Sunspots not from Solar Interior (Updated)

Fig. 1. A sunspot caused by the impact of a Kreutz sungrazing asteroid, 2000 C cooler than the photosphere. Umbra, containing water and iron is moving inward at 3,000 km/hr.

Until about 20 years ago, helio-scientists believed sunspots were caused by some mysterious magnetic process within the Sun that has periods of about eleven years, because they could not conceive of a regular rain of bodies crashing into the Sun. Then SOHO, STEREO and other Sun-staring satellites observed over 3,000 such bodies, called Kreutz sungrazers, all in the same unique orbit, every one of which disappeared into the Sun.  These are referred to as ‘comets’, because when they get close to the Sun, they leave trails, but none have been observed in the vicinity of the Earth. Although comets are imagined to comprise solely water, no such bodies have ever been observed close-up. When approached by probes, every one of them has displayed a solid core. Comets are merely ‘leaking’ asteroids. Despite the observations of over 3,000 of these bodies disappearing into the Sun, hundreds of papers are being written attempting to explain the magnetic process within the Sun which creates the sunspots. Based on the number of these sungrazers being continually imaged, thousands of these asteroids are passing above and below the ecliptic where the Earth is located and are not revealing themselves.

The > 3,000 Kreutz sungrazers are unique in ways that were not known until  2014, when the Rosetta mission approached and orbited ‘comet’ 67P C-G. Although this body emitted a few streaks of gas, it was never visible from Earth, except by powerful telescopes and thousands more are circulating unobserved. The belief that it was just water ice, because of its low density 0.5 g/cm3, the popular image of icy ‘comets’, was disproven when Rosetta’s 200 lb. lander  Philae, equipped with spikes that were supposed to penetrate the ice and become locked on the surface, failed to penetrate and Philae bounced off the surface and was lost. This is the same tough stuff that comprises all asteroids. Rosetta images of 67P belie its low reflected radiance, only 4% of the incident light. The brightness of the Kreutz tails as they approach the Sun are used to estimate their mass, assuming they are pure water ice, and when they become invisible the ‘comet’ is imagined to have been consumed before impact. But they all have the same composition as 67P, which is obviously much tougher than water ice. That assumption leads to estimates  of their diameters of several meters. However, 67P, was measured to be about 4 km in diameter. Images acquired by Rosetta show only a few thin streams of vapor – nothing like what would produce a large tail.

Another pertinent factor about the 3,000+ Kreutz sungrazers is that not a single one survived their close encounters with the Sun. This is well illustrated by a NASA video constructed using data from several Sun staring satellites. Despite this, astronomers claim that these ‘comets’ are not the cause of sunspots, because of their estimated size.  Attempts to explain their origin as the result of the break-up of large comets thousands of years ago are futile, since all the fragments would be placed in different orbits. The 3,000 Kreutz sungrazers in exactly the same orbit dismisses this argument.

Cyclic Catastrophism

Infra-Red Jupiter
The Great Red Spot on the left and fusion reaction on the right

CC explains the origin of all asteroids, except those that pass close to the Earth, as having been formed from an enormous plasma plume at the site of an impact 6,000 years ago, out of which the still-hot proto-Venus was born. The site of the impact is still present on Jupiter, 50,000 km east of the great Red Spot. Because the impact was at 22 degrees S Lat. all of the material ejected in this plume went into inclined orbits. Thus all the asteroids that formed from it are the ones still in inclined orbits.

Fig. 2. ‘Comet’ 67P described as a Jupiter family asteroid, which impact the surface of the Sun causing sunspots.

Because the plume was originally hot gas, the ejected material cooled and stuck together, condensed and froze in weightlessness, forming bodies of very low density. The fact that these impacts are the mechanism for the creation of the terrestrial planets, e.g. Venus, proves that Jupiter contains the known element abundances on the Earth and so do the asteroids ejected. As the material was blasted out into space the smaller pieces, all moving in the same general directions, splatted and stuck to one another, producing the textures seen in images of 67P (Figure 2.). Also important in the context of the sunspots, these bodies formed while still within the powerful magnetic field of Jupiter and became permanently magnetized.

Because of the rapid rotation of Jupiter, every eight or nine hours, the plume shot material throughout the entire solar system for almost 6,000 years. A conservative estimate of one asteroid per hour over only 5,000 years would be (5000 years x 24 x 365) gives ~44 million asteroids, but the splatting into larger sizes, like Pluto, and many impacts on the outer planets, which changed their obliquities,  has decreased the number.  The rapid rotation of Jupiter, the velocity of the ejection, plus the orbital velocity of Jupiter, when combined, was sufficient to eject bodies into the outer solar system, many bombarding Saturn, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto, but when the rotation of the plume site was opposed to the orbital velocity, the asteroids were directed into the inner solar system. At one such moment in each rotation, three per Earth day for 5,000 years (5.5 million), a potential Kreutz sungrazer was launched. Fortunately, they were launched well south of the ecliptic, passing ‘below’ the Earth (ecliptic) on the way to the Sun and ‘above’ the Earth on their return. This explains the unique inclinations of the Kreutz sungrazers, between  144 and 139 degrees. The velocity imparted by the fast rotation of Jupiter when the plume was directed toward the Sun ejected the sungrazers into retrograde orbits, but general relativistic effects undoubtedly have had a strong effect on their orbits because of their proximity to the Sun.

Fig. 3. The ‘butterfly’sunspot cycle, top

As their original orbits have decayed they continuously approach the Sun. The 11 year periodicity of the sunspots matches the orbital period of Jupiter, meaning that the orbits of the many potential sungrazers are offset from the Sun due to the eccentricity and inclination of Jupiter’s orbit. The butterfly diagram (Figure 3.), in which each period begins at high latitudes and progresses toward the equator shows the influence of the Jupiter’s inclination throughout its orbit and the 22 S lat. from which they were launched. The symmetry in north and south impacts is due to the perihelion point being close to the ecliptic. Approaching sungrazers hit in the south latitudes of the Sun while those which pass through perihelion cross the ecliptic and hit at comparable north latitudes.

Fig. 4. Sunspots show the impacting asteroids are breaking up.

The primary reason for the current interpretation of the sunspots as coming from within the Sun is the result of the sunspots being magnetically polarized, based on the spectrum of iron in their umbras.  This is due to the fact that the sungrazers became permanently magnetized when they formed from the gaseous plume near Jupiter. Thus, as they approach the Sun they become oriented opposite to its existing magnetic field. This is why the magnetic field of the Sun becomes reversed at the maximum, because the opposing flux of the incident asteroids overcomes the existing field. This shows that the magnetic field of the Sun is only a superficial aspect, observed at solar minimums, will disappear when the sungrazers peter out.A recent paper reveals that despite the variability of the intensity of sunspots from cycle to cycle, the solar radiation between cycles has remained unchanged over the last ten cycles.

Sunspots are not clean and well defined (Figure 4). Each one is surrounded by many smaller spots due to particles which broke off as it entered the thicker solar atmosphere. Also the axis of circulation of the magnetic field-generating particles is several tens of degrees away from the actual rotation of the Sun proving they do not originate from within the Sun.

The obvious effects of the sungrazer impacts are: that the material in the umbras of sunspots is known to be moving downward into the Sun at 3,000 km/hr and large amounts of both water and iron are detectable within them and nowhere else in the photosphere, the bright surface of the Sun.

The impacts of the non-volatile materials within each sungrazer splashes solar surface material just as any other impacts, resulting in the solar flares, some of which reach as far as the Earth. Although these pose some problems to modern technology, they also supply heat to the Earth as evidenced by the ‘little ice age’ which resulted from dearths of sunspots known as the Spörer Minimum (1450–1540) and the Maunder Minimum (1645–1715). Also unknown to modern science, the pulses of incoming positive and negative charged particles spiral into the magnetic poles in opposite senses, therefore their effects of pumping up the magnetic field of the Earth are additive.

Also unknown to modern science, the magnetic field of the Earth originates from high pressure, superconducting layers of  FeH in the solid core, not in putative swirling dynamo currents in the mantle. This is corroborated by the magnetic field of Mercury, the former solid core of Mars, which despite its great age, has no solid core or magnetic field.

If you are unaware, you are unaware of being unaware
Leon Festinger  Theory of Cognitive Dissonance  1957

~ by Angiras on February 10, 2018.

 
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