The Creation of Adam

•July 24, 2015 • Comments Off on The Creation of Adam

Geneticists claim to have found faster ways. to reconstruct the DNA of ancient groups from partial samples.  A summary of this work appears in the latest edition of Science magazine titled Revolution in human evolution. This title refers to the ability to sequence ancient genes a hundred times faster than previously possible, but leads to a number of more significant revelations.  One, which the evolutionists want to hang unto is: “Ancient DNA has led to the discovery of new types of ancient humans and revealed interbreeding between our ancestors and our archaic cousins, which left a genetic legacy that shapes our health and appearance today.”  But what most upset the evolutionists is the finding that modern humans did not ‘evolve’ from Neanderthals. ” The team found that Neanderhals did indeed have a genome distinct from our own—but conclude that living Europeans and Asians had inherited 1% to 3% of their DNA from Neandertals (Science, 7 May 2010, p. 680).  This is interpreted to mean that there were a few interactions between ‘óur ancestors’ and Neanderthals in the distant past, however, this is not the case.

The Creation of Adam

What evolutionists fail to grasp is the process by which the Kingdom of God created Adam (mankind). The first step was to destroy 99.99% of the hominids on Earth by at least four overturnings of the Earth during the Younger Dryas and two by proto-Venus about 4000 BC. These caused the oceans to rush across the continents, producing the so-called K-T extinction event and the Cenezoic. The destructions which preceded the creation of mankind are simply stated in Genesis 1:2  And the Earth became void and without form.  This was done to eliminate the previously existing Neanderthal and Denisovan gene pool.  Then, to preserve the diversity of peoples, the ‘elohiym went to all corners of the world and upgraded the DNA of the few surviving couples, giving them the skulls, larynx, vocal chords and most importantly, intelligence and creativity, centered in the complex conceptual language center in the human brain that characterizes mankind (see Noam Chomsky).

Moreover, two sepatate revelations of God’s creation of man are present in:

Genesis 1:27 So God created man in his own image, in the image of God created he him; male and female created he them.and Genesis 2;7,18,21,22,23  And the Lord God formed man of the dust of the ground, and breathed into his nostrils the breath of life; and man became a living soul. And the Lord God caused a deep sleep to fall upon Adam, and he slept: and he took one of his ribs, and closed up the flesh instead thereof; And the rib, which the Lord God had taken from man, made he a woman, and brought her unto the man. And Adam said, This is now bone of my bones, and flesh of my flesh: she shall be called Woman, because she was taken out of Man.

These emphasize that the creation of a new species required both a man and a woman – a point which random evolution cannot explain.  In the Bible, repetition is used for emphasizing a point. The creation of man from “the dust of the ground” suggests the use of the surviving hominids as a basis for upgrading to form Adam. Much of the existing DNA, such as the basics of the human torso, adaptations for climate, disease resistance, skin color and perhaps even some memories which the more primitive forms had in each area, remain as part of human DNA. The ‘rib’ embellishment may even be a clue to this upgrading. This does not mean, as most evolutionist academics still preach, that any humans ever interbred with primitive forms, since they had already been eliminated. Geneticists today can recognize only a small percent of the total DNA –  i.e. the ‘subroutines’ that determine proteins, but do not understand why they are present in different patterns and orders in different species or the meaning of the ‘junk DNA’, the ‘building instructions’ between them. Clues to the creation of human intelligence are hidden within profound differences of the ancient and modern DNA. Perhaps geneticists can stop trying to prove mankind evolved from apes and concentrate on this.

One of the fundamental aspects of human language, according to
Chomsky, is its creative nature. This sentence has probably never been produced before in
the history of the world. the same is true for much of what we say every day. So,we do not seem to learn or to speak language by purely imitating other people.

Earth’s New Crust

•July 3, 2015 • Comments Off on Earth’s New Crust
Fig. 1 Concept of the MLD, showing anisotropies

Fig. 1 Concept of the MLD, showing anisotropies

A recent article titled “Mechanisms and geologic significance of the mid-lithosphere discontinuity in the continents”   in Nature Geosciences reviews the current problems geologists ponder concerning the crust of the Earth.

The stable continents have a puzzling structure. Recent seismological studies have revealed a marked drop in seismic velocity at middle-lithosphere depths, but a generally small velocity drop at the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. The mid-lithosphere discontinuity has previously been attributed to changes in composition and/or crystal alignment (anisotropy) caused by metasomatic (hot water) alteration, as well as to partial melting and/or accretion of intruded materials that occurred after the formation of the continents. We show that these models cannot easily explain the global presence of a large seismic velocity drop in the middle lithosphere and a small velocity change at the lithosphere-asthenosphere boundary. These models are also difficult to reconcile with long-term continental stability and, in particular, observations of nearly depth-invariant ages of rocks in the continental lithosphere that do not support the notion of late alteration events.

The mid-lithosphere discontinuity (MLD), marked by distinct anisotropic changes in velocity of seismic waves rising through the middle of the lithosphere (Figure 1), suggests that all the original continents of the Earth were subsequently covered by a layer of unexplained material. The authors discount the possibility of such a recent covering, stating: “without invoking late-stage modifications to the lithosphere”,  They suggest that the ‘mantle rocks’ are 2 to 3 billion years old. However, no drilling has ever succeeded in reaching the mantle. What they refer to as mantle rocks is made clear in the following quote where they state “at various depths”.

” … in particular, the old and similar ages of mantle rocks at various depths provide strong evidence that a large portion of continental lithosphere has not experienced any significant alteration, such as partial melting or lateral displacement that would have created rocks of younger ages or juxtaposed rocks of different ages.”

The dates referred to here rely almost completely on U-Pb (uranium-lead) studies of zircon crystals found in granite rocks in the lithosphere, the origin of which is not understood.  Conventional geology cannot conceive of significant amounts of rock on the surface of the Earth from another planet.  The zircons are not integral to the granite rocks, they are only found in association with granite, the origin of which has never actually been determined. The “similar ages” referred to here are the ages of the oldest particles in the samples tested.  If a rock does not show the age sought, it is discarded and another is tested to give the ages assumed a-priori to fit their hypotheses.

Deccan Traps

For example, the ages of the Deccan Traps, which were melted and raised by the tidal effect of Mars in its geostationary orbit above Mt.Kailas between 3717 and 687 BC, could not be determined from the solid rocks, so, what are called “separates“, thin layers of material which fell from Mars were used. In case the reader does not have access to this paper, it is titled “40Ar/39Ar dating of mineral separates and whole rocks from the Western Ghats lava pile”. Quoting from the abstract “We confirm previous findings that alteration and Ar recoil strongly affect these rocks, particularly measurements made on whole rocks. When mineral separates (mostly plagioclase) are analyzed, the spread is much reduced. (then) We find a mean age of 65.4  Ma (million years)”.

The mid-lithosphere discontinuity cannot be explained by geology because it is found on all continents, Moreover, the seismic anomalies it produces are stronger and more complex than the deeper lithosphere- athenosphere discontinuity – the fluid layer on which the rigid lithosphere slid during cyclic catastrophism.  The MLD  displays considerable variation in depth and anisotropy, a directional dependence on the reflection and refraction.  These characteristics are consistent with the recent covering of the entire ancient surface of the Earth, which had well established geologic structures of its own, made more complex by the four transient inversions of the lithosphere, two by proto-Venus, and the associated mass wasting as the oceans flowed over the continents.

Immediately following the inversions, Proto-Venus ejected Mars was ejected from its ancient Venus-like orbit into one which intersected that of the Earth, beginning 3,000 years of captures and releases in a geostationary orbit only 44,400 km above Mt. Kailas.  Convulsions within Mars caused by frequent alignments with the Moon, and the Sun and Moon combined, blasted unimaginable masses of rock and dust to the Earth, as described in the ancient texts of all cultures on the Earth.  This new layer is just now being detected by improved seismic methods which mark its depth as the MLD or MOHO. These volcanic blasts carried off Mars’ complete complement of water, atmosphere, biosphere (as manna, Soma, Haoma, ambrosia) to all corners of the Earth.

Fig. 2  Correction curve for 14C datng is evidence for a complete change of the Earth's atmosphere during the Vedic Period

Fig. 2 Correction curve for 14C datng is evidence for a complete change of the Earth’s atmosphere during the Vedic Period

As a result of the complete regeneration of the Earth, the gradualism paradigm on which geology is based, comes to nought. The fact that the atmosphere of the Earth changed completely has been established by dendrochronitc corrections of radio-carbon dating,  This very data, in Figure 2, shows that the entire atmosphere of the Earth changed during the Vedic Period.  This demonstrates that the only radiometric data required to cover what science calls the Cenezoic (66 million years), is radio-carbon dating.  All the other materials – rocks, water, and even the very life forms we know today, came to the Earth during the same Vedic Period shown in Figure 2, not 55 million years ago. This great mass of rocks and dust covered the entire Earth to a depth of 50 to 90 km.  The dates determined U-Pb dates of rocks from anywhere on the Earth merely reveal the age of Mars, which is known to be older than the Earth, since some Martian meteorites contain fragments 4.6 billion years old, while the oldest native rocks on the Earth are only 3.9 billion years old (the difference being blamed on the submerging of tectonic plates).  The planet, known scientifically as Earth, is 3.9 billion years old, but the world that human-kind knows, was literally recreated  between 3717  and 687 BC, while the first one-hundred generations of mankind watched, during the Vedic Period which was coincident with the Bible from Genesis until the time of Isaiah.  Announcing the completion of this creation, the Lord stated: Isaiah 65:17  For, behold, I have created new heavens and a new earth: and the former shall not be remembered, nor come into mind.  The current state of science reflects the Lord’s caveat, since scientists the world around know nothing of the recreation of the Earth.

Fig. 3 Mt. Kailas upper-left showing high-level water mark of samudra

Fig. 3 Mt. Kailas upper-left showing high-level water mark of samudra

The interactions of Mars and the Earth, revealed in previous posts, A, B, C, D, resulted in a number of other features which mystify geologists, such as cyclic (14.4-year) tidal floods (Rg Vedic samudra, confluences) as  high as 5,000 meters, centered around Mt. Kailas ( ‘Indra’s (Mars) Home on Earth) (Figure 3) and shifts in the spin axis of the lithosphere which resulted in anomalous, even reversed permanent magnetic fields in rocks that crystallized during each capture. These magnetic reversals are currently imagined as representing periods (chrons) of enormous antiquity when the Indian tectonic plate had not yet collided with the Asian plate or even worse when the magnetic field of the Earth reversed.

One verse in the Rg Veda attempts to describe the mass of rocks and dust which a single generation of human-kind observed being blasted to the Earth from Mars, during only one 14.4-year kalpa. One hundred other generations observed the same events.

…All existences are a quarter of him; and three-fourths of him are that which is immortal in the sky. With three quarters Purusha mounted upwards. A quarter of him was again produced here. He was then diffused everywhere over things which eat and things which do not eat … with the half he produced the whole world; what became of the other half of him?

Deep Secrets Beneath Tibet-Himalayas

•June 14, 2015 • Comments Off on Deep Secrets Beneath Tibet-Himalayas
Fig. 1  3-D high velocity structures beneath East Asia

Fig. 1 3-D high velocity structures beneath East Asia

A recent study using supercomputers with software developed for commercial seismic work, has analyzed multiple types of seismic reflections from 227 East Asian earthquakes received at thousands of stations. When combined, these give a 3-D image of the rock formations in East Asia to a depth of 1000 km, never possible before, shown in Fig. 1.

3-D high velocity structures beneath East Asia from 50 to 1000 km depth viewed from the southeast. Surface topography with vertical exaggeration is superimposed for geographic references. Isosurfaces of high velocity anomalies from 1% to 4% with 1% intervals are plotted. Three cut planes show the shear wave velocity maps at 410, 660 and 1000 km dpeths. The highest elevations represent the Himalayans and Tibet.”

Fig. 2  The scorched path of proto-Venus from Sahara to Tibet

Fig. 2 The scorched path of proto-Venus from Sahara to Tibet

To date no conclusions based on the images have been published, but they certainly should stimulate some controversy. Based on the uniformitarian paradigm, geologists believe that the 2,600 square mile Tibetan-Himalayan complex has been rising for over 55 million years, due to the ponderously slow collision of the Indian and Asian plates.  This may sound reasonable, but nothing in the image suggests that this is true.  In most instances where such collisions take place, one plate, for example the west coast of the US, is subducted downward into the mantle while the other plate rides over it. Certainly a range like the Himalayas is not rising up on the West coast.   In fact, most of the other orogonys, (mountain building event) occur along the scorched path of Venus, shown in Fig. 2.

As suggested in several post1 post2 on this site, the ages calculated by K-Ar and U-Pb analyses of zircon crystals which are well known to be products of volcanic explosions.  However, there are no volcanoes in the Himalayas! They are actually dating a >2.5 km deep layer of rocks blasted from Martian volcanoes when it orbited the Earth only 33,500 km above the Himalayas, and were deposited from the resulting 1300 km long tidal bulge in what is known as the Kailas formation at an altitude of 5000 m, This layer contains red rocks similar to those photographed surrounding the two Viking Landers 20 years ago.

In cyclic catastrophism,the Tibetan-Himalayan complex was catastrophically raised by two close passes e.g. of proto-Venus at the beginning of the Vedic Period only 4,000 years ago. This rendered them completely unstable. The earliest authors of the Rg Veda describes this as:

“The mountains are the eldest children of Prajapati. (the creator). They were winged. They kept flying forth and settling wherever they liked.  At that time the Earth was unstable. Indra (Mars) cut off their wings. By means of the mountians he made firm the Earth. Therefore the clouds ever hover about the mountains. For this is their place of origin.”

In the sebsequent 3,000 years, Mars remained geostationary above Mt.Kailas, called ‘Indra’s Home on Earth’, the focus of the Himalayan gravitational anomaly, for 14.4 years at a time and repeated this one hundred times, between 3717 and 687 BC, stabilizing but continuing the upward tidal force on the entire complex.

What is most meaningful in the figure is the dense rock bodies (in blue) extending vertically downward some 900 km,  This vertical structure is evidence of the geologically instantaneous melting and uplifting of the Himalayan complex in 4000 BC  (currently believed to be 55 million years old) by close passes of proto-Venus.  If the collision of the thin Indian and Asian plates was responsible for the Himalayan uplift this would be reflected as horizontal rock structures, of which are are none.

You are all young in mind … you have no belief rooted in old tradition and no knowledge hoary with age. And the reason is this. There have been and will be many different calamaties to destroy mankind, the greatest of them by fire and water …Your own story of Phaethon .. is a mythical version of the truth that there is at long intervals a variation in the course of the heavenly bodies and a consequent widespread destruction by fire of things on Earth.  

Egyptian priest at Sais to Solon the Greek in Plato’s Timaeus

Mercury Shrinking Weirdly

•June 10, 2015 • Comments Off on Mercury Shrinking Weirdly
Fig. 1 The Valles Marineris from which Mercury exited Mars.

Fig. 1 The Valles Marineris from which Mercury, (diameter 3030 miles) exited Mars.

Ancient texts make clear that the ancient, living planet Mars was captured in a geostationary orbit of the Earth and released with a 30-year cycle and that one hundred such encounters occurred, resulting in the transfer of its atmosphere, oceans, crust, flora and fauna to form the world we know today.  Astrophysically, the most amazing aspect of these cycles were the releases of Mars from an orbit only 44,400 km from the Earth. As explained in many posts on this site, the releases were the result of the ejection of the solid iron core of Mars, which zoomed around the Earth to the East in a slingshot maneuver, catching up to and rejoining the outer shell of the planet eight days later through the wide open gash, called the Valles Marineris. These encounters ended when the solid core, the deity Mercury in Roman myth, was deflected by proto-Venus and failed to rejoin the outer shell, interacted with proto-Venus for several centuries before it (Mercury) settled into its current orbit about 2,215 years ago.

Mercury the Former Solid Core of Mars

Mercury was a hot (> 6,000 K) glowing pristine sun-like body at that date, coated with a layer of sulphurous material from the outer core of Mars.  In Hebrew, Mercury is called the ‘Sun star’. The only blemishes were deep linear gouges in the coating cut by sharp rocks bordering the Valles Marineris as it left Mars. These parallel gouges led to the notion in Greek myth that Hermes (Mercury) had invented the lyre, an ancient stringed instrument. This pristine surface has become partly obscured by millions of craters, the result of bodies blasted from Mars during the entire 3,000 years it interacted with the Earth, still marked by meteor showers we experience today.


The physical evidence that Mercury emerged from the Valles Marineris on Mars is present in a number of forms. The recent pristine form of Mercury is still present in regions between the many craters, which have been labelled ‘smooth plains’, by NASA scientists in contrast to the surface of the Moon which has no smooth areas between craters, i.e. is completely covered with craters. Planetary scientists believe the smooth plains must be due to lava flows, because no smooth plains ‘should be’ present on a planet they believe is 4.6 billion years old. Consistent with Cyclic Catastrophism, Mercury’s surface has some ten times the amount of sulphur as the Earth or Moon – the coating from the liquid outer core of Mars.  Gamma ray measurements by MESSENGER have detected material on the surface  having the same composition as the stony chondritic meteorites that are continuously falling on Earth, surprising conventional science because the great heat of Mercury should have evaporated them.  The strings of the lyre are present in the form of the Mercurian Grid, parallel linear gouges noted years ago in the Mariner 10 images of Mercury, but ignored by planetary scientists.  Additional circumstantial evidence exists in the relative size of the Valles Marineris and Mercury, the scale of the former is illustrated in Figure 1, while the diameter of Mercury is officially 3030 miles. Note that Mars is now considerably smaller than when it still had its solid core.

Fig. 2  North-south trending lobate scarp on Mercury.

Fig. 2 North-south trending lobate scarp on Mercury.

Unexpected Distribution of Scarps on Mercury

MESSENGER has mapped a vast array of fault scarps hundreds of km long and over a kilometer high. These are obviously due to the fact that the solid iron interior is shrinking.  In Cylic Catastrophism, this shrinking began only 2,215 years whereas NASA scientists believe the planet has been shrinking for 4.6 billion years.  Assuming Mercury is an ancient planet, they expected the scarps to be randomly distributed over the surface.  However, The new research contradicts this model. MESSENGER has found distinct patterns in the orientations of the scarps and clear concentrations in the number of scarps.  Many scarps are concentrated in two broad longitudinal bands.  I suggest that the reason for their unexpected distribution is that the scarps are forming along the gouges in the surface that resulted when Mercury left Mars, The Mercurian Grid has essentially been ignored by conventional science, primarily because they cannot explain it.

Explaining Mercury’s Shrinking

Why has Mercury been shrinking so rapidly?  The currently accepted hypothesis is that it is just due to cooling over the last 4.6 billion years. However, as has been suggested in many posts on this site, global magnetic fields originate from high pressure superconductors in the solid inner cores of planets, not from a hypothetical ‘dynamo effect’ in their liquid outer cores. The fact that Mercury still has an axial-symmetric magnetic field is consistent with this view. Based on the fact that the solid core of the Earth is known to be less dense than solid iron, it has long been believed that the iron is mixed with a less dense element. High pressure experiments with iron in diamond anvils found that hydrogen completely and reversably invade iron at high pressure, decreasing its density and forming layered crystals of FeH which the authors suggested resembled certain known superconducting materials.  What is significant in the case of Mercury is that the experiments showed that the hydrogen would immediately come out of the iron crystal when the pressure was reduced.  This suggests that the exiting  of hydrogen from Mercury is what is causing the planet to shrink and causing the magnetic field, which was strong while within Mars, to decrease to its current level.

Reading, after a certain age, diverts the mind too much from its creative pursuits. Any man who reads too much and uses his own brain too little falls into lazy habits of thinking.  Albert Einstein










Mercury Meteor Showers

•May 31, 2015 • Comments Off on Mercury Meteor Showers
Fig 1. Artist concept of meteor shower at Mercury

Fig 1. Artist concept of meteor shower at Mercury

In the Cyclic Catastrophism scenario, Mercury is the former solid iron core of Mars, which left that planet only 2,703 years ago when it orbited the Earth. Ironically, the many impact craters on Mercury’s surface are the result of a small infinity of rocky bodies ejected from Mars as it orbited the Earth prior to Mercury’s ejection. Evidence of the many convulsive ejections from Mars are still present in the form of all meteorites and the famaliar meteor showers.

MESSENGER data has now revealed that meteor showers carrying volatile elements such as calcium, are pelting Mercury, as predicted years ago by Cyclic Catastrophism.  Based on the ‘standard model’, the planetary science community has for years claimed that the meteor showers are the debris of various comet tails that have been blown off their orbits.  As explained in two earlier posts on this site, the orbital paths of the meteor shower particles preclude the possibility of thier cometary origin since they converge at the points where they are tangent ot the Earth’s orbit. This is the reason that each shower appears to originate from a specific radiant in the heavens.

The orbits of a number of shower particles, determined photographically, have been shown to correspond to those of larger particles (Near Earth Asteroids) as opposed to comets. As shown in the posts (A and B), each of the showers that can be seen and imaged photographically were due to convulsions within Mars that occurred at night, when its orbital velocity relative to the solar system was added to that of the Earth.  As a result, their origin points, tangent to the Earth’s orbit, were at perihelion, i.e. they swing out beyond the Earth’s orbit and could not have been the origin of the meteor showers observed on Mercury.

However, during the Vedic Period, Mars, in a geostationary orbit, was also convulsed in the daytime, whenever it passed through alignments with the Moon, worse yet with the Moon and the Sun combined. Two of these daytime showers, with radiants in Aries and Perseus produce showers with some 60 shooting stars per hour. Their radiants are so close to the Sun, that they were first discovered in 1947 by the radio telescope at Jodrell Banks (ref.). The daytime showers originated from Mars when its orbital velocity was in the opposite direction to that of the Earth relative to the Sun, resulting in showers which diverged from a point that was the aphelion of their orbits. Thus these particle orbits remain completely inside the orbit of the Earth, potentially crossing the orbits of Venus and Mercury on the far side of the Sun.

Mars was a living planet prior to its captures in geosynchronous orbit. Its entire complement of atmosphere, oceans, crust, minerals and biosphere were blasted into space and most captured by the Earth between 3717 and 687 BC. One clue to the great mass blasted to the Earth during this period is the total thickness of several kilometers of so-called regolith which covers the near side of the Moon, a tiny body some ten times more distant from Mars than the Earth, all of which came recently from Mars. In fact, the abundance of the elements in the entire solar system is based on the composition of a select class of carbonaceous chondrite meteorites. These are currently believed to be the stuff from which the planets of the solar system were formed because absorption spectra of the Sun is quite similar. However, the meteor showers detected on Mercury, a tiny dot compared to the Sun, explain this similarity because infinitely more of this volatile material is falling into the corona of the Sun heating spots to 100 million degrees, currently dubbed ‘nanoflares’ by scientists who insist that they come upward from the surface of the Sun.

Mercury’s Offset Magnetic Field

•May 19, 2015 • Comments Off on Mercury’s Offset Magnetic Field
Fig. 1 Mercurian Grid

Fig. 1 Mercurian Grid

Ancient texts have revealed that Mercury (Hermes, Hathor) was the former solid iron core of Mars, the ejection of which released Mars from its geostationary orbit in 687 BC. Mercury then had

Fig. 2  Egyptian concept of the Red Eye of Horus (Mercury) ready for launch launch

Fig. 2 Egyptian concept of the Red Eye of Horus (Mercury) ready for launch to carry the soul of the pharaoh to the stars.

a series of close interactions with the newly created (4000 BC) proto-Venus, lasting several centuries (Fig. 3), before all three planets settled into their current orbits. Mercury was covered with a glowing layer of material from the outer core of Mars on its surface, comprising sulfur

Fig. 2 Venus and Mercury cavorting in a 5th century bas-relief

Fig. 3 Venus and Mercury cavorting in a 5th century bas-relief, exactly at the date of their enciunters in Cyclic Catastrophism

and iron and was a brightly glowing, pristine body at that date except for a number of parallel linear gouges in its coating due to the sharp rocks surrounding the Valles Marineris through which it exited, interestingly described as the ‘double-doors’ in Egyptian funerary texts of Pepi I.  The linear gouges were the basis of the Greek myth that Hermes invented the Lyre, and were designated the ‘Mercurian Grid’ as a result of photographs returned from Mariner 10 (Fig. 1).

Fig. 2  Mercury's north pole regian with 1000 km basalt rise in foreground radar image of Mercury's north pole

Fig. 4 Mercury’s north pole region with 1000 km basalt rise in foreground

One of these encounters with proto-Venus was so close that a deposit of basalt was left on the surface of Mercury, which can be seen to this day, close to the north pole of Mercury, mineralogically different from the rest of its surface.  When the two bodies approached one another, Mercury, being essentially a rigid sphere of iron, was not distorted, but proto-Venus, essentially a molten sphere of iron and basalt, was drawn into a tear-drop shape by the tidal effect of Mercury during the encounter, resulting in the deposit of basalt from the narrow tip, but immediately returned to its spherical shape. The Soviet landers sampled the surface crust of (still) proto-Venus and determined its basalt composition.

Fig. 3  Mercury offset magnetic field based on MESSENGER data

Fig. 5. Mercury’s magnetic field offset to north based on MESSENGER data

Mercury’s unique dipole magnetic field plus Mars’ current lack of a global field, demonstrate that global magnetic fields are the result of high pressure superconductors (FeH?) in the solid cores and not of the touted ‘dynamo effect’.  Mercury’s field is weakening because the high pressure required, the overburden of Mars, was removed in 687 BC. However, at the date of the deposit from proto-Venus, Mercury’s field was much stronger and the basalt deposit hardened, acquiring a strong remnant field. The presence of this magnetized deposit or ‘northern rise’ ~1000 km across and 1.5 km above the surrounding terrain, near the north pole of Mercury has influenced the apparent global magnetic field, producing a significant quadrapole to dipole ratio in the field as measured by MESSENGER (determined by the latitude at which the radial field is zero), resulting in the global dipole field appearing to be displaced 484 km north of the the center of Mercury. The rigidity of Mercury is illustrated by the fact that the basalt  ‘rise’ exhibits a positive free-air gravity anomaly, meaning essentially that it sits atop the original planetary surface.


Dark Matter Dark Energy

•May 14, 2015 • Comments Off on Dark Matter Dark Energy
Fig. 1 Dark Matter distribution in Spiral & Elliptical  Galaxies  Keck Observatory, M. Cappellari

Fig. 1 Dark Matter distribution in Spiral & Elliptical Galaxies
Keck Observatory, M. Cappellari

The hypothetical existence of dark matter and dark energy stem from the current interpretation of red-shifts as the only measure of cosmic distances in the universe.  This view of dark energy was courageously stated by Ruth Durrer, a French cosmologist in 2011, which began as follows:

“In this paper we discuss what we truly know about dark energy. I shall argue that up to date our single indication for the existence of dark energy comes from distance measurements and their relation to redshift. Supernovae, cosmic microwave background anisotropies and observations of baryon acoustic oscillations, they all simply tell us that the observed distance to a given redshift, z, is larger than the one expected from a Friedmann Lemaıtre universe.”

Cosmic MIcrowave Background?

A number of currently accepted assumptions, at greatly differing scales, have contributed to the Dark mysteries. Two of many cited in the paper quoted above include the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and the closely associated Inflation hypothesis crucial in explaining its isotropy and homogeniety.  The most accurate data, from WMAP and Planck, meant to confirm these hypotheses, is in serious doubt due to a number of alignments of the CMB map with the orientation and direction of motion (the Kinetic vector) of the solar system (post 1, post 2).  Cyclic Catastrophism suggests that the data currently believed to represent the Cosmic Microwave Background is the result of an enormous fusion explosion produced by an impact on Jupiter, from which proto-Venus was formed only 6,000 years BP.

Another seemingly unrelated aspect of cyclic catastrophism, the elemental composition of Jupiter and Saturn in the form of Methane Gas Hydrate , when considered on a cosmic scale may provide a crucial factor for both dark mysteries.  This suggests that the giant planets, currently believed to comprise 75 % hydrogen and 25 % helium, actually comprise as much as 400 earth masses of water,  Not 400 times the water on Earth, but 400 Earth-Masses of Water. These planets form first from heavy elements preferentially spun off from young stars acting as centrifuges. Terrestrial planets only form as a result of impacts on the frozen giant planets, which may occur hundreds of millions of years later.

Exo-Giant Planets

The Kepler mission data implies that every star produces giant planets like Jupiter and Saturn.  Many of these have not yet actually been detected because their orbital periods are much greater than the short lifetime of Kepler, Based on Cyclic Catastrophism, the very presence of smaller terrestrial planets proves the existence of the MGH giants.  The implication is that the overwhelming mass of every planetary system in the Milky Way galaxy is water.  Specifically, water has been detected in the Helix nebula by Hershel, GJ 1214b, CW leonis, and AU MIcroscopii.  Although some extensive nearby planetary nebula have been imaged (AU Mic), they are interpreted only as ‘dust’, because all the water is frozen in the form of ic crystals. Water can only be identified when Red Giant stars expand and vaporize their solid, frozen giant planets, temporarly allowing the recording of its infrared spectral lines.  But water in space quickly freezes into crystals, becoming invisible. The fact that astrophysicists are surprised that there is water present in the outer part of the CW Leonis system reflects the current view of the solar system and by extension all other systems.

Dark Matter

Based on the probability of giant MGH planets such as Jupiter and Saturn surrounding every star, leads to the idea that the deaths of all stars to date has released this water including the amount produced from oxygen created during its lifetime, thereby accumulating vast amounts of invisible water ice crystals throughout every galaxy. The radiation pressure concentrated in the central portion of each galaxy would gradually force clouds of ice crystals toward the outer portion of each galaxy.  This is consistent with the similar mapping of Dark Matter suggested for both spiral and elliptical galaxys in a recent paper touted as a Conspiracy of Regular and  Dark Matter, in which the dark matter is relegated to the outer portions of both spiral and elliptical galaxies.

Astrophysicists will undoubtedly argue that there has not been time since the putative big bang for such a large amount of water to accumulate, but a recent paper reports a quasar, at a redshift distance of 12 billion light years (a time when the universe was only 1.6 billion years old), surrounded by 2.5×10^4 M⊙ (solar masses) of water. To aid in visualizing this enormous quantity of water.  it is sufficient to supply 28 galaxies, each with 400 billion stars. each having ten earth-like planets.  This observation in itself suggests that revisions of the present big bang hypothesis and the red shift distances on which it is based, are necessary.

Dark Energy?

If this vast mass of water is present throughout the universe wherever galaxies are present, then it will both slow (redshift) and attenuate the light passing through it, invalidating the pure velocity-distance assumption and standard candle properties of 1a supernovas.  The continuing accumulation of water in the universe could also influence the apparent strengthening of Dark Energy over billions of years.  Dark Energy is hypothesized to be homogenous throughout empty space, but as stated in the paper quoted at the beginning of this article, its hypothetical properties are based exclusively on the redshift-distance assumption.

Albert Einstein on Epistemology

Concepts that have proven useful in ordering things easily achieve such authority over us that we forget their earthly origins and accept them as unalterable givens. [Begriffe, welche sich bei der Ordnung der Dinge als nützlich erwiesen haben, erlangen über uns leicht eine solche Autorität, dass wir ihres irdischen Ursprungs vergessen und sie als unabänderliche Gegebenheiten hinnehmen.] Thus they might come to be stamped as “necessities of thought,” “a priori givens,” etc. The path of scientific progress is often made impassable for a long time by such errors. [Der Weg des wissenschaftlichen Fortschritts wird durch solche Irrtümer oft für längere Zeit ungangbar gemacht.] Therefore it is by no means an idle game if we become practiced in analysing long-held commonplace concepts and showing the circumstances on which their justification and usefulness depend, and how they have grown up, individually, out of the givens of experience. Thus their excessive authority will be broken. They will be removed if they cannot be properly legitimated, corrected if their correlation with given things be far too superfluous, or replaced if a new system can be established that we prefer for whatever reason.


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