Origin of Giant Planets

 

Fig. 1 Atacama images reveal many giant planets forming in orbits of proto-stars.

The solar system comprises two fundamentally different types of planets: giants and terrestrials. At present the origin of these two types of planets are not understood. The recent Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) images of more than twenty very young star systems provide the information to determine the origin and composition of giant planets. At the temperatures of these systems (< 50 K) planets can only form from ices.

Methane gas hydrate (MGH) forms naturally at the extremely low temperatures (< 50 K) in the outer reaches of Large Dark Nebulae. In MGH, a clathrate, a dozen or more water molecules form rigid cage-like, Type I, structures. Each cage physically encapsulates a methane molecule but can envelope many other foreign molecules or atoms. Type II cages contain larger atoms or molecules, including Ar, Kr and Xe. The two types are intermixed, maximizing the mass of foreign particles physically, but not chemically, incorporated. The nominal composition of pure MGH is (CH4)8(H2O)46, with an average density of 0.9 g/cm3. Tests have shown that MGH is two orders of magnitude stronger than water ice at 208 K and the difference increases with decreasing temperature.i This strength is further enhanced in highly deuterated MGH.

Giant Planet Formation
Millimeter studies of Large Dark Nebulae (LDN 1689N, 134, 154, 1544)ii report a 1010 enhancement of deuterium fractionation in the form of ND3 and D3 molecules in their colder outer reaches (20 K). Surfaces of dust particles in dark nebulae act as catalysts for the formation of simple molecules, which then combine forming ices, primarily H2O, HDO, D2O, encapsulating the heavy elements in the form of dust or nanoparticles.iii Accretion continues at the next stage by the formation of deuterated MGH. High deuterium fractionation increases its stability. By this symbiotic process, clathrate giant planets accrete the complete heavy element abundances in nascent stellar systems increasing their average densities to ~ 1.33.

Young star systems revealed in the ALMA images are the natural progression of LDNs as they contract and their inherent angular momentum is realized. As observed in the LDNs, high concentrations of deuterium are present in the cold outer reaches of each system where giant planets form before nuclear fusion of deuterium and protons begins in the proto-star. Increasing internal pressure during accretion compensates for later increases in temperature (Fig. 1). Cold hydration makes possible the incorporation of the noble gases, argon, krypton, and xenon as have been detected in Jupiter by the Galileo atmospheric probe.

As observed in the ALMA images, the giant planets alone comprise the nascent star system. The MGH composition of giants suggests that they are ~ 85% water. Therefore, the giant planets in the solar system comprise 275 earth-masses of water, explaining that all the icy satellites and rings orbiting the giant planets are due to impacts which ejected material, primarily water into the surrounding space.
The author maintains that Juno data is revealing Jupiter is a solid, frozen methane gas hydrate (MGH) planet which incorporates the known solar system element abundances. Its excess luminosity, multiple wind bands and powerful magnetic field are driven by the fusion of deuterium and protons at impact sites on its surface, for example, the larger Shoemaker-Levy 9 fragments. Impacts of asteroids on their MGH surfaces release methane found in the atmospheres of all giant planets.

Terrestrial Planet Formation
The low density, solid composition, full abundance of elements, high deuterium and water content of the giant planets are ideal sources for producing terrestrial planets. Impacts on these giants instantaneously compress and heat the deuterated surface producing powerful fusion explosions which exponentially increase the energy of the impacts. The heavy elements blasted into the inner solar system by impacts quickly collapse releasing gravitational radiation combined with recombination radiation forming a near-spherical molten core/mantle of the future terrestrial proto-planet, which has no inherent spin. This powerful radiation pressure disburses the more plentiful, lighter elements into the inner solar system. They gradually become captured by the extant terrestrial planets and the new planet when it cools. The natural abundances of the elements in the clathrate giant planets form the lithosphere, crust, atmosphere and oceans of the terrestrial planet.

Evidence of such a recent impact on Jupiter is present in its excess luminosity and multiple zonal wind bands, due to a slowly declining fusion reaction p +D -> 3He++ + 4.98 MeV on its surface, the primary product of which, fast (17,800 km/sec) helions, delineate the Great Red Spot due to the powerful Coriolis effect on the rapidly rotating planet. The heavy elements released from the MGH by the localized heat of the surface fusion have not been identified because they react to form high temperature compounds, such as CS, proximal to the fusion, but cool as they rise through the GRS vortex continuously forming solid particulate aerosols, the source of Jupiter’s colorful clouds, but fall to the surface below the cloud-tops as rapidly as they are released.v

References
i. W.B.Durham, S.H.Kirby, L.A.Stern, and W.Zhang. The strength and rheology of methane clathrate hydrate. Journal of Geophysical Research, 2003,108, 2182.
ii .E.Roueff. Interstellar deuterated ammonia: from NH3 to ND3, (2005), DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361:20052724
iii L.Zhang. Platinum-based nanocages with subnanometer-thick walls and well-defined, controllable facets, Science, 24 July 2015, vol. 349, p. 379, 412.
iv N.J.Habing. Disappearance of stellar debris disks around main-sequence stars after 400 million years, Nature 401, 456-458 (30 September 1999).
v http://firmament-chaos.com/pdf/Juno%20-%20Evidence%20of%20a%20Solid%20Jupiter.pdf

~ by Angiras on December 24, 2018.

 
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