Jupiter Rules Saturn (Update 2)
As already noted by Galileo and Cassini missions, there are few similarities between Jupiter and Saturn, the greatest differences being in their magnetic fields. Their greatest similarity lies in their (as yet unknown) composition – both are are solid, frozen, highly deuterated methane gas hydrate bodies (MGH), not ‘gas giants’. As such, the two planets comprise almost 300 earth masses of water! The average density of Jupiter (δ=1.33) is the result of water-ice forming on dust grains at the snow-line, the slow, cold accretion in the presence of abundant methane, thereby incorporating all of the heavy elements in the nascent solar system. The low density of Saturn, relatively pure MGH (δ=0.9), is the result of the bombardment of bodies from Jupiter in the last 6,000 years which have greatly expanded its atmosphere (δ=0.7) and produced its extensive ring system. Sufficiently large impacts on the highly deuterated MGH surface of Saturn result in fusion explosions which are currently interpreted as ‘storms’ based on the ‘gas giant’ hypothesis. These produce H and OH ions and carbon from CH4, primary constituents of MGH and blast the water which continually produces changes in the rings (Figure 1).
A slowly declining fusion reaction in the crater of an enormous impact explosion on Jupiter 6,000 years ago has ejected an uncountable number of bodies into all parts of the solar system, one example of which is ‘comet’ 67 P Churymov Gerasimento. These formed from a hot fusion plume on Jupiter in a weightless environment and condense into low density bodies. They are asteroids comprising the complete abundance of solar system elements which, because they are moving with similar velocities and directions, ‘splat’ and adhere forming larger bodies.
The fusion reaction on Jupiter has now declined to the lowest temperature fusion reaction. The kinetic energy of the stable ³He+ ions produced in this reaction (d + p → ³He+ + γ) result in the ‘temperature excess’, multiple ‘wind bands’ (surface vortexes) and the enormous magnetic field of Jupiter. The field is generated by the ³He+ (10³°/s), which emanate from the fusion reaction, rises in a hot vortex which is
swept westward by the rapid rotation of Jupiter bodies as the move away from Jupitertoward the East and exits above the cloud-tops through the Great Red Spot at 22º South Latatude (Figure 2). The high velocities imparted by the fusion reaction and the westward orientation of the GRS vortex (Figure 3) are more than countered by the eastward rotation of Jupiter at 22 degrees south latitude (42,000 km/hr) resulting in the inner radiation belt of ³He+ and heavy element ions (O, C, S) being released by the fusion, orbiting Jupiter to the East. This is the means by which the angular momentum of the planet is transferred to the circulating ion cloud. Although ³He+ is an ion, it is known to be stable, and the great number orbiting Jupiter are the origin of the enormous external Jovian magnetosphere, often described as the largest ‘structure’ in the solar system. It is precisely because it is generated by the ion cloud outside of the planet that it is so strong. The field of the Earth is generated in its deep interior so the exterior field is attenuated by the mantle and crust.
Currently Juno scientists believe the magnetic field of Jupiter is produced in the interior of Jupiter, driven by the rapid rotation of the planet to the East. Since Jupiter is a solid frozen body with the known solar system element abundances, it has 318 times the iron and nickel as the Earth. But these are uniformly distributed in dust particles throughout the interior. As a result, the interior of Jupiter is a large weak permanent magnet induced by the external field and therefore not oriented with the geographic poles. This is causing what Juno scientists term a “very complex” magnetic field near the surface.
Unfortunately, the relativistic helium ions produced by the fusion reaction (24,299 km/sec assuming all energy goes into the helium ions) are too fast for the Juno JEDI energetic ion detector to measure their Time-of-Flight. As a result, the helium ions responsible for all the known features of Jupiter, cannot be detected by any Juno instrument. The only chance of detecting them would be by radio telescope from the Earth, because of their great concentration on Jupiter. They do have an ultrafine ground state transition at 3.46 cm (Goldwire & Goss astronomical Journal v.149, July 1967, Gould, v. 423 Mar. 1994, and Bania doi: 10.1017/S174392131000390X) which has only been detected by integrating 60 H II areas and 12 nebula – never from a single identified source. The solid Jupiter hypothesis will most likely be confirmed by the gravitional field, Juno’s radio experiment, in the next few months.
The insistence of planetary scientists on ancient ages inherited from Charles Lyell’s gradualism has resulted in the waste of tens of thousands of planetary astronomers professional lives.
Einstein On Epistomology of Science (annotated)
Concepts that have proven useful in ordering things easily achieve such an authority over us that we forget their earthly origins and accept them as unalterable givens. Thus they come to be stamped as “necessities of thought,” “a priori givens,” etc. The path of scientific advance is often made impassable for a long time through such errors. For that reason, it is by no means an idle game if we become practiced in analyzing the long commonplace concepts [gas giants, solar system 4.6 years old] and exhibiting those circumstances upon which their justification and usefulness depend, how they have grown up, individually, out of the givens of experience. By this means, their all-too-great authority will be broken. They will be removed if they cannot be properly legitimated, corrected if their correlation with given things be far too superfluous, replaced by others if a new system can be established that we prefer for whatever reason. (Einstein 1916, 102)