The Atmosphere of Proto-Venus
Venus is a new terrestrial planet, the crustal elements of which have still not been able to settle on its surface because of its great internal heat. Its surface temperature is 444 degrees C – hot enough to melt lead and zinc, due to its fiery ejection from an impact on Jupiter only 6,000 years ago. Evidence of the internal source of this heat lies in the fact that the temperature is exactly the same over the entire planet, both the day and night sides, in spite of the fact that the length of a day is 243 earth days. Scientists claim this is due to its very dense atmosphere. The major atmospheric feature is the ‘Lower Cloud Layer’ (LCL) which, consistent with the constant temperature profile, extends completely around the entire planet. Global warming alarmists make the ridiculous claim that the great heat of Venus is the ultimate result of too much CO2 on an ancient planet, indeed that the planet, after the evaporation of its oceans, overturned its entire surface from pole to pole. This fiction is the result of the scientific establishment’s last gasp attempt to justify its uniformitarian paradigm, for which the data from Pioneer Venus, properly interpreted, provides the death-knell.
NASA Pioneer Venus Data
In Dec. 1978 the main NASA Pioneer Venus probe descended slowly through the planet’s atmosphere, its mass spectrometer measuring all of the compounds up to 208 amu (atomic mass units). Unfortunately, the most significant atmospheric data was thrown out, because it did not show what the project scientists ‘expected’ to see. Based on the currently accepted uniformitarian paradigm Venus is imagined to be an ancient planet, like Mars and the Earth with an atmosphere primarily of Carbon dioxide (CO2). The atmospheres of ancient planets are well mixed, that is, there cannot be completely different molecules in one elevation range as opposed to another. When the data showed that the favored CO2 was virtually absent as the probe descended from 50 km (157,000 ft) down to 31 km, it was promptly declared that both inlet ‘leaks’ of the mass spectrometer had been occluded by droplets of sulfuric acid which subsequently evaporated at 31 km altitude, at which altitude, what was believed to be CO2 reappeared. Although other compounds were measured in that elevation range, they were attributed to ‘contamination’ of a cleaning solution that had been used on the probe prior to launch. The same excuse has been invoked to hide the carbon isotope data from the Martian Curiosity lander.
Sulfur Gas (S8) Dominates Lower Atmosphere
In the Cyclic Catastrophism scenario, Venus is a hot, super heated, roiling, molten sphere covered with a thin basalt crust floating on its surface and raw lava exposed in many surface cracks on its surface. This could have easily been proven by ordinary photography, but no cameras were carried by the Pioneer probes and the Soviet landers only took photographs of their immediate surroundings once on the ground. The planet is cooling by a combination of radiating heat (250 times as much as the Earth), but more importantly, by a mechanism completely unknown on the ancient planets, Mars and Earth. This is the continuous high
velocity jetting of sulfur 8 (S8) gas through over 200,000 ‘small domes’ imaged by Soviet and NASA Magellan radar. This S8 gas, the normal form of sulfur at the temperature in the lower atmosphere, jets at high speed until it reaches the altitude (temperature) at which it crystallizes to form a monoclinic crystal and slightly higher to where it changes to a rhombic crystal. Changes in molecular species with elevation can occur in such a ‘mass flow’ environment. Evidence of this was unknowingly supplied in a figure in the Pioneer Venus final report, which is shown in Figure 1, above. The original Pioneer figure shows the physical layers and temperatures detected in the atmosphere as a function of altitude, but the chemical composition of both the LCL and lower atmosphere could not be determined, so it was assumed to be CO2. I have merely looked up the crystallization temperatures of S8 and noted them at the right of the NASA figure. As can be seen, the crystals form at exactly the altitudes which delineate the Lower Cloud Layer. Why did the mass spectrometer not detect the S8 ? The simple answer is that the mass of the S8 molecule, 256.47 amu is far beyond the range of the mass spectrometer instrument, 208 amu.
Carbon Sulfide, CS
As a result of this finding, it becomes clear that the entire lower atmosphere of Venus is almost completely dominated by S8. Moreover, Figure 1 also strongly suggests that what the project scientists ‘expected’ to be CO2 below 31 km is actually another high-temperature compound, CS (carbon sulfide), ‘masquerading’ as CO2. It turns out that CS and CO2 have very similar masses – 44.0686 and 44.0096 amu, respectively. The evidence indicating the presence of CS in the lower atmosphere is present in the form of the red haze observed from 31 km up to the LCL. Again a simple look-up of the temperature at which rising hot CS gas would form small red crystals (200 C) coincides exactly with the lower level of the red haze as annotated in Figure 1.
More Pioneer Data Thrown Out
There are many anomalies in the interpretation of the Pioneer data, which are discussed in my paper, “An Alternate View of Venus” (P21A-10), presented (but ignored) at the 2002 Spring AGU meeting in Washington DC. However, one is so blatent that I mention it here in conclusion. As the main probe descended through the Lower Cloud Layer, enabling it to view the surface, the intense radiation from the ‘unexpected’ raw lava on the surface was detected by the sensitive radiometer, designed precisely to detect short wavelength infrared and red radiation. In keeping with the notion that Venus is an ancient planet, project scientists threw out the radiometer data because, as stated in the Pioneer Venus Final Report “signals in all channels increased unreasonably”. Actually,the scattered light from this lava was noted by the Soviet landers, which found that the lights they carried in order to photograph the surface around the vehicles were not necessary.
Why is Venus’ Rotation Slowing?
The Cyclic Catastrophism view of Venus, exemplified by the data in Figure 1, suggests that the lower atmosphere of Venus is dominated by S8 gas jetting to 50 km. This high speed ejection from 200,000 ‘small domes’ is carrying off so much angular momentum that the ESA Venus Express probe has recently determined that Venus’ yearly rotation period has increased by 6.5 minutes ín just the last sixteen years. Only Cyclic Catastrophism can explain this slowing.
The High Surface Pressure on Venus
The surface pressure on Venus is 91 times greater than on Earth. This enormous pressure is not due to 30,000 times as much CO2 as in the Earth’s atmosphere, as currently believed. It is due to the weight of the heavy gases and crystals of S8 and CS in the lower 50 km of the atmosphere. This ‘Hadesphere’ will gradually settle as the planet cools, resulting in a lowering of the LCL. Once it reaches the surface, the planet will enter the next stage of its formation, in which the volatile elements blasted from Jupiter 6,000 years ago (oxygen, nitrogen, carbon, sodium, chlorine, which will comprise its atmosphere, crust and salty ocean), will be able to settle on its surface. Note that, even now, the temperature and pressure just above the LCL are quite earth-like. The great mystery is – How will the planet ever increase its rotation to make its days comparable to those of the Earth and Mars?
The Next Step
The data from Pioneer Venus is all good and is well preserved. It is time to revisit this treasure trove of data which reveals how terrestrial planets form and give us some ‘baby pictures’ of the infant Earth. In addition, a simple probe that would measure the current altitude of the Lower Cloud Layer, descend below it to detect S8 and take photographs of the surface would prove that Venus is really Proto-Venus.
“Nescire autem quid antequam natus sis acciderit, id est semper esse puerum. (To be ignorant of what occurred before you were born is to remain always a child.)”
― Marcus Tullius Cicero