Samudra and Asian Geology
“The word samudra has been used in various meanings in the Rgveda. It occurs more than 150 times, about 60 times in Books I and X together, about 40 times in Book IX, and about 60 times in the rest of the Rgveda.”
Cyclic Catastrophism explains the meaning of many Sanskrit words which baffle Indologists and Oriental scholars. One such word, expressed here in Hindi, is samudra. The current understanding is expressed in a recent article, titled “Samudra in the RgVeda“. The accepted translation is “a confluence of waters”. This is indeed what it actually refers to in the Rg Veda. Although this translation is correct, there is no understanding of the actual samudra in the Rg Veda.
The use of the word 150 times in the Rg Veda proves that it referred to a very common aspect of the Aryan peoples lives, yet its meaning has never been agreed upon by Vedic scholars. Samudra is a prime example of a word easily and naturall explained by Cyclic Catastrophism. The tidal attraction of Mars in a geostationary orbit above Mt. Kailas resulted in an enormous stationary tidal ocean bulge surrounding the Himalayas attaining an elevation at the highest point, of almost 5,000 meters. Its highest extent is marked by the two lakes, Manasarovar and Rakshastal shown in Figure 1. The high-water line can be seen on the face of the mountain range north of the lakes. This tidal confluence was the samudra in the Rg Veda. The tidal bulge extented as far as the Punjab, forming an eastern sea adjacent to the Aryan lands.
The same sustained tidal force that formed the samudra also effected the land masses in the same area but on a slightly slower time scale. As a result, the geology of this region is a unique combination of sediments deposited by the one hundred 14.4 year samudras between 3687 and 687 BC and basaltic rocks which have been squeezed and raised to the surface due to the cyclic tidal effect of Mars on the junction of the Indian and Asian tectonic plates. Geologists describe the formations at the level of the lakes as “highly deformed and uprooted assemblages of basic and ultrabasic rocks emplaced on the ocean floor in the early stages of diastrophism .. collectively known as ophiolites. These ophiolites are chaotically admixed with the sediments giving rise to ophiolitic melanges.” (Dynamic Himalaya, by Khadg Singh Valdiya).
This ‘Kailas formation’ extends along the entire Indus Tsangpo Suture, thought to represent the juncture of the Indian and Asian continents from Afganistan to the Kailas region. Geologists believe that the sediments mixed in with the ophiolites were deposited millions of years ago, “… in the early stages of diastrophism” when the Indian and Asian plates were both at sea level. Diastrophism is derived from a Greek word meaning ‘twisting’, primarily due to the snake-like shapes of ophiolitic rocks which are closely associated with serpentine rocks with a similar connotation. Fig.2 shows serpentine rock formation the waves of which are consistent with cyclic diastrophism and therefore with cyclic catastrophism.
As explained throughout this site, Mars, full of life, was repeatedly captured in a geostationary orbit above Mt. Kailas in the TransHimalayas, called “Indra’s Home on Earth” in the Rg Veda. This huge inertial mass resulted in the entire lithosphere of the Earth on which we live, rotating with Mars in the ecliptic plane, the plane of the solar system, throughout each 14.4 year kalpa. It forced the lithosphere to rotate at a different speed and about an axis in what is now central Canada (60º N, 100º W) with the asthenosphere acting as a bearing as discussed in ‘Geological Confirmation of Cyclic Catastrophism‘. In this process the excess orbital angular momentum of Mars was ‘stored’ in the rotation of the lithosphere, also illustrating how the Moon could have been captured – thought to be impossible by astrophysicists. Mars orbited with the lithosphere at a center-to-center distance of 44,400 km, with its surface only some 33,500 km above the Himalayas. This enormous mass so close to the Earth for a total of 1,500 years, completely dominated the geology of our planet to a degree which cannot be imagined in modern times. For example, during each kalpa land masses, such southern India normally in the northern hemisphere spent the entire time in the reverse magnetic field of the Earth and rock bodies extruded during these periods, like the Deccan Traps, acquired reverse magnetic field orientations. The resulting ‘chron’ is currently imagined to show that the Indian plate was in the position of the Reunion ‘hotspot’ when the Deccan Traps were formed 66 million years ago.
The cyclic slower rotation during each kalpa was the reason that all ancient cultures had calendars with both 360 and 365.25 days per year. Each time Mars was released the lithosphere went back to its normal alignment and speed. The slower rotation of the lithosphere meant that it moved toward the west relative to the mantle, the top of which is the asthenosphere, during each kalpa. This resulted in the subduction zones and the plutons found on the western edges of most large continental masses and in the interior where the continent was shallow. It also resulted in the plutons in weaker areas rising through the continents from which granite, found only on the Earth, became incorporated in the continents.
Interestingly, geologists claim that the diastrophism in the Kailas region occurred at the same date and was linked with the ‘counterclockwise’ (northeast) movement of the Arabian peninsula, attributing both to a powerful volcanic plume at the Reunion hotspot. But the Arabian peninsula motion was actually due to the cyclic tidal effect of Mars over Mt. Kailas which is thought to be ongoing. This tidally induced movement of the Arabian peninsula widened the Red Sea rift, the Gulf of Suez, the Gulf of Aqaba, northward to southern Turkey, and between Syria and Jordan. At the same time it compressed the Persian (Arabian) Gulf on the east side of Arabia, resulting in the creation of subduction zones in Oman, along the Persian/Arabian Gulf area, along the Syrian-Turkish borders, and along the eastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea. As shown in Figure 3, this entire zone is rich in petroleum reserves and is therefore of tremendous interest and study. Some petroleum geologists believe that the oil may be the product of inorganic processes where the diastrophism is taking place.
Cyclic catastrophism suggests another, organic source of the oil in this region, similar to the sudden flooding events which drowned multiple animal species found in the Siwalik Hills deposits in the forelands of the Himalayas, during the Vedic Period at each of the one hundred captures of Mars. Assuming the presence of abundant animal life along the Arabian Sea, Mars’ captures would have drawn the Arabian Sea waters suddenly to the northeast drowning millions of animals. The cyclic subduction of the Gulf would have created heat and released gases that would speed up the decay of organics and perhaps produced oils. After each 14.4-year encounter, when Mars was released, the water returned to normal and in the following 15.6 years the area would have become repopulated. The Persian Gulf diastrophism, characterized by the presence of ophiolite deposits was caused by the repeated presence of Mars above Mt. Kailas, ‘Indra’s Home on Earth’, which took place between 3687 and 687 BC.
The most convincing physical evidence of the samudra
is shown in Figure 2. At the termination of each kalpa the samudra was suddenly released and the waters cascaded down through the Himalayas cutting the the great river gorges present today.
The tidal bulge completely covered northern India, forming a temporary ocean just east of the Punjab, the location of the Aryan lands. In the Rg Veda the sun is described as rising out of the samudra, strongly implying that a body of water lay to the immediate east of the Aryan lands, located close to the Punjab. The following quotes, published over one hundred years ago, reinforce the notion of repeated ocean incursions in northern India:
“Dr. Das … says that there is the clearest mention in the Rig Veda (VII. 95.2) that the Saraswati flowed from the Himalaya right into the sea. His natural inference is that in Rg Vedic times there must have been a sea, occupying the desert tract of Rajputana … Further, he says there is also the clearest mention of the existence of an Eastern Sea … and as the Sea’s contiguity to the Punjab … is clearly indicated by a number of verses, he naturally infers that it lay to the immediate East of the Punjab … Surprisingly enough, the existence of a Miocene sea, cutting off the Punjab from Southern India was asserted by some old geologists but this seemed too early and remote for the development of a civilization like that depicted in the Rig Veda; he therefore surmises that this sea must have existed down to later geological periods. Mr. D. N. Wadia in his Geology of India mentions the existence of a Pleistocene Sea covering the Gangetic trough at the foot of the Himalayan Range, – a sea that undoubtedly lasted for several thousand years till it was gradually filled in by the waste of the high lands and the alluvium brought down by the Himalayan rivers … As regards the existence of a sea in Rajputana in the Pleistocene period, the evidence is still very meager, but Mr. Wadia writes of “marine transgressions” which caused portions of Rajputana to be invaded occasionally by the encroachments of the Arabian Sea, such encroachments lasting probably for thousands of years at a time. He says such invasions of the sea on land are of comparatively short duration … geologically.”
The documents quoted indicate that the low-lying levels in northern India were definitely flooded or ‘invaded,’ and the implication is that these encroachments were of short duration, geologically speaking, and happened repeatedly. The author was obviously at a loss to explain the cause of what were evidently very short incursions. Like many other geologists, he could not conceive of a mechanism by which the (Tethys?) sea, once it covered the area, could be quickly removed. Thus he hypothesizes that the subsequent lowering of the sea level must have occurred due to sediments from the highlands gradually raising the subareal land surface. He believes, as any modern day geologist, that this would have taken many thousands of years, but finds it even more difficult to conceive of the process being repeated.
Cyclic Catastrophism gives an explanation of these incursions quite consistent with the events described – their short durations, great depths, their repetitive nature – so many that the number cannot be determined from studying the deposits alone. This view is consistent with the apparent familiarity of the Aryans with sea voyaging, discussed by Sharma in Vedic Aryans and Sea-voyage. Also, the fact that the Rg Veda mentions sea waves, but not tides, is consistent with the samudra being a stationary tidal bulge. A lack of tides also occurs in the Mediterranean, but it is due to the narrowness of the inlet at Gibralter.
Amazingly, the famous H.G. Wells published an ancient hand-drawn map of Eurasia on page 77 of The Outline of History (Figure 13). His concise description of the map reads as follows:
“This map represents the present state of our knowledge of the geography of Europe and Western Asia at a period which we guess to be about 50,000 years ago, the Neanderthaler Age.”
Wells did not understand anything about Mars orbiting the Earth, and was obviously influenced by the current gradualism paradigm of geology based on his estimate of the age of the Earth depicted in the map. He notes the low levels of the Mediterranean and Red Seas, echoing geologists claim that the map depicts sea levels during the ice age, and that the water missing from them was all sequestered in the glaciers shown covering northern Europe and western Asia. However, this contradicts the anomalously high water level covering Northern India. The sea level there is exactly where the samudra was located, acting as an eastern ocean as seen from the Aryan lands (arrow) during each kalpa and is consistent with the water being tidally drawn from the Red and the Mediterranean seas. How Wells came by this map is not explained. He attributed it to a more distant period in the past for the same reason that Dr. Das estimated the sea encroachments would have taken thousands of years – because the textbooks tell us that large scale geologic changes require long periods of time. This confluence of waters would have isolated the Aryan lands from Southern Indian continent by approximately 1500 km during each kalpa, minimizing large conflicts between the two cultures. Although a sea-faring contact via this ‘Eastern Sea’ would still have been possible, there would probably not have been port facilities at the edge of the samudra in central India. More distant ports might have existed on the coast of the Indian continent south of the samudra which remained above water.
The accepted definition for samudra, confluence, is particularly appropriate because it implies a coming together from all directions. In addition to the most obvious source, the Arabian Sea, water was drawn from the Bay of Bengal, the western Pacific Ocean, plus the eastern Atlantic Ocean, while the Mediterranean and Red Seas were completely emptied and dessicated during each 14.4 year kalpa. The flooding of the Mediterranean waters across the Levant upon the capture of Mars every 30 years, was the reason that cities were built on tels and why the Egyptians built the pyramids, to act as stable life-boats up which the people climbed to avoid being carried away by the great force of the tide.
Messinean Salinity Crisis
Physical evidence of this repeated emptying of the Mediterranean Sea has been discovered in the last fifty years in the form of many layers of evaporates on the bottom that formed in the last stages of dessication of salt water and from the remains of many (now submerged) canyons that were cut into the sides of the dry Mediterranean basin by rivers flowing down to the abyssal plain. Just as with all other surface features from the Vedic Period, geologists have dated these salt layers at >5 million years, because each layer was covered by a small amount of pollen, soil, rocks, all blasted from the more ancient Mars during the 3,000-year Vedic Period. These many layers of salt have baffled geologists to such a great degree that scientific meetings on this single subject have been scheduled every two years for the last decade. They fail to recognize or even mention the number of layers of salt in this deposit just as geologists fail to discuss the many equally thick layers of the Deccan Traps, both of which formed during the same period 3687 to 687 BC.
Although water from the eastern Atlantic Ocean flowed through the Mediterranean at each capture of Mars, it did not flow into the Mediterranean basin during each kalpa because the initial tidal draw-down at each capture of Mars extended beyond the Mediterranean exposing the continental shelf of the eastern Atlantic. Evidence for this lies in the discovery of human occupation of Doggerland, which in recent geological time connected the British Isles to the European continent.
Origin of the Saharan Sand
Just as the samudra flooding exposed Doggerland, it drew the Eastern Atlantic onto the coast of Northern Africa where there was no mountain barrier, e.g. Mauritania, to the East toward Mt. Kailas, carrying the coastal and ocean-bottom sand apparently ‘uphill’ into northern Africa and depositing it in depressions where it accumulated. Each capture period, or kalpa in the Rg Veda, lasted 14.4 years and the periods that Mars was released into an intersecting planetary orbit lasted 15.6 years. Each time Mars was released, the lithosphere returned to normal as did the gravitational field, at which times some of the water flowed back out into the Atlantic basin, but much of the sand remained in depressions. This process was repeated one hundred times with a period of 30 years between 3687 and 687 BC, with the sand and the salt destroying the livabilty of North Africa (see Egyptian Astrophysics: The 30 Year Cycles, by John Ackerman). The sandstone and granite mountains on the west coast of North Africa were formed during this same period due to the differential movement of the lithosphere relative to the mantle (asthenosphere).
Reinforcing this 3,000-year scenario, the gravitational field of Mars during each 14.4-year Horus am Akhet (Horus on the Horizon, referring to Mars over Mt. Kailas), referred to in ancient Egyptian texts just as Akhet, was sufficient to draw some of the fresh Nile waters eastward, temporarily fertilizing lower lying areas of eastern Egypt, such as Amarna, Akhenaten’s new city. Amarna was quickly built but the settlement failed because normal conditions returned for 15.6 years after each Akhet. The Akhet, translated ‘inundation’, lasted 14.4 -years during the 3,000 years of Pharaonic Egypt but modern day Egyptologists believe it referred to the yearly increases in the Nile flow experienced today.
Romans 1:20 For snce the creation of the world God’s invisible qualities – His eternal power and divine nature – have been clearly seen, being understood from what has been made, so that non-believers are without excuse.