by evolutionists, who need the great span of time, in all departments at 66 Ma. Of course, this is because the magnitude of the world resurfacing is incomprehensible to them.

 

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Ultima Thule – Just Another 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko from Jupiter

•January 7, 2019 • Comments Off on Ultima Thule – Just Another 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko from Jupiter

An article in Nature News Reports another ‘snow-Man’ asteroid – the most distant body in the Solar System, in the Kuiper Belt. New Horizon scientists claim that it was created 4.6 billion years ago.

Asteroids

As explained in a previous post, Millions of 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenkos, these asteroids were all created from a slowly declining, blazing fusion reaction ‘left behind’ on the surface of Jupiter from the impact out of which Venus, more correctly proto-Venus, was born, 6000-years BP. The reaction continues to this day heating up the atmosphere of the giant Jupiter and producing the Great Red Spot. Along with Pluto, 67P and the new MU69 are

Fig. Juno asteroid 67P –

Fig. 2. Juno asteroid Ultima Thule MU69, is  ~31 X 19 km , eight times the size of 67P C-G of 67P.

the first three of millions of bodies produced from Jupiter’s blazing plume that have been observed close-up. The rest make up the entire Main Asteroid belt, the Kreutz Sungrazers that cause sunspots, and millions that orbit in the L4 and L5 Lagrange points of Jupiter.

Fig. 3 Jupiter plume (Juno) extending from 22 degrees South Latitude

Mythology

This fusion reaction, which blazed for almost 6,000 years, was observed by over one-hundred and fifty generations of human beings, and was therefore given names in all ancient cultures. The Greeks called it the aegis (shield) of Zeus (Jupiter), because it could be seen moving from left to right as Jupiter rotated, as if in battle. The impact on Jupiter caused the entire atmosphere to expand and glow an order of magnitude larger than normal. In Roman myth, this was described as Jupiter surrounding himself with a cloak to mask his affair with Io. But the blaze, which extended 2 million kilometers out into space from the impact site was imagined to be his wife Juno who was peering through the cloak to observe his infidelities (Figure 3). In the RgVeda, the blazing plume was described as ‘left behind’ from the explosion out of which Aditi (proto-Venus) was born, and imagined to be an elephant mrtnnda, which was seen swinging his trunk from side to side,also due to Jupiter’s rotation..

Physics

The blazing hot gases expanded, cooled and condensed forming solid particles which, because they were all moving in similar directions, splatted and stuck together at different scales forming larger bodies, exactly the shapes of the asteroids. Jupiter’s fast rotation, every 9 hours (~ 42,000 km/h at 22 ° S Lat.) flung the asteroids to all parts of the solar system and when added to its orbital velocity deep into the outer system. Because the blaze was directed south of the ecliptic plane, the hypothetical CMB is found to be hotter in that portion of the solar system.

There are more things in the world than are dreamed of in your philosophy, Horatio.   William Shakespeare

NASA Interpretations of Juno Data, Dec. 2018

•January 3, 2019 • Comments Off on NASA Interpretations of Juno Data, Dec. 2018

A summary of the featured talk on Juno’s latest (lack of) results at the fall meeting of the American Geophysical Union by David J. Stevenson:

Fig. 1. Unique disk-shaped magnetic field gererated by circling helions

“Gravity field, magnetic field and microwave brightness temperatures are three key global observations by the Juno spacecraft that inform us about what lies beneath the clouds, all the way to the center of Jupiter. Gravity … has indicated that Jupiter has an increasing concentration of elements heavier than hydrogen and helium towards the center, but not localized as in old ideas of a central core, telling us about the formation and evolution of the planet. Gravity has also told us that the winds we see in the atmosphere extend down several thousand kilometers, neither shallow in the sense of being confined to the weather layer, nor deep in the sense of extending significantly into the metallic hydrogen region. But remarkably, the pattern of the winds in the atmosphere is largely preserved at depth, an important constraint on dynamical theories for their origin. The magnetic field is incompletely mapped but already shows some striking features that have no counterpart in any other planet thus far: localized regions of high flux and a marked hemispheric difference in field structure north and south. The microwave observations show that the ammonia is non-uniformly distributed to hundreds of kilometers below the ammonia or presumed water clouds, a surprising result with implications for the nature of convective processes and the water abundance. These results challenge us to connect these three pieces: inferences on the depth of the winds may impact our interpretation of the magnetic field since meter/sec winds interact with the field in regions outward from the dynamo, and implications for water abundance from the microwaves may influence our interpretations of how the planet formed. Success of the Juno mission is measured in many ways, including instrument performance, but it is reinforced by the ways in which the results have surprised and challenged us.”

Cyclic Catastrophism (bold below)

Many posts on this site can be accessed through the search window, (i.e. select Jupiter or Juno) but the salient fact are recounted here.

A. The gas giant hypothesis on which all current research is conducted, is the primary problem since gas giants form at <50 K..

B. The gravity data is showing that Jupiter has an “increasing concentration of elements down several thousand kilometers, neither shallow  … nor deep. but not localized as in old ideas of a central core.”

This is because the Methane Gas Hydrate structure is low density and rigid.

C “Gravity is also telling us that the winds we see in the atmosphere extend down to several thousand kilometers, neither shallow in the sense of being confined to the weather layer, nor deep in the sense of extending significantly into the metallic hydrogen region. But remarkably, the pattern of the winds in the atmosphere is largely preserved at depth, an important constraint on dynamical theories for their origin.”

The fundamental problem here is more profound. It is the assumption that the magnetic field, the dynamo, is generated in the interior, which is not possible if the planet is solid. Cyclic Catastrophism proposes that a fusion reaction p + d ⇒ 3He++ + 4.98 MeV, left over from a recent 6,000-year old impact, of closely bound protons and deuterium in the methane gas hydrate, are producing 1030 invisible, doubly-charged helions per second which exit the atmosphere through the Great Red Spot, and given the angular momentum of the fast spinning planet, orbit prograde at 1.08 RJ, producing an appropriately shaped powerful magnetosphere and the external magnetic field (Figure 1.). This stream of ions is currently interpreted as the inner radiation belt and is avoided, not the least because, the JEDI ion instrument cannot measure the flight time of the helions thru the 6-cm instrument.  

The reason that the “pattern of the winds in the atmosphere is largely preserved at depth” is because the heat of the fusion reaction is releasing the full abundance of heavy elements in the clathrate MGH which combine to form high temperature compounds, such as CS. These crystallize as they rise and cool in the GRS vortex and flow out into the upper atmosphere as particulate aersols, causing the colored clouds we observe, but which Juno instruments cannot identify, so they are currently imagined to be ammonia ice. These heavy particles have been falling to the surface and accumulating beneath the clouds since ~ 1935, accumulating on the solid surface, producing the broader gravitational signals interpreted as due to the wind “at depth”.

Fig. 2.  (a) ‘Striking’ upward magnetic features in Jupiter northern hemisphere  (b) less complex downward field in southern hemisphere. .

 

D. The “striking features in the magnetic field” are due to swirling of some of the helions flowing toward the north pole which, because they have much farther to go from the GRS at 22 degrees South Latitude, are deflected by the turbulence of the clouds in the northern hemisphere.

E. The microwave observations (MWR) are currently interpreted based on the gas giant hypothesis. Thus, the longer wavelengths are

Fig. 3 MWR misinterpretation of surface heat as ammonia deep in planet due to lower frequency IR

assumed to originate from deeper in the planet. However, radiometers measure only heat, not ammonia.  In the solid methane gas hydrate hypothesis, the solid surface of Jupiter confines the circulation of a jet stream heated by the fusion reaction above the surface of the planet, which lies 700-800 km below the cloud tops. But the IR data is still interpreted as if the longer wavelengths are coming from ammonia clouds deeper in the planet. (Figure 3.).

Fig. 4. Toroidal surface winds showing eastward equatorial jet stream bordered on the north by the Coriolis force becoming vertical at the equator.

Fig. 5. IR, Vis. MWR showing location of MWR ‘ammonia signal’ in clear North Equatorial Belt and raised clouds just south of it at the equator in middle image

F. The multiple zonal wind bands are actually horizontal Coriolis vortices (zones) constrained below by the solid surface of the planet. The primary vortex, driven by the fusion, spawns adjacent bands spinning in opposite senses where they come in contact (belts). The significance of Coriolis is demonstrated by the cloudless north equatorial belt (Figure 5 left image), which lacks any circulating vortex because the Coriolis effect becomes vertical at the equator, preventing the spawning of a cloud vortex from the south, where the energy source (GRS) is. The radiation coming up through this gap in the clouds, currently interpreted as a signal associated with ammonia, is from the hot primary vortex (yellow in Figure 4) which travels north beneath the clouds and is reflected upward by the clouds north of the gap, as shown in Figure 5 right image. The raised clouds along the equator, are visible along the equator in the middle, visible light images (Figure 4.) and are also indicated by a lower measured velocity dip (shown elsewhere) along the equator.

 

Confusing Climate Disasters with Planetary Encounters

•January 1, 2019 • Comments Off on Confusing Climate Disasters with Planetary Encounters

Figure 1. Dendro correction for 14C dating vs date

Climate scientists are predicting dire consequences based on data from what is imagined to be early in the fictitious Cenezoic era. Quoting from Wikipedia:

“The data indicates that a The Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum (PETM), was a time period with more than 8 °C warmer global average temperature than today. This climate event began at the time boundary of the Paleogene between the Paleocene and Eocene geological epochs.[1] The exact age and duration of the event is uncertain, perhaps 55.5 million years ago. An associated period of massive carbon injection into the atmosphere has been estimated to have lasted no longer than 20,000 years. The entire warm period lasted for about 200,000 years. Global temperatures increased by 5–8 °C.[3] The carbon dioxide was likely released in two pulses, the first lasting less than 2,000 years. Such a repeated carbon release is in line with current global warming. A main difference is that during the Paleocene–Eocene Thermal Maximum, the planet was essentially ice-free.[4] However, the amount of released carbon, according to a recent study, suggests a modest 0.2 gigatonnes per year (at peaks 0.58 gigatonnes); humans today add about 10 gigatonnes per year.”

Fig. 2 Path scorched by proto-Venus from Sahara to Himalayas

Cyclic Catastrophism

Based on ancient texts (RgVeda, Egyptian, Greek and Biblical) cyclic catastrophism posits that the events currently ascribed to the Cenezoic era, actually took place in the last 6,000 years. The incorrect dating is due to the entire sedimentary crust of the Earth having been blasted from hundreds of volcanoes on Mars between 3687 and 687 BC along with oceans. Therefore the ubiquitous zircons across the world give wide ranges of U-Pb dates from Mars, which is 700 million years older than Earth.  The initial event of this Vedic Period is well documented in ancient texts: as Phaethon scorching the Earth in Greek myth; as Agni , the blazing form of Aditi in the RgVeda and the immediate aftermath in Genesis 1:2 “And the earth was without form, and void; and darkness was upon the face of the deep”.The resulting desiccation path of proto-Venus across Africa and on to the HImalayas is the single most prominent feature on the face of the Earth today (Figure 2). The continuity of the scorched zone across the continents proves there has been no relative motion of Africa and Eurasia since.

The two close passes of the newly created, molten, out-gassing proto-Venus left behind the iridium spike signaling the K-T extinction, inverted the spin axis of the lithosphere twice within a few centuries, causing the oceans of the world to flow across the continents depositing two tens-of-km thick layers of ocean-bottom material seen today as Mid-Lithosphere Discontinuities (MLD). These released the two pulses of benthic CO2 from deep in the ocean bemoaned above and in many climate disaster posts as a predicted consequence of the present “global warming”. They also explain why there was no arctic ice during the PETM.

After these encounters, Proto-Venus gravitationally displaced the living planet Mars, full of vegetation, oceans, atmosphere, from its interior orbit, similar to that of Venus today, into an orbit that intersected that of the Earth.

Fig. 3 Orbits of Earth, Mars and proto-Venus between Mars’ geostationary encounters geostationary encounters showing capture and release points.

From this orbit Mars was captured in a geostationary orbit of the Earth for 14.4 years  and released  to the orbit shown for 15.6 years ninety-nine times during which all of its crust, atmosphere, soil, oceans were blasted to the Earth, completely covering the continents. These encounters also changed the atmosphere as shown in Figure 1, and the cycles created the granitic mountains and separated the continents to their current positions.

All mammalian life, flowering plants, fruit trees, were introduced early in the Vedic period, 3687, along with Homo Sapiens Sapiens who witnessed and composed the chants that became myths. None of these ‘evolved’ from lower forms. There was no time for evolution.

Isaiah 45:12  I have made the earth, and created man upon it: I, even my hands, have stretched out the heavens, and all their host have I commanded.

Origin of Giant Planets

•December 24, 2018 • Comments Off on Origin of Giant Planets

 

Fig. 1 Atacama images reveal many giant planets forming in orbits of proto-stars.

The solar system comprises two fundamentally different types of planets: giants and terrestrials. At present the origin of these two types of planets are not understood. The recent Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) images of more than twenty very young star systems provide the information to determine the origin and composition of giant planets. At the temperatures of these systems (< 50 K) planets can only form from ices.

Methane gas hydrate (MGH) forms naturally at the extremely low temperatures (< 50 K) in the outer reaches of Large Dark Nebulae. In MGH, a clathrate, a dozen or more water molecules form rigid cage-like, Type I, structures. Each cage physically encapsulates a methane molecule but can envelope many other foreign molecules or atoms. Type II cages contain larger atoms or molecules, including Ar, Kr and Xe. The two types are intermixed, maximizing the mass of foreign particles physically, but not chemically, incorporated. The nominal composition of pure MGH is (CH4)8(H2O)46, with an average density of 0.9 g/cm3. Tests have shown that MGH is two orders of magnitude stronger than water ice at 208 K and the difference increases with decreasing temperature.i This strength is further enhanced in highly deuterated MGH.

Giant Planet Formation
Millimeter studies of Large Dark Nebulae (LDN 1689N, 134, 154, 1544)ii report a 1010 enhancement of deuterium fractionation in the form of ND3 and D3 molecules in their colder outer reaches (20 K). Surfaces of dust particles in dark nebulae act as catalysts for the formation of simple molecules, which then combine forming ices, primarily H2O, HDO, D2O, encapsulating the heavy elements in the form of dust or nanoparticles.iii Accretion continues at the next stage by the formation of deuterated MGH. High deuterium fractionation increases its stability. By this symbiotic process, clathrate giant planets accrete the complete heavy element abundances in nascent stellar systems increasing their average densities to ~ 1.33.

Young star systems revealed in the ALMA images are the natural progression of LDNs as they contract and their inherent angular momentum is realized. As observed in the LDNs, high concentrations of deuterium are present in the cold outer reaches of each system where giant planets form before nuclear fusion of deuterium and protons begins in the proto-star. Increasing internal pressure during accretion compensates for later increases in temperature (Fig. 1). Cold hydration makes possible the incorporation of the noble gases, argon, krypton, and xenon as have been detected in Jupiter by the Galileo atmospheric probe.

As observed in the ALMA images, the giant planets alone comprise the nascent star system. The MGH composition of giants suggests that they are ~ 85% water. Therefore, the giant planets in the solar system comprise 275 earth-masses of water, explaining that all the icy satellites and rings orbiting the giant planets are due to impacts which ejected material, primarily water into the surrounding space.
The author maintains that Juno data is revealing Jupiter is a solid, frozen methane gas hydrate (MGH) planet which incorporates the known solar system element abundances. Its excess luminosity, multiple wind bands and powerful magnetic field are driven by the fusion of deuterium and protons at impact sites on its surface, for example, the larger Shoemaker-Levy 9 fragments. Impacts of asteroids on their MGH surfaces release methane found in the atmospheres of all giant planets.

Terrestrial Planet Formation
The low density, solid composition, full abundance of elements, high deuterium and water content of the giant planets are ideal sources for producing terrestrial planets. Impacts on these giants instantaneously compress and heat the deuterated surface producing powerful fusion explosions which exponentially increase the energy of the impacts. The heavy elements blasted into the inner solar system by impacts quickly collapse releasing gravitational radiation combined with recombination radiation forming a near-spherical molten core/mantle of the future terrestrial proto-planet, which has no inherent spin. This powerful radiation pressure disburses the more plentiful, lighter elements into the inner solar system. They gradually become captured by the extant terrestrial planets and the new planet when it cools. The natural abundances of the elements in the clathrate giant planets form the lithosphere, crust, atmosphere and oceans of the terrestrial planet.

Evidence of such a recent impact on Jupiter is present in its excess luminosity and multiple zonal wind bands, due to a slowly declining fusion reaction p +D -> 3He++ + 4.98 MeV on its surface, the primary product of which, fast (17,800 km/sec) helions, delineate the Great Red Spot due to the powerful Coriolis effect on the rapidly rotating planet. The heavy elements released from the MGH by the localized heat of the surface fusion have not been identified because they react to form high temperature compounds, such as CS, proximal to the fusion, but cool as they rise through the GRS vortex continuously forming solid particulate aerosols, the source of Jupiter’s colorful clouds, but fall to the surface below the cloud-tops as rapidly as they are released.v

References
i. W.B.Durham, S.H.Kirby, L.A.Stern, and W.Zhang. The strength and rheology of methane clathrate hydrate. Journal of Geophysical Research, 2003,108, 2182.
ii .E.Roueff. Interstellar deuterated ammonia: from NH3 to ND3, (2005), DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20052724
iii L.Zhang. Platinum-based nanocages with subnanometer-thick walls and well-defined, controllable facets, Science, 24 July 2015, vol. 349, p. 379, 412.
iv N.J.Habing. Disappearance of stellar debris disks around main-sequence stars after 400 million years, Nature 401, 456-458 (30 September 1999).
v http://firmament-chaos.com/pdf/Juno%20-%20Evidence%20of%20a%20Solid%20Jupiter.pdf

Origin of Giant Planets

•December 20, 2018 • Comments Off on Origin of Giant Planets

Fig. 1 Atacama images reveal giant planets forming cold in orbits of numerous proto-stars.

New results from Atacama show that giant planets form cold in their planetary nebulae before fusion begins in their star. I have explained this years ago. Quoting from my paper  “Evidence for a Solid Jupiter” – February 2018. (See below) As explained in the same paper and in many posts at cycliccatastrophism.org the terrestrial planets are formed by later impacts on the giant planets. As explained in another paper, Venus – A young Earth, The most recent, proto-Venus was formed by an impact on Jupiter 6,000-years BP. These papers are always rejected by the academic ‘experts’ and cannot even by placed on ArXive.

1. Introduction
Juno data is revealing that Jupiter is a solid, frozen, highly deuterated Methane Gas Hydrate (MGH) planet which incorporates the known solar system element abundances. The only hydrogen and helium present in its atmosphere today is that which has been released from the MGH surface in the last 6,000 years. MGH began forming at extremely low temperatures (< 50 K) in the outer reaches of a Large Dark Nebula in the presence of ample methane. The pressure of the accreting planet served to increase its stability. Laboratory analyses of terrestrial MGH reveals that a dozen or more water molecules form rigid cage-like Type I structures. Each cage typically encapsulates a methane molecule but can contain other foreign molecules or atoms. Type II cages
are larger and can contain larger atoms or molecules, including Ar, Kr and Xe at very low
temperatures. The two types are usually intermixed. The nominal laboratory composition of MGH is (CH4)8(H2O)46, with an average density of 0.9 g/cm^3,
usually with 13C slightly enhanced. Tests have shown that MGH is two orders of magnitude stronger than water ice at 208 K, and the difference increases with decreasing temperature.1 This strength is further enhanced in highly deuterated MGH.

2. Giant Planet Formation
Infrared studies of proto-stars and Large Dark Nebulae (LDN 1689N) report a 1010 enhancement of deuterium fractionation in the form of ND3 and D3 molecules in their cold outer reaches (20 K). Recent events suggest that the giant planets in the solar system formed in such a dusty, highly deuterated Large Dark Nebula when ices of volatile molecules (H2O, NH3, CO2 and CH4) formed on small dust grains or nanoparticles.
3 Accretion continued at the next stage by the formation of methane Gas Hydrate (MGH av. density = 0.9) enhanced by high deuterium fractionation. By this symbiotic process, Jupiter accreted all the heavy elements in their known abundances in the nascent solar system resulting in its average density of 1.33.

Juno – Evidence of a Solid Jupiter 2 / 22 J Ackerman
Due to their large orbital radii and periods, the giant planets formed slowly, therefore cold, over long-time spans, typically millions of years.1 They began to form in the cold outer reaches of the LDN before the proto-star at the center of rotation began fusing its deuterium and protons. Increasing internal pressure during accretion compensated for slight increases in temperature. Cold hydration made possible the incorporation of the noble gases argon, krypton,
and xenon which have been detected by the Galileo atmospheric probe.

The most abundant volatile molecules not accreted in Jupiter formed Saturn, Uranus and Neptune, which also comprise Methane Gas Hydrates. Primordial hydrogen and helium not captured in gas hydrates escaped from the solar system in a
few million years as observed in very young systems. The giant planets alone made up the original solar system. The MGH hypothesis suggests that Jupiter and Saturn together comprise >275 Earth masses of water. Therefore, all the icy satellites and rings around the giant planets are due to impacts which ejected material, primarily water into the surrounding space.”

The previous post explains that the rings of Saturn were formed by impacts of bodies blasted from Jupiter, which in turn caused caused fusion explosions on Saturn.

To raise new questions, new possibilities, to regard old problems from a new angle, requires creative imagination and marks real advance in science. A. Einstein