Suddenly, It Seems, Water Is Everywhere in Solar System
Water In Ganymede
This astute observation in the title has been slow in coming. All these bodies containing water surrounding the giant planets – Where can the water be coming from? Astrophysics has been too busy hypothesizing about such remote subjects as exoplanets, the big bang and multiple universes, which can never be verified, to understand the history and composition of the planets in our own system. They wonder where the water in all the satellites of Saturn and Jupiter, sixty-one and sixty-seven respectively, came from? Also the glorious rings of Saturn, taunting us for our ignorance. Of all the great minds, the PhDs, the named chairs in the revered institutions of the world, nobody has figured this out. Albert Einstein confirmed this when he stated: “It is a miracle that curiosity survives formal education.”
Ours is a Water System
The simple, logical answer to this question is that the water comes from the giant planets themselves. Jupiter and Saturn are essentially solid frozen bodies of water in a form well known on Earth, called Methane Gas Hydrates (MGH). It forms under unique conditions of low temperature, high pressure and an abundance of methane. This has been a fundamental aspect of Cyclic Catastrophism for twenty years. Of course the length of time a hypothesis has been in existence has nothing to do with its correctness, as indicated by the fact that the currently accepted ‘gas giant’ hypothesis in every textbook in the world, originated with the work of Rupert Wildt at Gottengen in 1930, based on spectral ‘combination bands’ involving methane and ammonia. The MGH makeup of Jupiter and Saturn finally gives the correct abundances of the elements in the solar system and provide answers to many questions, such as the origin of the oceans of the terrestrial planets.
Terrestrial Planets from Jupiter
Although impacts on Jupiter or Saturn blast essentially water into space, forming small satellites and rings of water, the profound beauty of the design lies in the fact that as Jupiter formed, it incorporated within its MGH all of the heavy elements in the original solar system. As a result, rare high energy impacts, that momentarily produce temperatures above 10 million K and compact the local MGH to incrediblely high pressures, trigger enormous nuclear fusion explosions blasting out sufficient heavy elements to form the terrestrial planets, e.g. proto-Venus only 6,000 years ago. The portion of this ejected material which was not imparted escape velocity formed the four proto-Galilean Moons of Jupiter, which quickly settled into their current resonant orbits.
However, a great gaseous jet continued to shoot from the deep impact crater due to a continuous nuclear fusion/fission reaction in it. This jet was observed and drawn in an Arabic document in the 9th century AD. That jet coated the Galilean Moons over millennia. At great distances the jet material formed the unique bodies of the main belt asteroids of which 67P/Churyumov–Gerasimenko is an example. Some crashed on Callisto and Ganymede, resulting in craters, but due to Jupiter’s rapid spin most escaped to become main belt asteroids, trans Neptunian objects and Kreutz sungrazers. Because they crystallized within the magnetic field of Jupiter the iron/nickel in them became permanently magnetized, an example of which astrophysicists have been unable to accept or explain for 67P. As the jet slowly declined, the outer moons became less and less heated. As a result Callisto has sharp edged craters, Ganymede softened craters, Europa remained too hot for water to condense on it for millennia, then the solid body was covered with the water that had been patiently waiting in its orbit. Io remianed so hot that it resembles its big brother, proto-Venus, who left him behind. The textbook cliches claim that the temperatures of the inner Galilean moons are due to a ‘tidal tug-of-war’. The reaction in the crater slowly diminished over the last 6,000 years, but still burns and drives all the visible features on Jupiter to this day: the temperature excess, the Great Red Spot, the multiple zonal ‘wind bands’ – all atmospheric features, while the body of Jupiter remains frozen solid.
Shoemaker-Levy 9 Impacts Produced Nuclear Explosions
Actually several of the larger Shoemaker-Levy 9 comet fragments (e.g. G) struck the frozen surface of Jupiter and caused ‘small’ nuclear fusion explosions which produced spectra of a number of heavy elements never before observed on Jupiter. The primary observed aspects of these impacts, termed the ‘main events’, attained a maximum IR emission 12 to 15 minutes after they first entered the atmosphere and formed a dome well above the cloud deck. The emission from fragment G was brighter than the total emission from the entire planet (Jupiter). The explanation accepted by the desperate ‘gas giant’ (consensus) believers was that the main events were the result of the (gaseous?) products of the initial, much less energetic entry fireballs “falling back onto the atmosphere”. One very involved scientist, Eugene Shoemaker, had the nerve to voice the his true opinion of this hypothesis, “ridiculous”. Any true scientist should agree. Cyclic Catastrophism explains that the delay of the ‘main events’ was due to the time for the mushroom clouds to rise from the surface above the top of the cloud deck, where they could be detected.
Albert Einstein on Epistemology
Concepts that have proven useful in ordering things easily achieve such authority over us that we forget their earthly origins and accept them as unalterable givens. [Begriffe, welche sich bei der Ordnung der Dinge als nützlich erwiesen haben, erlangen über uns leicht eine solche Autorität, dass wir ihres irdischen Ursprungs vergessen und sie als unabänderliche Gegebenheiten hinnehmen.] Thus they might come to be stamped as “necessities of thought,” “a priori givens,” etc. The path of scientific progress is often made impassable for a long time by such errors. [Der Weg des wissenschaftlichen Fortschritts wird durch solche Irrtümer oft für längere Zeit ungangbar gemacht.] Therefore it is by no means an idle game if we become practiced in analysing long-held commonplace concepts and showing the circumstances on which their justification and usefulness depend, and how they have grown up, individually, out of the givens of experience. Thus their excessive authority will be broken. They will be removed if they cannot be properly legitimated, corrected if their correlation with given things be far too superfluous, or replaced if a new system can be established that we prefer for whatever reason.