IO’s Newest Blast

•August 11, 2014 • Leave a Comment
Fig. 1 Big blasts on little Io   (NASA photo)

Fig. 1 Big blasts on little Io (NASA photo)

New observations of Io catch large eruptions. These probably occur frequently but the moon of Jupiter is not continually monitered.  As implied by William B Hubbard in ‘Planetary Interiors’, the large luminosity of Io (which just got greater) invalidates all the assumptions about the Galilean moons in the ‘standard model’ of the solar system. The model says that the great heat of Io is due to the “tidal tug-of-war” between Io, Europa and Ganymede, thought to be maintained by the tidal effect of Jupiter (a gas giant). But gaseous planets cannot exert any tidal effect. Hubbard even suggests this in terms of a Qj=infinity (Q is the reciprocal of the ‘lead angle’ by which a body exerts a tug on an orbiting body). If jupiter has a tidal effect, the heat of Io must be generated by this effect, but assuming Io has been radiating as much as it is today, for 4.5 billion years gives a Q for Io = 1, which is physically impossible. It continually amazes me that thousands of scientists understand these contradictions but cannot move outside the envelope which they were forced into to get their PhDs.

Of course cyclic catastrophism explains the truth – that the Galilean moons are just the left-over mass which did not escape the gravity of Jupiter when proto-Venus was created by an incredible impact, exponentially increased by fusion in the frozen, solid methane gas hydrate (plus all the heavy elements in their nucleogenesis proportions) which comprises the body of Jupiter, and entered their orbital resonances only 6,000 years ago. The moons then essentially received a cosmic paint job from a great jet that continued to shoot from the impact crater on the whirling Jupiter for about six more millennia. Because this jet of hot gases declined so slowly the outer moon Callisto is frozen solid, its paint job a bunch of craters, Ganemede is also full of craters but was hotter when the bodies formed from the jet hit, and the craters sort of slouch. Europa got so much heat from the jet that only the heavy elements could condense on its surface early on and only toward the end could all the water at its orbit condense on its surface forming its water/ice covering. The heat in its interior is the reason there is liquid water below the ice. Io was exposed longest to the hot jet and the radiation from Jupiter, resulting in its volcanic surface. Io and proto-Venus are sort of hot brothers, sons of Jupiter.

Jeremiah 33:3  Call to me and I will answer you and tell you great and unsearchable things you do not know.

Mercury a Hit and Run Planet?

•July 10, 2014 • Leave a Comment
Fig. 1 Mercury as imaged by MESSENGER, with parallel gouged grooves from Valles Marineris.

Fig. 1 Mercury as imaged by MESSENGER, with parallel gouged grooves from Valles Marineris.

A few scientists have proposed that Mercury was a ‘normal’ terrestrial planet that had its mantle and crust blasted away by the impact of a large body billions of years ago, thereby ‘explaining’ why it is primarily solid iron. The most difficult problem with this hypothesis is that the spectrum of the surface is ‘chondritic’, i.e. it contains many volatile elements that are found in the most common meteorites which have fallen to Earth. If the crust and mantle had been blasted away, then these elements should not be present. Two scientists, Asphaug (ASU) & Reufer (Bern) have supposedly ‘solved’ this dilemma by developing a statistical scenario for how planets merge and grow based on the “common notion” that Mars and Mercury are the last two relics of an original population of maybe 20 bodies that mostly accreted to form Venus and Earth, which lucked out (2 for 3 ain’t such a bad batting average). Contemporary science also claims that the millions of craters covering Mercury’s surface are proof that it is an ancient planet, billions of years old.

Cyclic Catastrophism

Based on the recent creation of Venus described in ancient texts, Cyclic Catastrophism claims that terrestrial planets were each formed complete with solid iron core, mantle and crust, from unique, enormously energetic impacts on Jupiter. The reason that Mars and Mercury no longer appear ‘complete’, is because Mars’ oceans, atmosphere and biosphere were blasted to the Earth between 3700 and 700 (687) BC when it repeatedly was captured in a geostationary orbit.  At the end of this period of cyclic catastrophism, its solid iron core exited the planet (through the Valles Marineris) and fell into the inner solar system, and is now called Mercury, while conservationlaws required the remains of Mars to move out to its current frozen orbit. These two ‘planets’ are merely the debris of those encounters. During the 3,000 years of cyclic catastrophism, so much material was blasted from some one-hundred volcanoes in Mars northern hemisphere, that its northern third is 7 km below the planetary datum. Some of these bodies fell to the Earth as meteorites and on the near side of the Moon (regolith), but infinitely more have fallen and are still falling toward the Sun. As a result, the recently exposed surface of Mercury has been subjected to a great rain of the same material in the last 2,700 years, resulting in its ‘chondritic’ spectrum. Instead of the currently accepted interpretation, that these imply Mercury is billions of years old, the innumerable impact craters on Mercury actually provide a small idea of the vast amount of material that has recently colored the solar absorption spectrum, which is, not surprisingly, also ‘chontritic’.

The one-hundred geostationary encounters of Mars with the Earth, which began at the Biblical creation of mankind (3700 BC) and the fact that they resulted in the rejuvenation of the Earth, lead to the obvious conclusion that God intervened to provide the bounteous Earth on which we live today. This entire rejuvenation process took place while the first one-hundred generations of mankind watched and fortunately, their observations are preserved in many ancient texts, waiting for their revelation to the entire world.  Science, in its current form, cannot and will not accept this.  Understanding this has allowed Cyclic Catastrophism to plumb the depths of the solar system far beyond the range allowed by evolutionist thinking.

Based on the ages of Mars meteorites, it is some 4.6 billion years old, while the oldest Earth rocks are only 3.9 billion years – a difference of 700 million years.  It is interesting to note that the solid core of the Earth has a radius of 1220 km, while Mercury’s radius, including some 220 km of clinging sulphuric material from its outer core plus its ‘chondritic’ crust is 2440 km.  The difference is likely due to the greater time and subsequent cooling of Mars more ancient core.

Discard all theologies and all belief …The whole principle that someone else knows and you do not know, that the one who knows is going to teach you.  

Jiddu Krisnamurti

 

Will the Sun’s Magnetic Field Reverse?

•July 1, 2014 • Leave a Comment
Image

The Magnetic Butterfly diagram shows the magnetic effects of impacting bodies and their effect on the magnetic field of the Sun

The disappointing strength of the latest sunspot cycle brings up this interesting question.  As discussed in a number of previous posts, e.g. the Kreutz Sungrazers, the asteroids ejected from the great jet on Jupiter over the last 6,000 years are still impacting the Sun causing sunspots and the resulting CMEs.  Just as their ‘brother’ main belt asteroids, these bodies contain a unique combination of elements, i.e. a small complement of all heavy elements, including iron and nickel, which mimic the elemental composition, but not the physical structure (Methane Gas Hydrate) of Jupiter itself. Because they coalesced from hot gas while still within the magnetic field of Jupiter they posses remnant magnetism, as has been observed of several main belt asteroids.

As they approach the Sun, their south poles become oriented toward its north magnetic pole. When they strike the surface of the Sun, this magnetism can be detected in the resulting sunspots by earth telescopes using spectroscopy and polarimetry.  The impacts display a systematic N-S arrangement induced by the magnetic dipole field of the Sun.  That is, their orientation opposes the existing dipole polarity of the Sun.  At the peak of the impacts, the so-called ‘sunspot maximum’, so much opposing magnetic flux is usually delivered to the Sun, that its dipole field is overwhelmed and flips.  See the following article:

http://science.nasa.gov/science-news/science-at-nasa/2001/ast15feb_1/

This is beautifully illustrated in a magnetic butterfly diagram, originated by David Hathaway of NASA Marshall, shown in Figure 1.  The magnetic fields at mid-latitudes represent the influx due to the impacting asteroids, which only impact at latitudes less than about 30 degrees, while the magnetic fields at the very top and bottom show the dipole field of the Sun.  Note that the dipole field is overwhelmed at the maximum of asteroid input flux and becomes reversed at that time.

The weak sunspot maximum which characterizes the current cycle raises the question as to whether the Sun’s magnetic field will reverse.  Or it may just be strong enough to cancel out the existing field. I maintain that this effect proves that the Suns magnetic field is superficial and not of great significance to the Earth.  However the weakness of sunspot activity can effect Earth’s climate, since the so-called Coronal Mass Ejections heat the Earth, particularly at the poles and pump-up the Earth’s magnetic field, which originates in the superconducting solid core by Faraday and Lentz ‘laws’.

ESA Herschel Discovers OH+ in Planetary Nebula

•June 19, 2014 • 2 Comments
Image

Hubble image of Helix Nebula with SPIRE data area outlined.

ESA announces that Herschel’s SPIRE instrument has detected OH+ in the outer reaches of of the Helix Nebula. Planetary nebula are the glowing remains of a system in which a star, similar to the Sun, dies forming a Red giant which expands, consuming the surrounding planets.  The article states that planetary nebula “have nothing to do with planets” because they imagine that all the lighter elements detectable in the outer fringes of the nebula are from the star.  However in a previous post, concerning a similar red giant star, CW Leonis, considerable water was detected, much to the surprise of the sciene team who state: “’What makes the results we are reporting so unusual is that we have found a cloud of water vapour around a star where we would not ordinarily have expected to find water,’ said Gary Melnick of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics in Cambridge, Massachusetts. ‘It seems that the water vapour comes from icy comets that are melting due to the heat from the star, which is much hotter than our Sun … There must be about four Earth-masses of frozen water around IRC+10216 to produce the vapour cloud we see.”  This makes clear the difficulty the scientists have in understanding the origin of all the water.  

As explained in my post concerning CW Leonis, the vast amount of water found in these planetary nebula definitely do ‘have to do with planets’ – the giant planets in the system, similar to Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.  These four giant planets comprise 95 % of the mass in the solar system, but as yet not understood by astrophysicists, they are primarily water in the form of methane gas hydrates.  When a red giant consumes its entire system, the existing molecules are almost completely dissociated, but the two most abundant, chemically active atoms, hydrogen and oxygen, inevitably recombine to form water then become invisible, in the form of ice crystals which permeate space.

The Hot Breath of Venus

•June 4, 2014 • Leave a Comment
Cartoon of a HFA on Venus.  Image Credit NASA

Cartoon of a HFA on Venus. Image Credit NASA

The planet Venus is an enigma to the planetary science community.  The primary reason is their insistence on the uniformitarian paradigm, which is the belief (assumption?) that the solar system has been in its present form for billions of years.  This assumption corrupts the open-minded interpretation of data returned from every planetary probe.  As a result, Venus is imagined to be as ancient as the Earth, having lost its oxygen, oceans and biosphere due to a ‘runaway greenhouse effect’, a term coined by Carl Sagan and endlessly repeated by every PhD astrophysics candidate in order to get their degrees. This unproveable assumption leads to numerous difficulties in explaining Venus’ (a) extremely high surface temperature (hot enough to melt lead and zinc); (b) extremely high surface pressure (91 times that on the Earth); (c) extremely slow retrograde rotation, resulting in a single day lasting 254 Earth days; (d) the amazing revelation that Venus’ rotation period, measured by the ESA’s Venus Express VIRTIS infrared instrument has increased by 6.5 minutes relative to the measurements made by NASA Magellan probe only about a decade earlier; (e) complete lack of any global magnetic field.  All of which are explained by Venus’ recent creation from a high energy impact on Jupiter 6,000 years ago, witnessed by the entire world and described in a number of ancient texts. Cyclic Catastrophism explains that Venus’ interior is cooling by a heretofore unknown process – the high velocity jetting  of hot sulfur (S8 and larger sulfur allotropes) from over 200,000 ‘small domes’ (which NASA calls shield volcanoes) imaged by Magellan and Venera radars, to an elevation of 48 km where it crystallizes to form the ubuquitous lower cloud layer, which obscures the entire planet on both the day and night sides. The newly observed ‘Hot Breath of Venus’ are blasts of these hot gases ejected into space, called Hot Flow Anomalies (HFAs). Based on Venus Express data, these can be as large as the planet itself and can occur several times a day.  Because Venus’ interior is molten it has no global magnetic field. Therefore its atmosphere is compressed on the day side by the solar wind and these HFAs occur just above the ionosphere.   The jetting heavy gas carries with it a small amount of angular momentum, producing the high altitude winds that circle the entire planet in four days, also resulting in the recently measured slowing of Venus’ rotation. The HFAs occur at breaks in the high altitude winds where the hot gases rising from the surface penetrate into space. Because astrophysicists in general have no idea of this cooling process, they do not realize they have discovered what is slowing the rotation of planet.

John Ackerman’s old paper describing the cyclic catastrophism interpretation of the Pioneer Venus data was presented at the JGR Meeting in Washing D.C. in 2002.

John 15:18  If the world hates you, know that it hated me first.

New Impossible Exoplanet Announced

•June 2, 2014 • Leave a Comment

The NASA Kepler mission has discovered many exoplanets, but the latest data on Kepler 10c just does not fit the currently accepted hypotheses of planet creation. (Not a big surprise for Cyclic Catastrophism.) Kepler 10c is 2.35 times the Earth’s diameter, but has a mass 17.2 times that of our planet, making it a rocky planet, sort of a mega-Earth. Until now, astrophysicists believed that such a giant rocky planet was impossible because it’s strong gravitation would attract a large envelope of hydrogen gas, thus forming a gas-giant, like Jupiter and Saturn, currently imagined to have such cores. “We were very surprised when we realized what we had found.” stated Xavier Dumusque of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics.

Although every card-carrying astrophysicist in the world accepts the ‘gas giant’ hypothesis, the community has always harbored a nagging doubt concerning how gas giants could have formed.  Believing that a huge rocky core like Kepler 10c, or larger, had to form first, imposes an impossible time constraint on the process because observations of other star systems indicates that all their hydrogen is lost in the first million years. Quoting Natalie Batalha of NASA Ames “Just when you think you’ve got it all figured out, nature gives you a huge surprise.”  The candid revelation of this new finding is refreshing, in contrast to the Curiosity rover team’s obfuscation of potentially more surprising data.  The final nail in the ‘gas giant’ coffin will come from the Juno probe when it ‘sees’ the surface features on Jupiter.

Cyclic Catastrophism

The Cyclic Catastrophism scenario, published for some fifteen years, has claimed all along that Jupiter and Saturn are not gas giants, indeed, that no such planets exist. Rather that Jupiter and Saturn are solid, frozen, low density methane gas hydrate bodies, with atmospheres less than 1,000 km thick.  Moreover, that Jupiter, as indicated by its greater density (1.33), incorporates throughout, essentially all the heavy elements that were present at the formation of the solar system. The rocky terrestrial planets were each formed later from masses of elements ejected by unique high energy fusion explosions triggered by impacts on Jupiter. This is based on ancient observations of the creation of proto-Venus about 6,000 years ago.  The exception being Mercury, which is the former solid iron core of Mars, the two of which separated only 2,700 years ago, as millions of humans around the world watched in awe.

Prediction

The presence of rocky planets in the Kepler-10 system implies unequivocally that there is a huge Jupiter-like methane gas hydrate planet in that system from which they were created. If it has not yet been detected, it is because such a giant planet is in an orbit comparable to that of Jupiter, with a period greater than 10 years, so it has not yet passed in front of its star, Kepler 10.

“Imagination is more important than knowledge. For knowledge is limited to all we now [believe], while imagination embraces the entire world, and all there ever will be to know and understand.”  Albert Einstein

Great Red Spot Shrinking

•May 16, 2014 • 4 Comments
Fig. 1 Shrinking of Jupiters Great Red Spot

Fig. 1 Shrinking of Jupiters Great Red Spot

The Great Red Spot is the most duplicitous emblem in the solar system. As currently taught, it is a symbol of the failure of the astophysical ‘community’. In reality it is a common sense clue to the recent history and cosmogony of the entire solar system. It demonstrates unequivically that Jupiter is not a gas giant, by having remained at the same latitude for some 350 years, during which time it has been observed telescopically. The GRS is not a ‘storm’ because it is an atmopheric high. It is the top of a column of hot gas rising from a nuclear fusion furnace still burning in the enormous crater out of which proto-Venus was born only 6,000 years ago. In a recent post, I have explained that after that impact a million-mile-long jet of hot gases shot into space from the fusion furnace, which condensed into millions of solid bodies, producing the differences in the Galilean moons and creating the main asteroid belt. Because of Jupiter’s rapid spin, asteroids were ejected in all directions and a special class, ejected directly toward the Sun, have just recently been recognized as the Kreutz sungrazers. Proof of their origin from Jupiter lies in their negative inclinations (144 degrees measured from north axis of the ecliptic plane), due to their ejection from the location of the GRS, at 22 degrees south latitude.  The ‘astrophysical community’ stubbornly refuses to acknowledge the obvious fact that the Kreutz sungrazers cause sunspots, and still have no idea that they were all formed from a jet, the position of which is marked by the GRS.

Jupiter’s Slower Rotation

Fig. 2 Monotonic slowing of Jupiter's rotation up until 1930

Fig. 2 Monotonic slowing of Jupiter’s rotation up until 1930

Amazingly, measurements of the rotational period of the GRS, currently believed to represent the ‘drift’ of this ‘storm’ actually are a measure of the slowing of the giant planet itself, due to the mass being ejected from the crater, which only ceased around 1930 AD, as shown in Figure 2. Coincidentally, this date is just now being touted as the time that the Great Red Spot began to shrink.

The birth of proto-Venus from an impact on Jupiter (a solid methane gas hydrate planet) makes clear that each terrestrial planet formed in the same way and, as a corrolary, each has a unique age, which are all younger than the giant planets, the age of which is unknowable.

Oxygen Deficit Solved

Although rarely discussed, the current belief that Jupiter and Saturn are ‘gas giants’, comprising hydrogen and some helium, creates a major dilemma.  The same ‘community’ claims that oxygen is the third most abundant element in the solar system (based on nucleogenesis and Carbonaceous Chondrite meteorites).  Since only miniscule amounts of oxygen have been measured on these giants, which comprise 92 % of the mass in the solar system, astrophysicists have resorted to the specious argument that the oxygen is “in their cores”.  But Cyclic Catastrophism allows everyone breathe easier, because the true composition of the giant planets is methane gas hydrate, which is  primarily oxygen by mass. So we go from a deficit of oxygen to an enormous surplus.  Thus the impacts on Jupiter out of which each terrestrial planet is created produces sufficient oxygen for  their oceans and atmospheres grom the get-go.

Space and Time!  now I see it is true,  … what I guessed at when I loafed on the grass, …  as I walked on the beach under the paling stars of the morning,  My ties and my ballasts leave me, my elbows rest in sea-gaps, I skirt sierras, my palms cover continents,  I am afoot with my vision.                       Walt Whitman          Leaves of Grass

 
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