More Outflow Channels Discovered on Mars

MarsnorthhemThis recent much-vaunted announcement is actually a confirmation of a twenty-year-old discovery of enormous outflow channels on Mars.  These led to the subsequent ‘discovery’ of the northern ocean or .   Oceanus Borealis in 1991.   A number of planetary scientists have reserved judgment on the existence of this ocean, but the greater extent of the mega-outflow channels leading toward this ocean, recently published, lend credence to its presence. This ocean’s extent is quite apparent in this mosaic of the northern hemisphere, surrounding the 3 km high ‘island’ at its north pole.

Northern Ocean Recent

One difficulty, which is seldom discussed in the scientific literature, is the fact that the polar regions of an already frozen planet are the least likely place for a liquid ocean to form.   Although the vast amount of water originally present on this planet was ancient, its concentration around the north pole only occurred about 5,700 years ago.   The northern ocean was first formed when the intact planet, which I call priori-Mars (still had its solid core, Mercury), was ejected from its ancient, Venus-like, orbit by proto-Venus and became captured in a geostationary orbit of the Earth.  As a result of their close encounters, proto-Venus had tidally uplifted the Tharsis Bulge (the Egyptians called it the dog-faced star), forcing the outer shell (crust & mantle) of priori-Mars to rotate with its spin axis (its north pole) facing the Earth.  The figure shows how it appeared to one hundred generations of humankind. At a distance of only 44,400 km the enormous tidal influence of the more massive (> 6 X) Earth drew all the water in the planet’s northern hemisphere toward its north pole, facing the Earth. This was the cause of the outflow channels. The Egyptians called the ocean the Nun.

Although the northern third of Mars today is 7 km below the planet’s datum, this had nothing to do with the formation of the northern ocean.  5,700 years ago, when first captured in geosynchronous orbit, priori-Mars was spherical.  The tidal influence of  the Earth melted enormous amounts of subsurface rock around its north pole (thus the island at the pole) and hundreds of volcanoes erupted with blazing plumes directed toward the Earth (they were called the circum-polar stars).  When the pair passed rapidly through alignments with the Moon, or worse yet the Sun and Moon combined great convulsions took place, ejecting enormous hot glowing bodies into space, with a certain fraction falling to Earth, particularly in the Himalayas.  Many of the larger bodies still orbit and are known to modern science as Earth Approaching asteroids.  But innumerable smaller bodies were also ejected and have coated the near side of the Moon with over a km deep layer of regolith (also formed the lunar maria) and much more has since fallen toward the Sun, forming the regolith that now covers Mercury.  The loss of all this ejected mass from the northern hemisphere between 3700 and 700 BC is the reason for the lowered elevation of the northern hemisphere.

Meteorites Have Mislead Planetary Scientists

The ubiquitous presence of all these meteorites has resulted in several untenable hypotheses among modern astronomers.  First, the notion that the carbonaceous meteorites were the rocks out of which the earth formed.  Rocks with densities of 2 or larger cannot form from material just floating weightless in space and their chondrules had to have been heated to 2000 K, which is impossible to explain.  Second, the notion that the solar absorption spectra exhibits a similar composition as these meteorites has been accepted as a corroboration of the first hypothesis.  The solar absorption spectra merely reflect the innumerable meteorite flux that has been falling toward the sun and been vaporized in the Corona for the last 5,700 years.  In fact, this process is the reason for the high, non-thermal temperatures of the Corona.

Where has all the water gone?

The innumerable convulsions of priori-Mars ejected all of its water, atmosphere and innumerable seeds to the Earth between 3700 and 700 BC.  Thus the Earth and mankind are the beneficiaries of those encounters, the latter acknowledges in many ancient texts, as manna, ambrosia, soma, haoma, and the ‘precious dew of heaven’.  The ‘missing’ Martian water, atmosphere, and vegetation are part of every living being on the Earth today.

Coincident Megafloods on Earth

In an interesting coincidence, the same hydrologist, Professor Victor Baker, who coined the term Oceanus Borealis, has published a book titled Megaflooding on Earth and Mars. In this book, the authors discuss  the megafloods  (defined as greater than one million cubic meters per second) in northwestern US (Missoula River), originally interpreted by Harlan Bretz as outflows from melting glaciers toward the end of the ice age, and the megafloods indicated by the outflow channels observed on Mars.  In spite of the promising title, the book merely compares the magnitudes of the megafloods on Mars and Earth – those on Mars dwarfing the Earthly ones, with outflow channels approaching a billion cubic meters per second.  The author still accepts the hypothesis that the megafloods on Mars occurred billions of years ago, in the Martian Noachian geologic epoch (4.5 to 3.5 billion years BP).   The naming of this epoch is ironic, since the outflow channels were actually occurring during the time of Noah, roughly 2800 BC.  Actually, the megafloods on both planets occurred as a result of the one hundred fifteen-year encounters between the two planets, which occurred between 3700 and 700 BC.

Thus geologists also have the wrong date for the NW United States megafloods, which they date in the late Pleistocene (before 12,000 BP), because they believe that that glaciation, centered in Hudson Bay, corresponded with the putative earlier ice age.  In my proposed recent cyclic catastrophism scenario the megafloods in the northwest United States and on Mars were not only concurrent, but were causally related.  The megafloods on Earth occurred in response to the tidal force exerted by priori-Mars, which orbited above the Transhimalayas, upon the Earth.   The spin axis of the mantle of the Earth had to shift to Hudson Bay in order for priori-Mars, in a geostationary orbit over Mt. Kailas, to remain tidally locked onto the uplifted mass anomaly, i.e. the Tibetan-Himalayan complex.  Thus for each fifteen-year orbital period, Hudson Bay remained at a point perpendicular to the plane of the Earths orbit, and was essentially the north pole.  This is why the late continental glaciation in North America was centered in Hudson Bay as opposed to the north pole. At the end of each fifteen year encounter, when the mantle reverted to its normal spin axis, the glaciers melted, and the outflow, probably impeded by glacial dams, finally were released catastrophically.  Since there were one hundred captures and releases of priori-Mars between 3700 and 700 BC, there are one hundred sedimentary layers of essentially equal thickness in the Missoula Valley – each formed by the sediment left by successive releases of glacial water and separated by “less than twenty” thin, varved (yearly) layers.  The flooding on priori-Mars occurred at the beginning of each encounter as Mars was captured while the northwestern US flooding occurred in the months following each Mars’ departure from Earth orbit as the fifteen-year-old North American glacier melted. But both were the result of the same planetary encounters between 3700 and 700 BC.

~ by Angiras on December 2, 2009.

One Response to “More Outflow Channels Discovered on Mars”

  1. Dear John,
    The following, if validated fits in very nicely with your scenario, notwithstanding it’s suggested timing.

    Public release date: 10-Dec-2009
    [ Print | E-mail | Share ] [ Close Window ]

    Contact: Alex Waddington
    alex.waddington@manchester.ac.uk
    01-612-758-387
    University of Manchester

    Earth’s atmosphere came from outer space, find scientists
    The gases which formed the Earth’s atmosphere – and probably its oceans – did not come from inside the Earth but from outer space, according to a study by University of Manchester and University of Houston scientists.

    The report published this week in the prestigious international journal ‘Science’ means that textbook images of ancient Earth with huge volcanoes spewing gas into the atmosphere will have to be rethought.

    According to the team, the age-old view that volcanoes were the source of the Earth’s earliest atmosphere must be put to rest.

    Using world-leading analytical techniques, the team of Dr Greg Holland, Dr Martin Cassidy and Professor Chris Ballentine tested volcanic gases to uncover the new evidence.

    The research was funded by Natural Environment Research Council (NERC).

    “We found a clear meteorite signature in volcanic gases,” said Dr Greg Holland the project’s lead scientist.

    “From that we now know that the volcanic gases could not have contributed in any significant way to the Earth’s atmosphere.

    “Therefore the atmosphere and oceans must have come from somewhere else, possibly from a late bombardment of gas and water rich materials similar to comets.

    “Until now, no one has had instruments capable of looking for these subtle signatures in samples from inside the Earth – but now we can do exactly that.”

    The techniques enabled the team to measure tiny quantities of the unreactive volcanic trace gases Krypton and Xenon, which revealed an isotopic ‘fingerprint’ matching that of meteorites which is different from that of ‘solar’ gases.

    The study is also the first to establish the precise composition of the Krypton present in the Earth’s mantle.

    Project director Prof Chris Ballentine of The University of Manchester, said: “Many people have seen artist’s impressions of the primordial Earth with huge volcanoes in the background spewing gas to form the atmosphere.

    “We will now have to redraw this picture.”

    ###

    NOTES FOR EDITORS

    The paper: ‘Meteorite Kr in Earth’s Mantle Suggests a Late Accretionary Source for the Atmosphere’ by Dr Greg Holland and Prof Chris J. Ballentine from the University of Manchester and Dr Martin Cassidy from the University of Houston. It is available on request.

    The team used an instrument called a multicollector noble gas mass. Multicollection or measuring several isotopes at the same time rather than one after another improves the precision of the measurements. This coupled with the type of sample we are using means we can get higher precision measurements than anyone else – hence we can see these small primitive signatures.

    Dr Holland and Prof Ballentine are available for interview

    For more information please contact Alex Waddington, Media Relations Officer, University of Manchester, 0161 275 8387 / 07717 881569.

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