Jupiter’s Radiation Belts
As the NASA Juno probe approaches its orbit insertion rocket firing, the whole potential of revealing the true nature of Jupiter lies in the balance. Even if the burn is successful, a wait of more than fifty days will have to pass due to the highly eccentric initial orbit, designed to get a first look at science data before decreasing the orbit to 14 days, where it will remain for the next year.
NASA scientists are concerned about the ‘radiation belts’, which they believe comprise high speed electrons circulating in the magnetic field of the giant planet. Note there are two radiation belts.These are shown in Figure 1, which also shows how the orbit of Juno is designed to avoid them. The outer belt is depicted as the magnetic field lines in which electrons are trapped as in the Earth’s Van Allen belts. The inner belt is the one closest to the Juno orbit, depicted in red and yellow. It is obvious that the inner belt is not symmetrical, but is tilted relative to the equator and the two sides have noticeably different forms. In all the video ‘tutorials’ on the web or TV the NASA discussions never mention this asymmetry because they do not understand the origin or composition of the inner belt.
The entire cyclic catastrophism scenario, the subject of this blogsite, began with an impact on Jupiter 6,000 years ago, which produced such an enormous fusion explosion that every creature on Earth observed it. As a result, it is described in the texts (myths) of every truly ancient culture, which make clear that Venus (Athena, Minerva, Aditi) was born from the material ejected by that explosion. This simple myth suggests that Jupiter is a solid, frozen, Methane Gas Hydrate body within which all the heavy elements in the solar system were originally incorporated. Given the recent example of Venus, all the terrestrial planets: Mars, Earth and Venus were created in this way. It also suggests that Jupiter formed cold in a way which incorporated a large percentage of heavy hydrogen (deuterium) which provides fuel for fusion reactions. That impact explosion also triggered a fusion furnace in the crater on Jupiter which has gradually diminished but is still burning today in the form of the lowest temperature fusion reaction possible. The heat of this single fusion furnace is creating what scientists call Jupiter’s ‘temperature excess’, releasing as much energy as the total amount of sunlight striking the entire planet. It also drives the ‘wind bands’, actually vortices, constrained by the solid surface of the planet which encircle the planet from pole to pole.
What is unique about this reaction on Jupiter is that the fusion of each proton, p, with a heavy proton (deuteron), d, produces a charged helium nucleus plus a gamma ray ( d + p → ³He+ + γ ). At higher temperatures, such as in the Sun, the helium ions are consumed by higher energy fusion reactions. But this is not occurring on Jupiter because a unique high pressure confinement with ample deuterium exists within the impact crater which has been cooling down for the last 6,000 years. The energy produced by the reaction is almost exclusively due to the kinetic energy of the helium ions. Based on the heat being released, this reaction is producing ~10³º helium ions per second! Equally amazing, these helium ions have a half-life of 400 years! On Jupiter the heat from the fusion in the crater, hidden less than 1000 km below the cloud-tops, spirals upward in a vortex swept westward due to the rapid rotation of the planet and becomes visible as the Great Red Spot (Fig. 2), carrying an inconceivable, continuous blizzard of helium ions and ejects them into space. As a result, an incalculable number of them are circulating around Jupiter, forming the inner radiation belt. These were detected by the Galileo atmospheric probe and orbiter, as well as Cassini.
This explains the asymmetrical distribution of the inner radiation belt in Figure 1. The inner belt imaged on the left side of Jupiter is on the side of the Great Red Spot and is therefore more concentrated. It appears slanted downward because the Great Red Spot is located at 22 º South Latitude. Once ejected the ions go into orbits around Jupiter’s center of gravity and therefore appear more dispersed and above the equator on the other limb of the planet. A detailed scientific paper on this new understanding of the solar system is available here. Verifying the presence of predominantly ³He+ ions in the inner radiation belt of Jupiter would essentially prove the existence of this ongoing fusion reaction, since there is no other way that prodigious amounts of these ions can be produced.
The Juno orbiter carries two radiation monitoring instruments: JEDI (Jupiter Energetic-particle Detector Instrument), intended to map electron energy and ion energy/composition over both polar regions (APL/Johns Hopkins University);and JADE (Jovian Auroral Distributions Experiment), intended to map electron energy and ion energy/composition over both polar regions (Southwest Research Institute) – essentially duplicate instruments. Unfortunately, these instruments are both currently planned to be used only around the poles of Jupiter, where the ³He+ ions are least concentrated. Failing to monitor the inner radiation belt throughout at least a few science orbits would be a big mistake, since these instruments have the potential, along with the MWR and radio (gravity) experiments, to reveal the entirely new and exciting Methane Gas Hydrate composition of Jupiter discussed in great detail in the linked paper – revealing that Jupiter comprises > 275 earth masses of water! Based on the duplicated functions of these two instruments, it would be wise to devote just one of them to the polar studies and utilize the other for studies of the inner radiation belt. As discussed in the linked paper, the concentration and velocity of the helium ions directly above and to the immediate west of the Great Red Spot at 22º South Latitude, poses primarily a threat to the MWR experiment but the sheer numbers of particles at these longitudes would easily be detected by either the JEDI and JADE instrument systems.
A single measurement showing that the inner radiation belt consists almost exclusively of these ³He+ ions – a concentration of which has never been observed anywhere else in the universe would, in itself, prove the solid Methane Gas Hydrate composition of Jupiter discussed in the linked paper. As also explained in that paper, both the MWR and the radio science (gravity) experiments have the potential to corroborate the MGH hypothesis, but to use the radiation belt data, which is a direct contact, not a remote measurement, for which an instrument is already present, makes eminent sense. It is important to take full advantage of this opportunity to understand Jupiter. Failure to do so would leave mankind in the current state of ignorance of the solar system for decades to come.
If no use is made of the labors of past ages, the world must remain always in the infancy of knowledge. Markus Tulius Cicero