The hypothetical existence of dark matter and dark energy stem from the current interpretation of red-shifts as the only measure of cosmic distances in the universe. This view of dark energy was courageously challenged by Ruth Durrer, a French cosmologist in 2011, which began as follows:
“In this paper we discuss what we truly know about dark energy. I shall argue that up to date our single indication for the existence of dark energy comes from distance measurements and their relation to redshift. Supernovae, cosmic microwave background anisotropies and observations of baryon acoustic oscillations, they all simply tell us that the observed distance to a given redshift, z, is larger than the one expected from a Friedmann Lemaıtre universe.”
Cosmic MIcrowave Background?
A number of currently accepted assumptions, at greatly differing scales, have contributed to the Dark mysteries. Two of many cited in the paper quoted above include the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and the closely associated Inflation hypothesis crucial in explaining its isotropy and homogeniety. The most accurate data, from WMAP and Planck, meant to confirm these hypotheses, is in serious doubt due to a number of alignments of the CMB map with the orientation and direction of motion (the Kinetic vector) of the solar system (post 1, post 2). Cyclic Catastrophism, the subject of this blog site, suggests that the data currently believed to represent the Cosmic Microwave Background is the result of an enormous fusion explosion produced by an impact on Jupiter, from which proto-Venus was formed only 6,000 years BP (See Jupiter post). The energy produced was ~10^33 Joules, including the gravitational binding energy of a Venus-mass planet, its ejection from Jupiter, the dissociation of all molecular bonds and the complete ionization of all atoms, producing a plasma. This source explains the orientation, direction and the apparent isotropy and homogeniety of the measured radiation field without resorting to the non-physical construct ‘Inflation’.
Another, seemingly unrelated, aspect of cyclic catastrophism, the elemental composition of Jupiter and Saturn in the form of Methane Gas Hydrate , when considered on a cosmic scale may provide a crucial factor for both dark matter and dark energy. This suggests that the four giant planets, currently believed to comprise 90 % hydrogen and 10 % helium, actually comprise as much as 300 earth masses of water, not 300 times the water on Earth, but 300 Earth-Masses of Water. Of course, the important element is oxygen, most of which, wherever it is, combines with hydrogen or deuterium to form water. These giant planets form slowly (50 to 200 million years), therefore cold, from heavily deuterated volatile compounds bound to heavy elements (dust particles), which are preferentially spun off from young stars acting as centrifuges. Giant planets comprised the nascent solar system and incorporated the entire complement of heavily elements in their clathrate structures. Terrestrial planets only form millions or billions of years later, as a result of impacts on the frozen giant planets, therefore each have unique ages.
The Kepler mission data implies that every star produces giant planets like Jupiter and Saturn. Many of these have not yet actually been detected because their orbital periods are much greater than the short lifetime of Kepler. Based on Cyclic Catastrophism, the very presence of smaller, rocky terrestrial planets proves the existence of the MGH giants. The implication is that the overwhelming mass of every planetary system in the Milky Way galaxy is water and by extension in the universe. Specifically, water has been detected in the Helix nebula by Hershel, GJ 1214b, CW leonis, and AU MIcroscopii. Also some extensive nearby planetary nebula have been imaged (AU Mic), which are interpreted only as ‘dust’, because all the water crystals are optically thick. Water in the outer syar systems can only be identified when Red Giant stars expand and vaporize their solid, frozen giant planets, temporarly allowing the recording of its infrared spectral lines. But water in space quickly freezes into crystals, becoming invisible. The fact that astrophysicists registered surprise that there is so much water present in the outer part of the CW Leonis system, suggesting the presence of many comets, reflects the current view of the solar system and by extension all other systems.
Based on the proposition that the giant MGH planets such as Jupiter and Saturn, comprise 99% of every system’s mass, leads to the idea that the deaths of all stars since the beginning of the universe have released their giant planet water plus the much greater amount produced from the oxygen created within each star during its lifetime. Based on new work, the amounts produced by supernovas may be many orders of magnitude greater. As a result, vast amounts of invisible water ice crystals have been accumulating throughout every galaxy. The radiation pressure concentrated in the central portion of each galaxy would gradually force clouds of ice crystals toward the colder outer portion of each galaxy. This is consistent with the similar mapping of Dark Matter (Figure 1) suggested for both spiral and elliptical galaxys in a recent paper touted as a Conspiracy of Regular and Dark Matter, in which the dark matter is relegated to the outer portions of both spiral and elliptical galaxies.
Astrophysicists will undoubtedly argue that there has not been time since the putative big bang for such a large amount of water to accumulate, but a recent paper reports a quasar, at a redshift distance of 12 billion light years (a time when the universe was only 1.6 billion years old), is surrounded by 2.5×10^4 M⊙ (solar masses) of water. To aid in visualizing this enormous quantity of water – it is sufficient to supply 28 galaxies, each with 400 billion stars. each having ten earth-like planets. This observation in itself suggests that revisions of the present big bang hypothesis and the red shift distances on which it is based, are necessary.
Popular ‘expositions’ of Dark Matter often tell us that it is invisible and pervasive, even passing through our bodies without our knowledge. Water again fits the bill. In fact I think I’ll have a slug of dark matter right now.
If this vast mass of water is present throughout the universe wherever galaxies are present, then it will both slow (redshift) and attenuate the light passing through it, invalidating the pure velocity-distance assumption and standard candle properties of 1a supernovas. The continuing accumulation of water in the universe could also influence the apparent strengthening of Dark Energy over billions of years. Dark Energy is hypothesized to be homogenous throughout empty space, but as stated in the paper quoted at the beginning of this article, its hypothetical properties are based exclusively on the redshift-distance assumption.
Albert Einstein on Epistemology
Concepts that have proven useful in ordering things easily achieve such authority over us that we forget their earthly origins and accept them as unalterable givens. [Begriffe, welche sich bei der Ordnung der Dinge als nützlich erwiesen haben, erlangen über uns leicht eine solche Autorität, dass wir ihres irdischen Ursprungs vergessen und sie als unabänderliche Gegebenheiten hinnehmen.] Thus they might come to be stamped as “necessities of thought,” “a priori givens,” etc. The path of scientific progress is often made impassable for a long time by such errors. [Der Weg des wissenschaftlichen Fortschritts wird durch solche Irrtümer oft für längere Zeit ungangbar gemacht.] Therefore it is by no means an idle game if we become practiced in analysing long-held commonplace concepts [gas giants, CMB, Big Bang?] and showing the circumstances on which their justification and usefulness depend, and how they have grown up, individually, out of the givens of experience. Thus their excessive authority will be broken. They will be removed if they cannot be properly legitimated, corrected if their correlation with given things be far too superfluous, or replaced if a new system can be established that we prefer for whatever reason.