Juno Will Explain the Origin of the Solar System (Paper)
NASA Juno Mission
The NASA Juno mission, due to arrive at Jupiter and begin a year of data collection in 2016 will provide the data explaining the origin of the solar system (see complete paper submitted to arXiv astrophysics, which they would not accept because it contained new ideas) the process never correctly conceived to date. That data will show unequivocally that Jupiter is a solid low density planet of methane gas hydrate (MGH) and that all the heavy elements in the original solar system are uniformly distributed within its low density, icy body. Juno’s radiometer suite will detect the radiation from the nuclear fusion still continuing in the crater out of which proto-Venus formed only 6,000 years ago, which is the source of the energy driving all the observable features on Jupiter. The Gravity Experiment will not only detect the hot proto-Venus crater but also the long-since frozen craters out of which both priori-Mars and the Earth were formed more than 3.9 billion years ago. Given this evidence, it is simple (astrophysical) logic to understand the cosmogony of the solar system itself.
The Cosmogony of the Solar System
The Sun formed from a swirling mass of gases, probably enriched by an earlier supernova. As it condensed due to the mutual gravitational attractionof the entire mass, it spun faster and faster. The inevitable result of the increasing spin was to cast outward a nebula from which the planets eventually would form. Because the heavy elements had not yet settled into its core, the rapid spin acted as a centrifuge throwing the heavier elements preferentially into the nebula. Thus it cannot now be expected that the observable abundances of the elements in the Sun and planets will be identical. Whether due to a single or multiple such releases, the material was all thrown outward to the radius of Jupiter and further. The heavier elements condensed into dust particles before reaching this radius. The surfaces of the dust particles acted as catalysts to convert the atomic forms of the more volatile elements, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen to molecular form and also to combine forming their ices, primarily water due to the greater abundance of hydrogen and oxygen, and large amounts of methane.
Thus the first form of accretion was the quite familiar formation of snowflakes, many of which had formed around dust particles. The gradual accretion of larger and larger ice bodies continued for many million years. Because of the low relative velocities of the ice chunks, this was a slow, cold process and as the atmosphere grew more dense, many incoming ice chunks melted and fell as snow. The cold, gradually increasing pressure and the abundance of methane insured the formation of the unique state known as methane gas hydrates (MGH). This symbiotic relationship between the dust particles and the ices resulted in the formation of Jupiter, with an average density of 1.33. The same abundances of hydrogen, oxygen and carbon, not incorporated in Jupiter, continued outward to form the other giant planets over longer and longer times, which also comprise methane gas hydrate (Saturn) and a mixture of normal ice and MGH (Uranus and Neptune). All the hydrogen not captured in this way was quickly lost from the solar system in a million years, as observed in other systems.
Elemental Abundance Finally Satisfied
Planetary science presently has swept a number of problems ‘under the proverbial rug’. One of the big ones has to do with the abundance of the elements in the solar system. If the giant planets, Jupiter and Saturn, which comprise 92 % of the mass of the solar system, are essentially H and He, then the nucleosysthensis abundances quoted in every text book on the solar system, i.e. O, C. being the most abundant after H, cannot be satisfied. Fortunately, MGH comprises rigid cells of twelve or more water molecules, each containing a methane molecule, thereby statisfying the quoted abundances.
Terrestrial Planet Formation
Approximately 4.6 billion years ago, an impact on Jupiter resulted in the rebound of the great fusion fireball out of which priori-Mars formed. Some 700 million years later, the Earth was created by a similar sequence of events, as evidenced by the younger ages of Earth rocks. Then, as if to demonstrate the process for mankind, the same events occurred only 6,000 years ago which formed proto-Venus.
The great heat of proto-Venus is due to its relatively young age. Its present state demonstrates how the crusts and oceans of the terrestrial planets formed. Because of the great abundance of the lighter elements, hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, sodium, chlorine, silicon etc. blasted from Jupiter 6,000 years ago, the material needed to create its biosphere and salty oceans is already present. But the great heat of proto-Venus, which is still jetting S8 gas to 50 km from over two hundred thousand ‘small domes’, makes it impossible for these lighter elements to settle on the surface of the planet. Some of this material has already collected in its atmosphere and much more floats invisibly in the inner solar system, waiting patiently for proto-Venus to capture it and cool down so the new planet, Venus, can finally form.
Proto-Venus Water Falling to Earth
Why do observatories not detect any of this material falling to Earth? Actually, scientist Louis Frank has detected hundreds of low density ‘house-sized comets’ falling to earth each day in ultra-violet images from the Polar satellite. Because such a ‘rain from space’ is thought to be ‘impossible’ in the standard model, Prof. Frank has been ridiculed and practically ostracized from the ‘scientific community’.
The Age of the Solar System?
As a result of this cosmogony, we have no way of determining the age of the solar system. Billions of years may have passed before the first terrestrial planet, priori-Mars, comprising both Mars and its former solid iron core, Mercury, was formed. The ages of the oldest meteorites, 4.6 billion years, only give the age of this planet. Given this age, astronomers have conveniently estimated the age of the Sun to agree with this, but the Sun may be much further along toward its ultimate demise as a red giant than they imagine.
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