Solving a Cosmic Conundrum

fig. 1. TW Hydrae proto-planetary disk around a proto-star with planets already present.

A new study, using the European Southern Observatory, presents evidence overthrowing another long held assumption concerning the formation of planetary systems – that the terrestrial planets accumulated from clouds of dust surrounding the young star. The work was accomplished by astronomers led by Carlo Manara of the European Southern Observatory in Munich, Germany,

Using Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA), a radio observatory in the Atacama Desert in Chile, to penetrate obscuring dust, the group has compared the masses of several hundred different protoplanetary disks around young stars between 1 million and 3 million years old to the masses of confirmed exoplanets and exoplanetary systems around older stars of equivalent size. The disk masses were often much less than the total exoplanet mass—sometimes 10 or 100 times lower.

Although such findings have been reported before for a few star systems, the study is the first to point out the mismatch over several hundred different systems. “I think what this work does is really set this as a fact,” Manara says.

How Does this Relate to Jupiter?

This work makes clear that the terrestrial planets in our system, and all other systems cannot possibly have formed from the scant planetary disks around the young star. The solution to this conundrum is in dozens of posts on this site. That is, the giant planets are formed in the cold recesses of Large Dark Nebulae, where the full range of heavy elements in dust particles, the surfaces of which act as catalysts for the formation of molecules and crystals, become encapsulated in highly deuterated Methane Gas Hydrate clathrate bodies at < 50 K.  These giant planets form before the central proto-star ignites. For example, Figure 1 from ALMA shows a proto-star TW Hydrea, in which fusion has not yet begun, surrounded by a proto-planetary disc in which two giant planets are already present.

The original solar system was only the four giant planets comprising methane gas hydrate clathrate with the full range of heavy elements. The only hydrogen and helium in the atmosphere of Jupiter is a small amount that has been released from its solid, highly deuterated, low density, Methane Gas Hydrate by a fusion reaction left behind by the impact, 6,000-years BP, out of which (proto) Venus was born.  This event demonstrated how all terrestrial planets, including Mars and Earth were formed (Mercury was the original core of Mars, which left permanently in 687 BC). These impacts were exponentially enhanced by the fusion explosion of massive amounts of deuterium which continues to this day. The nominal composition of MGH is (CH4)4(H2O)23, thus Jupiter is ~85% water by mass, explaining very simply why planets like the Earth are covered with water and why all the giant planets have massive amount of methane in their atmospheres. See Juno – Evidence of a Solid Jupiter  by John Ackerman.

The molal levels of Hydrogen and HElium were ‘measured’ by the Galileo atmospheric probe using index of refraction of samples, assuming they were the only significant gases in the atmosphere, therefore the measurement is was not valid.  The concentration of deuterium , (2.1 ± 0.4) 10−5, measured by (SWS) on the Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) does not include that encapsulated in the MGH, the fusion of which is responsible for the excess luminosity, wind bands, and powerful magnetic field of Jupiter. The proposed high deuterium content of the giant planets suggests that the initial fusion reaction in the Sun, which formed in the same Large Dark Nebula, was not the fusion of four protons to form a helium nucleus plus two protons as currently believed, since the reaction of D + H -> 3He++ + 4.98 MeV, now taking place on the surface of Jupiter, would have occurred at a much lower temperature.

Einstein On Epistomology of Science (annotated)

Concepts that have proven useful in ordering things easily achieve such an authority over us that we forget their earthly origins and accept them as unalterable givens. Thus they come to be stamped as “necessities of thought,” “a priori givens,” etc. The path of scientific advance is often made impassable for a long time through such errors. For that reason, it is by no means an idle game if we become practiced in analyzing the long commonplace concepts [gas giants, solar system 4.6 years old] and exhibiting those circumstances upon which their justification and usefulness depend, how they have grown up, individually, out of the givens of experience. By this means, their all-too-great authority will be broken. They will be removed if they cannot be properly legitimated, corrected if their correlation with given things be far too superfluous, replaced by others if a new system can be established that we prefer for whatever reason. (Einstein 1916, 102)

 

~ by Angiras on September 29, 2018.

 
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