The Origin of the Galilean Moons
The formation of the Galilean moons was unique in several respects. Only 6,000 years ago there was an enormous impact on Jupiter, which as I have mentioned in many posts, is a solid, frozen, highly deuterated methane gas hydrate planet. Due to the large deuterium content, high energy impacts on this surface trigger incredibly large thermonuclear explosions. The impact around 4,000 BC created a plasma cloud thousands of times the size of Jupiter, the rebounded portion of which became proto-Venus. The material which failed to escape the gravity of Jupiter formed the proto-Galilean moons in their current resonant orbits. (So the hot Io and the hot proto-Venus are brothers). However, the moons were not yet complete.
A giant, flaming jet of gases continued shooting into space from the impact crater – whirling around as Jupiter rotated (then) with a period of approximately seven hours, leading to the myth that it was the aegis (shield) of Zeus. Initially the jet extended beyond the farthest moon, Callisto, and could be seen by humans on Earth with the ‘naked eye’ for thousands of years. It was called Juno, the wife of Jupiter, peering through the clouds with which Jupiter had surrounded himself. The jet, fueled by a continuing nuclear fusion conflagration in the impact crater ejected mass for almost six millennia. Figure 2 is a drawing in an Arabic epistle depicting the planets as they appeared in 900 AD, some 4900 years after the impact, with Jupiter at the upper left, still blasting Io on every revolution. Even today the hot fusion products from the crater on Jupiter rise and swirl becoming visible as the Great Red Spot. As the planet rotated the material in the jet ‘bathed’ the proto-moons, supplying their outer layers.
The jet material which passed the three interior moons quickly froze and coalesced into low-density, porous, hydrated, cinder-like bodies as it moved away from Jupiter. As a result, the outer moons show many small impact craters. The appearances of the four moons differ from one another because the jet cooled with distance and died down so slowly that the closer moons experienced longer and hotter exposures, both to the jet and the radiation from Jupiter. Europa was so hot that the water from the plume at its radius could not settle on its surface until about 1,000 years ago and has kept the water liquid until only recently, therefore the ice layer on top of its ‘global ocean’ is relatively thin. Thus the formation of their solid bodies was a unique, two-stage process and their outer layers contain a lot of water because Jupiter (Methane Gas Hydrate) is mostly water by mass. Although they appear different, all four Galilean moons have the same elemental average compositions as Jupiter, except for Io, essentially matching the published abundances determined by the Earth and meteorites.
The longevity and intensity of the jet was so great that the rotational period of Jupiter was increased to almost ten hours as a result of the angular momentum expelled. The tail end of this slowing rotation was actually recorded up to around 1930 (figure 3), by observations of the GRS rotational periods, but because it was changing, it is currently misinterpreted as the ‘drift’ of a giant ‘storm’ although it has remained at the same latitude for 350 years. on a planet with an enormous Coriolis effect.
A couple of additional interesting manifestations of the jet: Millions of the hydrated, cinder-like bodies from the jet splatted e.g. (67P C-G) forming the main asteroid belt, as evidenced by their low densities and the fact that they are magnetized, i.e. they coalesced while still within the magnetic field of Jupiter; millions fell toward the Sun (see posts on Jupiter, sunspots and Kreutz sungrazers) causing sunspots as they impact the Sun, which is nice because the resulting CMEs help warm the Earth; and the ones expelled each time when the spin and orbital velocity of Jupiter were maximized, formed the Kuiper belt objects.
Perhaps the most amazing thing is that these events were all observed by the first one hundred generations of mankind, from 3700 to 687 BC. Or perhaps even more amazing (mysterious?) is that mankind, science, academia are still completely unaware of all these facts. But the unwillingness of modern academia to acknowledge the recent intrusion of the LORD into the world (cyclic catastrophism) was predicted some 1950 years ago:
2 Peter 3:3-7 Knowing this first, that there shall come in the last days scoffers, walking after their own lusts and saying, Where is the promise of his coming? for since the fathers fell asleep, all things continue as they were from the beginning of the creation. For this they willingly are ignorant of, that by the word of God the heavens were of old, and the earth standing out of the water and in the water: Whereby the world that then was, being overflowed with water perished: But the heavens and the earth, which are now, by the same word are kept in store, reserved unto fire against the day of judgement and perdition of ungodly men.
Copyright: by John Ackerman